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[This slip should be inserted in the "volume comprising the 
" Itinerary in Wales" issued in 1906.] 



CORRIGENDA FOR LELAND'S 
"ITINERARY IN WALES." 

Preface, p. v, 11. 23, 24, for "three years . . . Antiquary" 

read " called himself ' Antiquarius.' " 
Preface, p. vi, 1. 2, for "Thomas" read "William." 
Preface, p. vi, 1. 24, for "four" read "three." 
Preface, p. ix, 1. 30, for "Thomas" read "William." 
Preface, p. ix, last line, for " Gwynogfryn " read " Gwenog- 

vren." 

P. n, note \for "Aber Hodni" read " Aberedw." 
P. 17, 11. 8, 9, to word " Crumwelle" insert note: 

" Richard Williams, alias Crumwelle, was nephew to Thomas 

Cromwell, servant to Henry VIII; and ancestor in the third 

generation to Oliver Cromwell the Protector (see John Morley's 

'Life of Cromwell,' p. i). I owe this identification to the Hon. 

Miss Bruce, herself of a Glamorganshire family, and claiming 

connection with the Cromwells." 

Pp. 42, note b , and 46, note b , delete the notes, read " an island 

in the Wye estuary." 

P. 47, note \far " Court " read " Castle." 
P. in, note *,for "Cantre Celli" read " Cantre-Seli." 
Index, p. 139, " Aberhodni," delete " Abrehedon n." 
Index, p. 141, for "Cantercely " read "Cantre-Seli." 
Index, p. 146, for "Llaugharne" read " Laugharne." 
Index, p. 146, " Mathern," delete "46." 



LELAND'S ITINERARY IN ENGLAND 
AND WALES 



LONDON : GEORGE BELL AND SONS 
PORTUGAL ST. LINCOLN'S INN, W.C. 
CAMBRIDGE : DEIGHTON, BELL & CO. 
NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN CO. 
BOMBAY : A. H. WHEELER & CO. 



THE ITINERARY 

OF 

JOHN LELAND 

IN OR ABOUT THE YEARS 

15351543 
PARTS I TO III 



EDITED BY 



LUCY TOULMIN SMITH 



V. \ 




LONDON 
GEORGE BELL AND SONS 



1907 



ff 

v3 



H^HHPV^vw 

SEEN BY 
PRESERVATION 




DA 

61 o 



v. 



CHISWICK PRESS : CHARLES WHITTINGHAM AND CO. 
TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON. 



INTRODUCTION. 

A FEW words seem to be necessary in explanation of 
the present publication, a work which was hardly my 
own choice. Several years ago Mr. G. L. Gomme pro- 
jected a new and popular edition of Leland's " Itinerary " 
in England and Wales, for which I undertook merely to 
collate the edition printed by Thomas Hearne with the 
originals, and to give an account of the manuscripts. Mr. 
Comma's plan was to re-arrange the text, inserting Leland's 
marginal additions which Hearne printed just as he found 
them, imitating the original page in the relative positions 
for which they were meant; considerable portions of genea- 
logical matter and epitaphs were to be struck out; he also 
intended to identify difficult place-names, and to trace out 
the " Itinerary " on a map. The work was proceeding 
slowly, owing to numerous interruptions, one small Part 
only being in type, when Mr. Gomme's official engagements 
obliged him to renounce it altogether. My portion being 
nearly finished, after an interval the publisher requested me 
to carry out the preparation of the whole edition, to which I 
reluctantly consented, knowing by this time enough about 
the work to estimate its difficulties. But it seemed unwise 
to let the fruit of much long and tedious labour be lost, and 
encouragement was not wanting for the hope that the present- 
ment of Leland's famous notes of travel in a simple modern 
dress, as accurate as the manuscripts would allow, but dis- 

v 



vi INTRODUCTION 

carding the extraneous matter of Hearne's editions, would 
be welcome to local historians. In doing this I have in the 
main followed Mr. Gomme's plan, with some modifications 
and additions, hoping to make Leland's scheme clearer. 
These principally consist in bringing some portions of the 
text together, notably in the cases of Cornwall and Wales; 
the relegation of some genealogical matter to Appendices, 
and possibly the omission of a few passages in the last 
volume of the MS. which do not properly belong to the 
"Itinerary" at all. Where possible the relation between 
Leland's first notes and his regular narrative is indicated by 
references and indentation; and each volume is supplied 
with a table of counties and full indices to persons and 
places. Annotation in correction of Leland's errors I have 
not attempted; it was quite beyond my scope, and may be 
more safely left to the literary or topographical inquirer in 
each locality. But from the close study of the whole remains, 
which was necessary before the routes could be traced, 
several interesting facts and conclusions have been gained. 
The maps are now made for the first time; 1 they are meant 
as indications of the routes taken, only the principal names 
being written in to avoid overcrowding. For these I must ac- 
knowledge the valuable assistance of Miss Nora MacMunn, 
Demonstrator to the School of Geography in the University 
of Oxford, who went through the whole of the topography 
with me except the part relating to Wales and made the 
working drawings. The disjointed state of Leland's work 
has rendered the mapping peculiarly difficult, it has there- 
fore been done mainly for those Parts which he left written 
in narrative form. My thanks are also due to Dr. A. J. Her- 
bertson, Reader in Geography, for his kind advice and loan 
of many maps for this purpose. 

1 The above was written before I had seen Dr. Slater's sketch-map 
from Leland accompanying his article on Inclosures in the "Geo- 
graphical Journal " for January, 1907. 



INTRODUCTION vii 

i . LelancFs Life, Times, and Works. 

The renaissance of learning and literature which arose in 
the later years of Henry VII, when the ardour with which 
the introduction of Greek studies was greeted by English 
scholars carried them to France and Italy, and in return 
brought over the great Erasmus, was a movement which, in 
its gathering strength, powerfully affected men and events in 
the following reign. Henry VIII, himself a fair scholar in 
his brilliant youth, delighting in music, able in later days to 
wield the pen, encouraged learning and progress in many 
directions. His personality and ability commanded the alle- 
giance of his people in spite of his faults. The energy which 
he and his ministers brought to bear upon politics both 
external and internal, on matters economic, administrative, 
and ecclesiastical, was responsive to the growing life of the 
people, and was responded to in turn. It was a time of 
broadening change, a thirst for knowledge was spreading, the 
leaven of the Wyclifite reforms was silently working, better 
education was being provided in school and college, a more 
modern spirit filled the age. It was the age of the wise Sir 
Thomas More, Sir Thomas Elyot, and the poets Wyatt and 
Surrey, men of letters; of Latimer, the bold and witty 
preacher; of Tyndale, controversialist and translator of the 
Bible; of the good Bishop Fisher; of Roger Ascham and 
Sir John Cheke, learned tutors to princes; of Fabian, Ed- 
ward Hall, arid Polydore Vergil, chroniclers and historians; 
lastly, to name no more, of the accomplished William 
Blount, Lord Mountjoy, the friend of Erasmus, "one of 
the chief revivers of learning in England," and of his son 
Charles, also a patron of learning. 

Into these stirring days John Leland was born but a few 
years before the eighth Henry's accession (1509). The 
exact year of his birth is not known, it was probably about 
1505 or 1506, nor is anything known of his family except 



viii INTRODUCTION 

that he had an elder brother, also named John. From one 
of his own Latin poems we learn that he owed his education 
at St. Paul's School, 1 of which William Lilly was then High- 
master, and his subsequent studies at Cambridge, to the 
bounty of one Thomas Myles, evidently a patron of learn- 
ing also. He became a Fellow and took his B.A. in 1522. 
Thence he came to Oxford, it is traditionally believed to 
All Souls, but little is known of what he did there. From 
Oxford he went to Paris, 2 where he studied under Francis 
Sylvius, and was intimate with some of the learned scholars 
collected in that city, such as Guil. Bude, the restorer of 
Greek letters, and founder of the College de France and of 
the Bibliotheque Royale; Paolo Emilio, an Italian who had 
settled in France, and having been made " King's orator 
and chronicler" by Charles VIII in 1489, was slowly work- 
ing at his "Annals of the French Monarchy"; Jean Ruel, a 
doctor who forsook medicine for the study and translation 
of Greek and Latin classics ; and Jacques Fevre, the lawyer, 
and others. Leland made good use of his opportunities; as 
a Latin poet he has gained high praise, and he attained pro- 
ficiency in Greek, besides several modern tongues. It seems 
probable also that his historical tastes received some impetus 
while abroad. 

When he returned to England is not known; he was 
receiving a small quarterly exhibition from the king at 
Christmas in 1528. Henry VIII made him Keeper of his 



1 In London. Founded by Dean Colet in 1510; Lilly, the first 
master, died in 1522. 

2 Possibly he went as a king's scholar, with an annual stipend, as 
asserted by Wm. Burton, "Corollariu.m Vitse J. Lelandi," printed by 
Hearne, " Collectanea," vol. i. Camden refers to the practice of 
foreign scholarships: "until our time many of the most hopefull youths 
were chosen out of both the Universities and trained up in strange 
countries, for the better adorning and inabling of their minds" (Cam- 
den's " Elizabeth," 1625, book ii, p. 378). 



INTRODUCTION ix 

libraries before 1530, says Mr. S. Lee, 1 and it may well be 
that the king was adding to his Palace library in London 
from some of the monastic houses already suppressed by 
Wolsey several years before the Acts of Suppression. On 
2ist June, 1530, as "John Leylond, clerk," he was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Pepeling in the marches of Calais, 
but in two years' time he was scheduled as an absentee. 2 
"Verses and ditties made at the coronation of Queen 
Anne " Boleyn, in Latin and English, were devised by John 
Lelandand Nicholas Udall, 3ist May, 1533. It was in this 
year 1533 (25 Hen. VIII) that, as Leland himself tells us in 
his New Year's Letter to Hen. VIII, 1546, the King gave 
him authority by commission, to search the libraries of 
monasteries and colleges for the monuments of ancient 
writers. 3 The journeys for this purpose would be costly, 4 
and there may have been some interest at work to procure 
him several benefices; on i2th July, 1533 the last year of 
the Pope's authority in England by a papal dispensation 
Leland was allowed to hold as many as four benefices, the 

1 Weever, " Funeral Monuments," 1631, p. 688, gives him this title. 
Mr. S. Lee's article on Leland in the "Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy " gives fuller details than Huddesford's Life, which, however, 
contains some interesting documents and verses ; Lives of John Leland, 
Thomas Hearne, and Anthony a Wood, vol. i, Oxford, 1772. 

2 "Letters and Papers of Hen. VIII," iv, pt. iii, 6490 (21); v, 1703. 

3 See after, p. xxxvii. The commission itself has not been found. 
Anthony Wood says it was under the "broad seal." Leland signs 
himself to his own English copy of the Letter of 1546, and elsewhere, 
simply as " Antiquarius "; whether he had any special title of "king's 
antiquary " is doubtful ; he does not claim it. Nor does John Bale for 
him, nor. the intimate friend from whom Bale received Leland's writings, 
who ends the eulogy of his attainments, " so that he might well call 
himself Antiqttarius." Bale's Preface to "Leland's New Year's Gift," 
1549, sign. Bv. Reprinted in Huddesford's Life, 1772. 

4 Leland refers in his letter to the king's bounty and liberality, and 
Bale remarks that King Henry took " the payment of all his charges. 5 ' 
See pp. xxxviii, xliii. 



x INTRODUCTION 

combined annual value not to exceed 1,000 ducats, under 
condition that he took sub-deacon's orders within two 
years, and priest's orders within seven years. The priest's 
orders must have been taken soon, for on ist January, 1534, 
among the New Year gifts to the King was one " by Lay- 
land, priest, two books of stories." He may have begun his 
rambles about this time, for a letter from Lawson to Crom- 
well, 5th June, 1534, relates an incident which happened 
" while walking with Master Leylond in the Cathedral church 
of York"; but the journeys which he himself refers to during 
"these six years past," would begin later, though we cannot tie 
them to the literal period. In 1536 the king (this time) by 
letters patent, in which he is styled " clerk and chaplain ", 
granted him leave of absence from Pepeling, and that he 
might reside where he liked, but must provide a parish 
priest as substitute. The birth of Edward VI in 1537 was 
the occasion for another Latin poem for his king. 

Some years before this time Leland may have made the 
acquaintance of John Bale, his senior by several years, a 
poor parish priest of Suffolk, who had renounced his vows 
and the Roman Catholic religion, but got into trouble with 
the clergy by his marriage and his preaching. He also was 
a scholar filled with the enthusiasm of the new learning, 
though not so accomplished nor so courteous as Leland; 
a man of great industry, possessed of a bitter pen upon oc- 
casion, and more robust than his friend, he had the greatest 
admiration for Leland's aspirations and labours. On 25th 
January, 1537, Leland confidently wrote to Thomas Crom- 
well, asking for Bale's release from prison. " Surely," says 
he, "if the man be not monstrously changed, there is in 
him learning, judgement, modesty, with many other good 
qualities." 1 In 1536, the year of the Act which dissolved 
the smaller monasteries, when no doubt Leland had already 

1 Ellis's "Original Letters," 3rd Ser., Hi, p. 154; "Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII," vol. xii, i, 230. 



INTRODUCTION xi 

been eagerly looking into many of their libraries, Bale wrote 
to him from Ipswich, speaking of the glories and writers of 
" our England," encouraging his labours and his talents in 
warm terms, and offering his own assistance where he could. 1 
Both men were bent upon bringing the old writers and 
books into the light of day, reading and making known the 
hidden learning of their own country; and the fragment of a 
letter of 1 6th July, this same year from Leland to Cromwell 
(with whom he evidently stood on good terms) shows his 
anxiety to preserve the books that were fast being scattered 
and lost through the breaking up of the monasteries. He 
begs Cromwell to give him assistance in his searches, and in 
getting them sent to the King's Library, saying that "it 
would be a great profit to students, and honour to this 
realm; whereas now the Germans, perceiving our desidious- 
ness and negligence, do send daily young scholars hither, 
that spoileth them, and cutteth them out of libraries, return- 
ing home and putting them abroad as monuments of their 
own country." 2 Both Bale and Leland were strenuous in 
their patriotic desire to save the old chronicles, "lively acts 

1 Huddesford's Life, p. 84; the letter was first printed from a MS. 
at Cambridge, "Itinerary," 3rd edition, vol. ii, p. 22. 

2 Wood's "AthensesOxonienses,"ed. 1721, i, p. 82, 83. This letter 
is not included among the "Letters and Papers of Hen. VIII" for 
1536, though Wood refers to "the Papers of State." Bale, writing in 
1549, when the mischief was done, was righteously vehement. " Never 
had we bene offended for the losse of our lybraryes, beynge so many in 
nombre, and in so desolate places for the more parte, yf the chiefe 
monumentes and moste notable workes of our excellent wryters had bene 
reserved. If there had bene in every shyre of Englande but one 
solempne lybrary, to the preservacyon of those noble workes, and pre- 
ferrement of good lernynges in oure posteryte, it had bene yet sumwhat. 
But to destroye all without consyderacyon, is and wyll be unto 
Englande for ever, a moste horryble infamy amonge the grave senyours 
of other nacyons. . . . Yea, what maye brynge our realme to more shame 
and rebuke than to have it noysed abroade that we are despysers of 
lernynge?" (Preface to "New Year's Gift," sign. B i, Bii). 



xii INTRODUCTION 

of kings " and " noble antiquities," and to multiply them by 
printing, "so to restore us to suche a truthe in hy stories 
as we have longe wanted," for, as Bale goes on to say, " the 
greate want of them hath caused our latter chronicles, 
specyally Johan Hardynge, Wyllyam Caxton, Robert Fa- 
biane, and now last of all Polydor Vergyll so depely to erre 
as they have done in many poyntes." "To sende them 
fourth abroade amonge men, for that purpose (I thynke) 
God hath in thys age geven the noble art of prentynge." l 
And Leland, in his " New Year's Gift," claimed that part of 
the books he had found had been printed in Germany, and 
that some were then (1546) in the presses of Froben, the 
well-known printer of Basle; though in 1549 Bale says he 
could not hear of these last. 2 

From the letter to Henry VIII (shortly entitled " New 
Year's Gift," by Bale), which is reprinted at the end of this 
Introduction, 3 we learn more of Leland's motives and in- 
tentions than anywhere else; and the care of Bale, who 
printed it in 1549 (from a copy supplied by a special friend) 
with a preface and a running commentary of his own, adds 
some interesting indications of contemporary value. A 
friend, quoted by Bale, 4 and " familiarly acquainted " with 
Leland, says, "that he from his youth was so earnestly 
studious and desirous of our antiquities that always his 
whole studies were directed to that end," and therefore he 
had studied British, Saxon, and Welsh. While extolling his 
genius, the friend feared that he was vainglorious, and 
lamented his "poetical wit" which he thought had caused 
his ill-health and frenzy, but knew from what he had seen in 
Leland's study that he had many works orderly digested, 

1 Bale's Commentaries on Leland's "New Year's Gift," sign. Ciii, 
C iiii. 

2 Ib. , sign. Ciiii. It was Jerom Froben, the son and successor of 
John Froben who died in 1527. 3 See after, p. xxxvii. 

4 N. Y. G., Preface, sign. Biii-v. 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

ready to bring out according to promise. The passionate 
love of truth and their country animated all these men; 
Bale refers to the reputation of Leland again in his play, 
" Kynge Johan," where he makes Verity say, opposing a sup- 
posed lie of the Romanist, Polydore Vergil, 

"Yes! therfore, Leylonde, out of thy slumbre awake, 
And wytnesse a trewthe for thyne pwne contrayes sake." ' 

Among the " antiquities " which Leland specially studied 
were the historians and chroniclers of England, and, as he 
tells us, when he had read these historiographers he was in- 
flamed with the desire to see all parts of the realm, and, 
giving up his occupations, he travelled to and fro over 
England and Wales for six years. 2 In the course of these 
journeys he made descriptive notes of the places and the 
nature of the country; obtaining also access to libraries 3 
and records, he made numerous extracts of historical, local, 
and genealogical interest as he went along. Many ordered 
works were intended to grow out of these notes, illness over- 
took him, and the achievement fell short of the intention, 
but it left us his famous " Itinerary " which, even unfinished 
as it is, with all its imperfections, entitles Leland to be called 
the father of English topography. Such an undertaking as 
the particular description of England, the features of town 
and country interspersed with historical notes, was unheard 

1 " Kynge Johan," edited for the Camden Society by J. P. Collier, 
1838, lines 2163, 2164. The only MS. of this play was found among 
old corporation papers at Ipswich, with which place Bale had some 
connection (he wrote thence in 1536); the first edition of his " Illus- 
trium majoris Britannise Scriptorum" was printed there by John 
Overton in 1548. The play was probably written during the period of 
Leland's insanity. 

2 See p. xli. 

3 A letter remains, permitting him to use the books in the late 
monastery at Bury St. Edmunds which may help him in " such matiers as 
he writith for the King's Majeste," written probably about 1540. See 
Appendix to vol. ii. 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

of; it was a thing of magnitude demanding learning, months 
of laborious travel, and much expense; it was a mark at 
once of the increasing desire for information and of the 
growing pride of Englishmen in their country of what we 
should now call the " imperial spirit," literally expressed by 
Leland's words to his sovereign, intending a table map of 
"your world and impery of England." These words were 
warmly defended by Bale, for " men should not disdainously 
scorn that they are yet ignorant of." 

In 1542 Leland was presented to the rectory of Haseley, 
in Oxfordshire (his notes on this place occur in the present 
volume, pp. 113, 114), and in the following year to a 
prebend in the new King's College, Oxford (afterwards 
Christ Church), which was later replaced by other emolu- 
ments. In 1551 he held, besides the rectories of Pepeling 
and Haseley, a prebend at East Knowle, Wilts, and an 
annuity of 26 i$s. 4^., and thus had been provided for. 
At the end of his travels, about 1542 or 1543, he is 
believed to have settled with his books in London, in the 
parish of St. Michael le Querne. It may have been about 
this time that he wrote to his friend, Mr. Bane, student at 
Louvain, to procure him a " toward young man," learned in 
Latin and Greek, no doubt to assist him. 1 Here, it may be, 
he wrote out the first three and other narrative Parts of his 
" Itinerary," as he planned " a description of your realm in 
writing." Many other brave projects, too great for his 
strength, were doomed to be cut short; about the spring 
of I547 2 Leland (in Bale's words) "by a most pitifull 
occasion fell besides his wits." The friend quoted before 
sent Bale Leland's then printed works, and, lamenting his 
sudden fall, said he was in such a frenzy that there was 
little hope of recovery, a foreboding which came true. On 

1 See the letter in Appendix to vol. ii. 

2 Bale's friend "wrote unto me iii. yeares ago " (Preface to "New 
Year's Gift," printed 1549, sign. B iii, D vi.). 



INTRODUCTION xv 

2ist March, 1551, he was, with all his property, put into the 
care of his elder brother, John, and on i8th April, 1552, he 
died. He was buried in the church of St. Michael le 
Querne (not far from St. Paul's), which was burned in the 
Great Fire of 1666; Stow ("Survey," 1603) mentions his 
monument, but in Weever's time no inscription remained. 1 
As will be perceived from his friendships and his obliga- 
tions, Leland was on the side of the Protestants and the 
Court, though his moderation allowed him to come into 
social contact with all kinds of men on his journeys. The 
book " Antiphilarchia," named in the " New Year's Gift/' 
was written in the defence of the King " agaynst the amby- 
cyouse empyre of the Romysh byshop," says Bale, opposing 
the " Hierarchies Ecclesiastics Assertio" (Cologne, 1538), 
by Albert Pighius, a Roman canon of Utrecht. 2 His Latin 
poems have been alluded to; five of these seem to have 
been printed in his lifetime, all in London : " Naeniae in 
mortem Thomse Viati " [Wyatt], 1542; " Genethliacon 
Eaduerdi Principis Cambriae, libellus ante aliquot annos 
inchoatus, nunc vero absolutus et editus," 1543;' " Cygnea 
Cantio," 1545; "Bononia Gallo-mastix in laudem felicissimi 
victoris Henrici VIII: Carmen elegiac," 1545; "Laudatio 
Pacis," 1546.* The" Encomia Illustrium Virorum," a 

1 This is plain from the end of Weever's article ; after finishing with 
Leland he goes " forward to what ancient inscriptions I have sometime 
found in this church" ("Ancient Funeral Monuments," 1631, p. 693). 
The beginning of his account has been erroneously taken as a laudatory 
inscription, the first words " here lieth interred " misleading the cursory 
reader. The Latin verses which Weever had "by tradition," as upon 
the monument, and quoted by Pits, are at the end of Bale's Life of 
Leland, in " Scriptorum Illustrium," ed. 1559, fo. 672, introduced by 
the words " De quo sic scribitur." 

2 After, p. xxxix. 3 See before, p. x. 

4 All of these were reprinted by Hearne, in vols. ii. and ix of the 
"Itinerary," second edition, and in vols. v, vi of the "Collectanea," 
ed. 1715; vol. v includes another of Leland's writings. 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

considerable collection of verses, of which a few are of 
autobiographic interest, was not printed till 1589. It also is 
given by Hearne, " Collectanea," vol. v. The words of his 
latest biographer testify to his merits: " His poems are 
always graceful and imaginative, and exhibit at times, as in 
his * Cygnea Cantio,' an appreciation of natural scenery 
which is not apparent in his ' Itinerary.' He wrote in very 
varied metres, and knew and appreciated the best classical 
models." l 

Of two books on King Arthur, one was printed in 
1544. Other writings are contained in a list printed by 
Hearne in '-'Collectanea," vol. i; the leaf was written by 
Burton in the MS., vol. i, from Bale's "Catalogue of British 
Writers"; 2 some of them are lost, one only need detain 
us. The work, " De viris illustribus, sive De Scriptoribus 
Britannicis," an account of British writers in four books, 
chronologically arranged, announced by Leland, 3 was left 
unprinted; "blessed be that man," says Bale, "which 
shall set that worthy work abroad." Bale himself, the year 
before, had issued a book of the same kind, " Illustrium 
majoris Britanniae Scriptorum Summarium " (printed at 
Ipswich, 4to, 1548), and now, in 1549, had ready another 
volume "yet would I have no man to judge my rude 
labours to Ley land's fine workmanship in any point equal," 
he modestly remarks. 4 Bale re-issued his own quarto at 
Wesel, on the Rhine, with additions, in 1549, and two 
folio editions were issued at Basle in 1557 and 1559; 
there is no doubt that he owed some of his material to 
Leland. Further, to finish the story of these labours by the 
friends, John Bale's Autograph Note-book, found among 

1 Mr. Sidney Lee in "Dictionary of National Biography." 

2 "Scriptorum Illustrium," etc., Basle, 1559, fos. 671, 672. 

3 See "New Year's Gift," p. xxxix. It appears to have been first 
printed by Anthony Hall in 1709, and see further, p. xviii, note 3. 

4 Commentary to " New Year's Gift," sign. C viii, D ii. 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

the Selden MSS. at Oxford, has been recently edited with 
infinite care by Dr. R. L. Poole and Miss Mary Bateson. 1 
The title of "Index "is given to distinguish this from Bale's 
other published catalogues (as above), and Dr. Poole ex- 
plains that it differs from those in two respects, viz., it is in 
alphabetical, not chronological order; and most of the 
articles are followed by reference to the owner, and source 
or authority for the information. Among these Leland's 
name is frequently cited, either for books in his library, for 
his own writings, or for extracts from them. Of each work 
Bale gives the title shortly, followed by the indpit in Latin, 
the first five or six words, whether the work were in Latin or 
English. This means of identification used by Bale enables 
us to clear up a mistake made by Weever, who, in reprinting 
the " New Year's Gift," states that it was written in Latin 
and translated into English by Bale, and quotes the first 
words, " Ubi tua celsitudine visum fuerit." No trace of 
such a Latin version or of Bale's translation is to be found, 
and it seems plain that Weever must have seen one of 
Bale's works where Leland's books were described, and have 
been misled by the Latinised indpit. Had he looked further 
he would have found that Bale gave the indpit of his own 
English dedicatory epistle to the " Gift " in Latin, " Inter 
omnes nationes quas," and further, in citing the first book of 
the " Itinerary " assuredly in English he gives the first 
words in Latin, "A Granta Girviorum ad Eltislegam" (see 
below, p. i). 

After Leland's death his manuscripts and papers were 
put into the hands of Sir John Cheke, a Cambridge man, 
and friend of learning, who, however, himself died in 1557. 
Some of the papers then came to Lord Wm. Paget, and 
others to William Cecil, Lord Burghley (who married 

1 " Index Britanniae Scriptorum, John Bale's Index of British and 
other Writers," Oxford, 1902, 4, "Anecdota Oxon.," Mediaeval and 
Modern Series. 

b 






xviii INTRODUCTION 

Cheke's sister). Four volumes were given by Cheke to 
Humphrey Purefoy, a cousin of William Burton the Leices- 
tershire antiquary, to whom Thomas Purefoy, the son, be- 
queathed them in i6i2. a Other volumes came to W. Burton 
before this date one leaf of the " Itinerary " bears his 
name and the date 1598 and perhaps after; it is owing to 
his care that the chief of Leland's MS. remains were de- 
posited in the Bodleian Library. 2 The reputation of Leland's 
labours and travels raised great hopes, his manuscripts were 
borrowed and copied either in whole or in part many times, 
and it is not surprising that they suffered in the process. 
Bale must have borrowed the " De viris illustrious," in 
order to make his Epitome 3 of that work. Stow is said to 
have used some papers for his "Survey of London"; they 
must have been other notes, for what now exists of the 
" Itinerary " contains nothing of London itself. Stow, how- 
ever, fortunately copied nearly all the " Itinerary," possibly 
for the use of some one else; his copy found its way into 
Wales, and long remained there. 4 All succeeding anti- 
quaries and lovers of local remains eagerly turned to Leland's 
sources for information and inspiration. Following Stow 
came Wm. Harrison, with his " Description of England "; 
Holinshed, the Chronicler; Camden, with his " Britannia "; 
Lambard's" Perambulation of Kent"; W. Burton; Michael 

1 Burton's " Corollarium," additions to Bale's life of Leland, printed 
by Huddesford, p. 70, and Hearne in "Collectanea," vol. i. 

2 In 1642-3 ;i was given "to Mr. Burton's sonne when he brought 
the 2 last parts of Leland's Itinerarie " (Macray's " Annals of the 
Bodleian Library," p. 76). 

3 Bale's manuscript Epitome is in Trinity College, Cambridge, 
MS. R. 7. 15; see also "Index Brit. Script.," p. 180, and Ver- 
heiden's "Effigies Theologorum," Hague, 1602, p. 149. Leland's 
original came into Burton's possession (see after, p. x, note), and is 
now in the Bodleian Library along with the three volumes of " Col- 
lectanea." 

1 See Preface to "Leland in Wales," p. vi, note, and after, p. xxix. 



INTRODUCTION xix 

Drayton, for the "Polyolbion ";' Dugdale, of Warwickshire; 
Plot, historian of Staffordshire ; Robert Vaughan in Wales, 
and others, all are his debtors. 

We come now to the " Itinerary." 2 The blessing of John 
Bale must have rested upon Thomas Hearne, the pains- 
taking librarian of Bodley's library, who spent several years 
in making an exact copy of the manuscript, which he 
published in nine volumes at Oxford and Eton, 1710-1712 
(in an edition of 120 copies). In vol. ix Hearne printed a 
" Review " containing his corrections, his chief error (per- 
haps unavoidable) having been to print the eighth MS. 
volume as a whole, whereas it consists of a number of 
scattered leaves from six of the other MS. volumes. 3 

After his death in 1735 a second edition was brought out 
in 1744 and 1745, for which the original was carefully re- 
examined; the pages of the eighth volume were printed in 
their proper places, some portions were added from Stow's 
copy, and Hearne's own corrections and additional notes 
were set at the foot of the pages. A third edition was 
published in 1768-9, apparently little more than a reprint of 
the second. For the present publication the second edition 
of Hearne has been used throughout. Hearne also printed 
the contents of the three folio volumes left by Leland 
entitled "Collectanea," in 1715, of which a second edition 
appeared in 1774. These consist of numerous extracts 
from various authors, histories, annals, public and private 
papers, and lives of writers; genealogical notes and cata- 
logues of manuscripts in some libraries, a quantity of miscel- 
laneous matter. A few portions were so evidently meant for 

1 Isaac Disraeli's "Amenities of Literature," 1841, vol. 3, p. 137. 

2 Though Leland left no title to his travels, there are one or two 
places where he uses this term. See Part III, p. 254, "Another 
Itinerarie of myne," and Part IX, fo. 72, " Remember to ask by the 
Itinerary how the old townes stood." Bale also applied it to this work. 

3 Vols. i, iii, iv, vi, vii, and the lost Part 10. 



xx INTRODUCTION 

the " Itinerary " that Hearne printed them as an Appendix 
to his seventh volume. 1 

Some leaves which must have dropped out, perhaps when 
the quires were loose, containing, besides extracts which 
have little to do with the " Itinerary," notes on Oxford and 
Cambridge, and two interesting letters concerning Leland, 
have found their way to Sir Thomas Phillipps' library at 
Cheltenham. 2 Much of Hearne's eighth volume of the 
" Itinerary," which he printed from Stow's copy (the original 
being lost), is not Itinerary at all, and resembles the 
" Collectanea," consisting of lists of bishops, extracts from 
lives of Saxon and other old worthies, and from chronicles, 
etc. 

There is a certain amount of similarity between the looser 
parts of the " Itinerary " and the " Collectanea," but the main 
design of the former is travel and detailed description of 
what the traveller saw, with a few notes of books, history, 
or families thrown in for illustration. The "Collectanea," 
on the contrary, are chiefly, if not entirely, the results of 
much reading and study gathered apart at different places, 
but largely in the quiet chamber or library. 

2. The Manuscripts of the Itinerary. 

The principal part of what is known to exist of the original 
MS. of the " Itinerary," written by John Leland's own hand, 
is in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, among the topographical 
MSS., consisting of eight small quarto volumes in a modern 
binding (MS. Gen. Top. e 8-15). A small part, as well as his 
letter to Henry VIII, is found in the third volume of Leland's 
"Collectanea" (MS. Gen. Top. c 3), one of four folio volumes 
also written by his own hand. A stray portion from the 

1 Part of these belong to Cornwall (see Appendix II at the end of 
the present volume). Some relate to Kent (see our vol. iv). 

2 See p. xxx. 



INTRODUCTION xxi 

"Collectanea," is among Sir Thomas Phillipps' MSS. (No. 
12111) at Cheltenham. Besides, a copy of a lost leaf of the 
last-named MS. exists in Add. MS. 5937, fo. 203 ; and a 
fragment consisting of two leaves which have at some time 
been taken out of one of Leland's quarto volumes is bound 
into one of the Cotton MSS., viz., Vesp. F. ix. 30, fo. 223 ; 
both in the British Museum. 

The manuscript is certainly how not as Leland left it; 
three books are lost, "imbesiled and gone" as Burton 
says ; l the eighth volume is composed of leaves cut or fallen 
out of various places in five of the other volumes; and 
portions are wanting in volumes four, five and six. Many 
parts have been much injured by damp, which caused the 
leaves to decay in places, especially at the lower margin and 
corner of some volumes ; in others the wet has run into the 
body of the leaves : volumes five, seven and eight have suffered 
in this way. Some little damage of this kind happened even 
before Stow's time (see note * after, p. 80) ; and William 
Harrison complained how " moth-eaten, mouldie and rotten 
are those books of Leland which I have" (quoted by Hearne, 
" Collectanea," I, p. Ivi.). Hearne infers that the manu- 
scripts were damp when they came to the library, and several 
leaves quite out ; though dry when he came to use them, he 
notes that the leaves of the "Itinerary" were "falling to 
pieces every day." This was in 1708-1710. 

Though the manuscript is now contained in eight volumes 
(bound probably some time after it came to the Bodleian), 
the numbering of these does not follow any internal con- 
secutive order, and appears to be only for convenience' sake. 
It may follow a traditional order. Leland, whose journeys 
extended over several years (about 1535-1543), appears to 
have put his notes together, some in narrative form, some of 
them just as they were jotted down, in "books" or "parts." 

1 Hearne noted that * ' a vast deal, and I am afraid much the better 
part, is now quite lost." Itin. t vol. v, p. xxv. 



xxii INTRODUCTION 

That he did so we learn from the copies subsequently made 
from his MS., especially from that written by John Stow in 
1576, who makes ten clear divisions or " books " of it. But 
Leland's original nowhere gives any title or numbering of 
books, nor, indeed, is there any name to his work, or any 
apparent reason why we should begin with one book more 
than another. Plainly his malady overtook him before he 
had finished the work. The only heading that Leland 
himself gives is one which also gives his own date, at 
the top of the first leaf of Part 2 " Quinta die Maii A. 
1542." 

Leland's hand is rather large and generally quite plain, 
except where it is crowded. After writing out the bulk of 
his narrative notes he frequently added others in the margin 
without always indicating exactly where in the text they 
should be inserted, but in the majority of cases this is not 
difficult to find. He left occasionally a blank for the number 
of miles or the name of a place to be inserted later, or, 
more rarely, for fuller information. Sometimes he writes a 
reminder for himself, evidently hoping to add more, such as 
"Remember to ask Mr. Batchelar," "take better heed," "I 
have written in a small piece of papire," etc. ; and again his 
personality comes out occasionally when giving extracts from 
some roll or manuscript he had seen, where he marks his 
comments as he goes along by naively writing his name 
above each, right in the text. (See examples in vol. i., pp. 
286, 308, 309, 310.) These remarks are rarely set in the 
margin. 

The history of the manuscript will further account for its 
present imperfect condition. Much sought after and prized 
for its novel information it passed through many hands after 
its author's death in 1552, copies were made, and volumes 
borrowed, maltreated, or lost. Of two copies made in the 
sixteenth century, one only, that by Stow, still exists, the 
other, belonging to Mr. James Wright, was burnt with his 



INTRODUCTION xxiii 

library in I678. 1 In the seventeenth century several tran- 
scripts more or less complete were made by Burton, Dug- 
dale, and Thomas Gale, one for Robert Plot, and two or 
three by anonymous hands, while in the early years of the 
eighteenth century Browne Willis, and, finally, Thomas 
Hearne, again copied the work. 

Leland's work is only preserved to the most complete 
extent known through the copy made by John Stow, the 
London antiquary, in and about the year 1576. His copy, 
thus made only twenty-four years after the author's death, 
before the original had suffered much injury, is of the greatest 
importance in restoring Leland's text, filling up lacuna caused 
by decay, and supplying the whole of three lost books. Five 
bound volumes transcribed in his small, neat handwriting 
out of Leland's works exist in the Bodleian Library (Tanner 
MS. 464, vols. i-v). They have not been numbered ac- 
cording to their contents; vol. i is a miscellany, partly, if 
not all, from some volume of the " Collectanea " ; it includes 
the portion contained in the Phillipps MS. 12111; and 
vol. iv is a collection of Leland's Latin poetry. Vols. 
ii, iii, and v contain the " Itinerary," in ten books, viz., 
three in vol. ii, four in vol. iii, three in vol. v. The 
first two books in vol. iii were reversed in binding, but 
Stow's own pagination shows what he intended. At the 
beginning of each of vols. ii and iii he put an index to 
places, with this note at the head of that to vol. iii, " Fowre 
bokes of leylands comentaries writen in this boke by John 



1 In Hearne's Diary, under date July 30, 1709, he says: "Mr, 
Jas. Wright had once a valuable transcript of Mr. Leland's Itinerary, 
which he has told me was written about the time of Q. Elizabeth 
had no lacunae in it, being taken from the originals before they took 
wet, as is supposed. But, to his & all curious and learned men's regret, 
the said transcript was unfortunately burnt (with the rest of his books) 
in the fire at the Middle Temple in 1678." Hearne's "Collections," 
ed, C, E Doble, vol. ii, p. 227 (Oxford -Historical Society). 



xxiv INTRODUCTION 

Stow, I576." 1 The other volumes are not dated. The 
order in which Stow copied the books in no way agrees 
with that adopted by Hearne in his print, but beyond the 
date 1542, at the head of vol. iii, there is no guide. The 
"New Yeare's Gift" letter to Henry VIII is not in Stow's 
copy. 

Throughout Stow calls the work " Comentary " or " Co- 
mentaria Anglia," placing this phrase as a title to most of 
the "books." In transcribing, he was apt to omit the 
marginal additions of Leland, or might only copy a part of 
one ; occasionally even omitted whole sentences, and parts 
of genealogical extracts, while in other places he would 
transpose passages, such as the descent of a local family or 
a list of bridges, out of the original order. He more often 
than not leaves out Leland's personal notes, beginning " I 
heard once," " I learned once," and so forth. But beyond 
these, as far as I have observed, he did not import additions 
or corrections of his own into the text, copying so closely as 
sometimes not to insert a word obviously forgotten by 
Leland, as happened here and there. He wrote, however, 
with his own spelling, differing from that of Leland, which 
was much nearer the spelling of our own day than Stow's. 

When William Burton received the manuscript of the 
"Itinerary" is not clear, the four volumes left him by 
Thomas Purefoy in 1612 were the three containing the 
"Collectanea" and the one "De viris illustribus." 2 It is 
immaterial, as we know that he did possess at one time or 

1 At the head of the first book, fo. I in vol. iii, Stow wrote : " 1542. 
Comentaria Anglise John Layland, of late writen by John Stowe in 
anno 1576. Lib. I." He numbered the books afresh within each 
volume, so that this lib. I would not indicate Leland's beginning ; the 
date 1542, indeed (found also in the original), showing most probably 
that this book (Part 2) was compiled near the close of Leland's journeys. 

2 See Burton's title-page and "Corollarium," both in his own hand, 
prefixed to the MS. of " Collectanea," "hsec Collectanea," and again 
"hrec tantum quatuor volumina." Top. Gen. c I. 



INTRODUCTION xxv 

another eight parts or MS. volumes of the " Itinerary," seven 
of which he eventually gave to the Bodleian Library (one 
having been lent and lost ; these were irrespective of the 
fragmentary vol. viii, which is not a " part," and was given 
in IS;;). 1 His signature, undated, is on the flyleaf of each 
volume iii, vi, and vii. On the flyleaf to the fragmentary 
volume viii is written "Liber Wiltmi Burton Lindliaci 
Leicestrensis 1598." And a note immediately above, in 
Burton's hand, gives reason to think that he must himself 
have put this volume together out of loose leaves fallen from 
other parts : " A part of the Itinerarye of John Leland 
written with his owne hand. 1543. 35 H. 8, as it appeareth 
by fol. 29 & 37." These references answer to the pagina- 
tion made after the book was put together. Burton, who 
was fully alive to their value, made a copy of seven " parts," 
as he calls them, of the " Itinerary," in an interesting folio 
of 252 leaves, 2 closely written in a crabbed hand and 
yellowed ink, which has been much injured by mice and 
is only badly repaired. Fifty-nine of these leaves are rilled 
with extracts from Leland's " Collectanea." 

Some years elapsed before this volume, begun in 1628, 
added to in 1641, was filled. The second flyleaf bears the 
following note : " The Itinerarye of John Leiland the 
famous Antiquarie. Begunne before or about an. do. 1538,' 
an. 30 H. 8. The first part copied out of the originall, 1628, 
by me William Burton." He begins with Leland's letter to 
Henry VIII (out of the "Collectanea," vol. iii, p. 281). 
Five " parts " (including the first) follow consecutively, 
answering to the parts in Hearne's printed vols. i, ii, iii, 
vol. iv, part 2, and vol. v (of Leland's MS., vols. i, ii, iii, 
and v, the part answering to vol. iv, part 2 is now lost). 

1 See note, p. xxviii. 

2 MS. Gough, Gen. Top. 2, in the Bodleian. Hereafter referred to 
as Burton a. 

3 He was doubtful of the date, having apparently first written 1536. 



xxvi INTRODUCTION 

In 1632, as we learn from his letter to Mr. John Rous, 
Keeper of the University Library, Oxford, Burton had a 
second copy made by another hand of these same five parts, 
which he presented to the library l with four of the originals. 
The fifth, which must have been Hearne's vol. iv, part 2, 
he says was at the time " in the handes of Doctor Burton 
Archdeacon of Gloucester, which he received by loane from 
a friend of mine, but never yet restored." 2 The archdeacon 
remains in default to this day; the original part has not 

1 Bodleian MS. 470. Hereafter referred to as Burton b. 

2 The following is the full text of the letter prefixed to MS. Bodl. 
470, written on the flyleaf in Burton's own hand : 

" To the learned & worthilye esteemed Mr. John Rous M r . of Artes 
Keeper of [the] Vniuersity Library in Oxford. 

" Though long yet at length you shall receive for your Librarye foure 
partes of Leyland his Itinerary in the originall written with his owne 
hand, and the copy of another part the archetypus whereof is mine, but 
now (as I heare) in the handes of Doctor Burton Archdeacon ot 
Gloucester, which he received by loane from a freind of mine, but 
never yet restored, the which I thinke vpon request he will impart 
vnto you ; which partes being much perished before they happened to 
me, & thereby very imperfect, so that by an ordinary reader, they 
cannot so well be vnderstood, by the helpe of his Collectanea I have 
rectifyed in many places. And according to your desire I have caused 
them here to be transcribed, written though not with so fine a letter yet 
with a iudicious hand. Some more partes there were of his Itinerary, 
but through the negligence of him to whom they were first lent, are 
imbesiled and gone. For the three partes of his Collectanea and his 
booke De Scriptoribus Angliae all in folio & written with his owne hand 
they shall assuredly come to your Library according to my promise 
made, though I cannot prefixe the definitive time, by reason of the 
present vse which I nowe have, and hereafter shall have of them. 
Which true assertion I hope you will approve from him, that to this so 
rare a treasury will ever be 

* ' A freind and furtherer 

" William Burton. 

" Lindley Leicss. 
" 1 7 July. 1632." 

The above is also printed in " Hearne's, Collections," ed. C. E 
Doble, vol. iii, p. 18 (Oxford Hist. Soc., 1884-88). 



INTRODUCTION xxvii 

rejoined its fellows. But it is curiously to be noted, that 
Burton passes over the part of Leland's original numbered 
vol. iv, and printed by Hearne as vol. iv, part i, as though 
unaware of its existence, and this he evidently was at this 
date, 1632. For his first copy a agrees 1 with the second b 
up to the end of the fifth book ; vol. iv, part i, is wanting 
in both, so far. In later years, however, he adds it to his 
private copy a. The five parts above-named occupy fos. 
1-156; fos. 157-162, 165 contain portions from the "Col- 
lectanea," vol. iii (Hearne, vol. vii, appx.) ; after some in- 
tervening leaves he gives, fos. 224-228, "Another part of 
John Leyland his Itinerary, copied by me, Wm. Burton of 
Lindsey, 1641, out of the originall." This answers to 
Leland's original, vol. vii (Hearne's vol. vii, part i), which 
bears Burton's autograph. On fos. 241-252 is copied 
Leland's vol. iv (Hearne, vol. iv, part i), with, however, 
considerable omissions. He may have had a reason for 
keeping it till the last, for he heads it, "A part of the Itinerary 
of John Leyland written 1543, 35 H. 8 (as appeereth in this 
leefe belowe)," thus dating it from Leland's mention of the 
Lord Mountjoy "now living," who died in 1544. A part 
written in 1543 would be near the close of Leland's journeys. 
He here puts into its right " part " the very leaf referred to 
in the flyleaf of the volume he had possessed since 1598. 

Burton did not copy vol. vi entire (Hearne's vol. vi), but 
we know he had it because leaf 101 bears his signature; 
and he did in fact copy a few fragments into his MS. a, 
fos. 162 + , 162^, and 164. Whether he had ever in his 
possession the two parts answering to Hearne's print vol. vii, 
part 2 (original lost), and vol. viii, part 2 (original lost), we 
are not told ; 2 he makes neither copy nor mention of either 

1 The agreement extends to details ; it appears probable that b was 
copied from a, and not direct from the original. 

2 As seen above Burton gave four parts to the Bodleian in 1632, to 
which Hearne adds: "Some time after he sent . . . the four folio 



xxviii INTRODUCTION 

of them. (Of the first, six leaves exist, which Burton, him- 
self unaware of the fact, put with the other loose leaves 
afterwards bound up as vol. viii of Leland's MS., in which 
they stand as pp. 1-12, answering to fos. 760-79^ in vol. iii 
of Stow.) This MS. Burton a was not known to Hearne, 
who used the MS. b given in 1632 to the Bodleian; a note 
inside the cover of MS. a informs us that it is " A transcript 
of Leland's Itinerary from the original MS. by Mr. Burton 
the Leicestershire antiquary : given to Wm. Stukeley by 
Thomas Allen esq., Lord of Finchley, June, 1 758." l Hearne 
died in 1735. 

Burton took occasional liberties with Leland's manuscript 
itself, here and there inserting a word or what he thought 
was an emendation; but in his transcript he allowed him- 
self greater law, and every now and then inserted a phrase 
or a sentence, or made an omission, without any sign to 
show that he was improving on his original. In the letter to 
Mr. Rous (before, p. xxvi, note\ he says he has " rectified " 
the four parts by the help of the "Collectanea": these may 
be his rectifications. Stow's copy seems to have been un- 
known to him. 

In the British Museum are two copies of the second half 
of the seventeenth century, which are linked with Sir William 
Dugdale. Harl. MS. 6266 is a fine folio volume, dated 
1657, being a transcript of nine out of the ten books of the 
"Itinerary," two of them with a few short passages being 

vols. of Collectanea^ with some other parts of the Itinerary, which were 
all put by the rest. This increased the Itinerary to 7 vols. There was 
an eighth volume in 4to, but it did not come to the library till long 
after." (It was presented by Charles King, M.A., of Christchurch, in 
1677. Lee in "Diet. Nat. Biog.") Thus Burton had one part which 
he did not fully copy, which was vol. vi. He gave vols. i, ii, iii, 
and v in 1632; the three vols. given later must have been vol. vii 
(Hearne's vol. vii, part i), vol. iv (Hearne's vol. iv, part i), and vol. vi. 
See before, p. xviii, note 2. 

1 It came to the Bodleian with other Gough manuscripts in 1809. 



INTRODUCTION xxix 

taken from Stow's copy, then "in y e custody of M r . Robt. 
Vaughan of Hengwrt in Merioneth." At the end is an 
index " compositus per me Willielmum Dugdale, 15 July 
A. 1657." The volume is therefore not older than that 
date; none of it appears to be in Dugdale's hand, but it 
may have been copied for him. The transcriber had seen 
Burton's copy , and probably copied from it vol. iv, part 2, 
for a note on fo. 115 states, "This 4 volume (now lost) was 
copied by M r . Burton " in his copy given to Oxford. The 
other Harl. MS. 1346 is a copy (by another hand) of the 
first seven books found in Harl. 6266, with Dugdale's index 
dated 1657, in the same hand as that MS. 

Other copies are : i. A series of extracts from seven 
books, followed by an attempt to draw up a regular itinerary 
of Leland's journeys with the names of places ; after going 
through five volumes, the writer notes that "y e thread of 
these journalles is so interrupted and disperst, that they 
cannot perfectly be traced," so he takes it up further on ; 
both these are dated 8 Oct. i659. 1 2. A folio volume in 
Trinity College Library, at Cambridge (MS. O. 5. 25), 
containing vols. i, ii, and part of vol. iii, transcribed by 
Thomas Gale the antiquary (died 1702) ; this copy was lent to 
Hearne, who made use of it in his print, Gale also suggesting 
occasional emendations. 3 . A thick folio of about the close of 
the seventeenth century, 2 containing Burton's letter to Rous, 
Leland's letter to Henry VIII, and the same five parts as 
Burton , from which it seems to be a copy, including even 
the title; it bears no date nor transcriber's name, and is 
written in two hands. 4. Lastly, we have the excellent 
copy made by Browne Willis, 3 when a gentleman commoner 
at Christchurch, in May, 1704, in the space of nine days; 
it extends only to the first four volumes, but is accurate 

1 Bodleian Library, Ashmole MS. 861, fos. 354-400, 402. 

2 Bodl. Lib., MS. Gough, Gen. Top. i. 

3 Bodl. Lib., MS. Gen. Top., c. 5. 



xxx INTRODUCTION 

and careful, representing the state of the originals in his 
time. 

Besides these, in the third volume of what is more strictly 
called Leland's " Collectanea " l are several passages which 
evidently belong rather to his journeys, and were printed 
by Hearne in an appendix to his vol. vii. A description 
of the parishes of Anglesey, 2 and the letter to Henry VIII 
come from the same volume. Some part of the "Collec- 
tanea " also, like the " Itinerary," seems to have early become 
separated from the rest, for among the MSS. of Sir Henry 
St. George of the Heralds College was one now belonging 
to the Phillipps Collection at Cheltenham 3 which was 
copied by Sir William Dugdale in 1677^ and again with 
some variations (it includes a little more and a little less 
than Dugdale's) was copied for Robert Plot in i682. 5 This 
last copy was printed by Hearne as an appendix to his vol. 
iv., who found that Stow had copied a part of the same 
portion in the first volume of his MS. 6 A leaf that was 
loose when the original belonged to Sir H. St. George was 
copied by him for preservation 7 (it is also included in Dug- 
dale's copy), and was printed in 1836 in "Collectanea 
topographica et genealogica," vol. iii, p. 339. 

When Hearne began to print the " Itinerary " he had not 
Stow's copy, and only obtained the use of it in time for 
vol. v ; up till then he relied upon Burton ^, and sometimes 
Gale, for assistance in difficulties. Vol. iv, part 2, he sup- 
plied from Burton b. Vol. vii, part 2, and vol. viii, part 2, 
he supplied from Stow. Hearne was a careful and con- 
scientious transcriber, making but few errors, though his 
methods were cumbersome. He took pains to gather in 

MS. Gen. Top., c. 1-3. 

See " Leland in Wales," pp. 128-134. 

MS. Phillipps 12111. 4 Bodl. Lib., MS. Eng. Hist., c. 9. 

MS. Bodley 353. G Tanner, 464, vol. i., fos. 70-83. 

Add. MS., Brit. Mus.. 5937, fo. 203. 



INTRODUCTION xxxi 

all fragments of Leland's writing that might be considered 
as belonging to or intended for the " Itinerary," putting them 
in appendices; but his plan of printing the three lost books 
as second parts of other books is most confusing. 

For the present edition Leland's original MS. has been 
collated throughout, blanks occasioned by decay have been 
filled up from Stow in numerous cases (indicated by [ ]), 
and occasional suggestions from Burton's own MS. a, where 
these seemed useful, have been retained (in italics between 
[ ]). For Part 5, the original of which is lost, Stow's copy, 
checked by Burton (a), has been used. Stow here evidently 
omitted several passages, which are restored from Burton 
(0), not in italics^ but simply between [ ]. Leland's mar- 
ginal additions have been incorporated in the text, as evi- 
dently intended (which Stow did when he copied them at 
all). In many instances Leland points out by a mark where 
the addition should be placed. (But mere marginal index 
words are omitted here.) The decay having extended a 
little further since Hearne's day, the brackets often include 
more words than in his edition, particularly near the bottom 
of leaves. The initial capitals which were but a fashion of 
Hearne's time, and are not in the original, are omitted; 
punctuation, which in Leland is irregular, follows modern 
usage. Dots in a line indicate a blank in the original, or 
a sentence or words incomplete through decay. A few 
changes in arrangement may be made, in order to set forth 
the author's subject more clearly, as, for instance, placing 
the genealogical extracts in vol. i in an appendix; other 
extracts are retained in Leland's position, but are printed 
in different type from the rest of the text. Where the notes 
which formed the basis of the narrative portions are identi- 
fied, they are printed in a narrower form on the page, with 
due references; e.g., see vol. i, p. 182, note. In every case 
a note will indicate the alteration. The aim is to give as 
close a representation as possible of Leland's original where 



xxxii INTRODUCTION 

this is continuous; and where it is fragmentary to restore 
it as nearly as may be, following Hearne's lead as far as 
practicable. 

The most important change in arrangement now made is 
to bring together in one volume the portions which relate 
to Wales out of Leland's parts 4, 5, and 7, 1 with two frag- 
ments from " Collectanea," vol. iii. This forms vol. iii of 
the present edition. 

The order in which Hearne printed the Parts, though as 
it is seen chiefly fortuitous, has been preserved because any 
other would be nearly the same. The order in which Stow 
copied them does not give more coherence to the so-called 
" Itinerary " as a whole, while, if we seek for a chronological 
guide, Stow dates the first book in his third volume, 1542, 
copying Leland's own date. This adds little to the solution 
of the problem. That first book answers to Hearne's vol. ii ; 
it should be placed lower in the list, but where ? If Burton's 
date inferred for vol. iv, part i, as 1543 be correct, this 
too is copied by Stow in his vol. iii, the second book, which 
may well agree with the previous date ; these two parts then 
might be placed near the end of the list, but we should be 
no nearer placing the rest of the eight parts in their chrono- 
logical order either from Stow's or Hearne's arrangement. 

3. LelancFs method or plan. 

The " Itinerary " has been so much quoted and referred 
to, that to call attention to any of its contents might be 
deemed superfluous. But there are two or three points of 
view that may be suggested. 

1 I regret that I overlooked two short passages which should have 
been included, viz., pp. 138, 139 of the Appendix to Hearne's vol. vii 
("Collectanea," iii, pp. 150, 151), a list of castles on the Wye, and 
pp. 90, 91 of Hearne's vol. viii (Stow's transcript, vol. ii, fos. 1060- 
io7<z) relating to Carmarthenshire. They will be found in vol. iv of 
my edition. 



INTRODUCTION xxxiii 

Though it is impossible to make a continuous Itinerary, 
our maps show, in conjunction with the text, that Leland 
started from several places, and must have made several 
separate tours. These are seen the more distinctly in the 
portions in which his narrative is written out, viz., in 
Parts i, 2, 3 of vol. i, and in Parts 5, 6, 7 and 10 in suc- 
ceeding volumes. As in Wales, so in England, he seems to 
have stayed at certain places for a time, making each a 
centre for excursions in the neighbourhood. York, Bishop 
Auckland, Doncaster and Leicester were some of these 
centres; in the south, Winchester, Exeter, Sherborne, 
Keynsham and Trowbridge among others. This might be 
the case where he found opportunity of examining a library 
or books, no doubt, too, a congenial host would entertain 
him, and open out his genealogies or private papers. Or he 
had facilities afforded him by some local magnate, for 
example, Mr. Brudenell of Dene, Northamptonshire, one of 
the two sons of Chief Justice Brudenell, whom he mentions 
several times as showing him rolls. 

His plan seems to have been to note down his facts on 
the spot, or from various local enquiries; then later, at 
leisure, he wrote his narrative direct from them, adding in 
bits from memory occasionally; he would make a skeleton 
page of names of towns in a district, evidently intending to 
fill in particulars and distances, which was not always done. 
As the original notes, as well as the narrative, are in many 
cases preserved, this accounts for much repetition and ap- 
parent confusion ; it is not always possible to trace the con- 
nection, but the three Parts in vol. I afford a good example 
of the practice (see p. 182). 

In the course of his journeys Leland names many men of 
good family, local gentry of past days and of repute, also 
landowners and well-known men of his own time. It would 
be possible with some research to make from his pages 
a goodly company of the Englishmen of standing in the first 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION 

half of the sixteenth century. As a small contribution I 
mark his contemporaries in the index by adding temp, to 
each name which the text allowed (though some may be 
missed). 

What may be called the social and economic value of 
Leland's regular notices as he passed through the realm is 
considerable. Not only the condition of the castles, old and 
new, and of the market towns and cities, with their 
principal buildings and churches, and great men's houses are 
set down; but, living in a country still largely dependent 
upon agriculture, he is particular to record the kind and pro- 
portions of champion ground, 1 i.e. common arable land, 
inclosed land, meadows, often of waste, and wood; also the 
chief forests and parks. Frequent details of parishes and 
hamlets remind us that the village community was still 
strong, and the manor and its courts in vital existence. 
The number and position of bridges, early regarded as 
necessary erections for public use, are carefully recorded. 
Rivers and brooks he most perseveringly tries to follow, but 
here, as well as with regard to actual distances, he is liable 
to error. But considering his great undertaking, single- 
handed, as it would seem, the actual physical labour to be 
gone through when horse-back was the mode of travel, the 
eagerness to omit nothing that might be useful to his 
purposes, we might wonder that he did not make more mis- 
takes of fact or conjecture than he actually did. Details 
may be and are wrong in philology, family history, or men- 
suration here and there, but modern science and oppor- 
tunity may correct these, and still be grateful to their fore- 
runner in the field. 

The portrait of Leland, prefixed to this volume, is copied 
from an engraving by C. Grignion, in Huddesford's " Lives 

1 Dr. Gilbert Slater has skilfully made use of Leland's testimony to 
the state and kinds of inclosure existing over Tudor England in his 
article before referred to. 



INTRODUCTION xxxv 

of Leland, Hearne, and Wood," 1772, and purports to be 
taken from a bust at All Souls College, Oxford. The bust, 
however, does not now appear to exist, and all enquiries 
have failed to elicit what has become of it. There is also a 
full length figure of Leland in a modern window of the 
dining hall of Christ's College, Cambridge. 

OXFORD, 

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THE 
Laboriouse Journey and Serche of 

JOHAN LEYLANDE 

FOR 

ENGLANDES ANTIQUITEES, 

Geven of hym as a Newe Yeares Gyfte to King 
HENRY the viii. in the xxxvii Yeare of his 
Raygne. 

To my Soveraigne Leige King Henry the eighth 

"HERE as it pleasid yowr Highnes apon very juste 
considerations to encorage me, by the autorite of 
yowr moste gratius commission yn the xxv. yere of yowr 
prosperus regne, to peruse and diligently to serene al the inprindpe. 
libraries of monasteries and collegies of this yowre noble 
reaulme, to the intente that the monumentes of auncient 

1 This line was written by Burton over Leland's copy. 

2 Printed from the MS. copy in Leland's hand at the end of vol. iii. 
of his Collectanea (Bodleian Top. Gen. c. 3, p. 281), which originally 
had no heading. Bale furnished the above title when he printed the 
Letter in 1549. It may be presumed that the document really was what 
the title asserts, a new year's gift to the King in 1546, such an offering 
being customary, and Bale having opportunity of knowing the facts. 
The two copies differ but slightly, chiefly as regards spelling, and the 
addition of three marginal notes which are here included. The punctua- 
tion of the present copy is more correct than Bale's. That Leland's 
own MS. is in English argues against a Latin original. See before, pp. 
xii, xvii. The supposed first edition of 1546 does not seem to exist. 

The " New Year's Gift" has been reprinted several times, by Ralph 
Brook and Weever from Bale, and by Hearne from the MS. in the 
first volume of the " Itinerary"; more recently by Dr. Copinger. 

xxxvii 



xxxviii LELAND'S NEW-YEARS GIFT 



Ciira reli- 
gion is in 
principe. 



Exemplaria 
veteruni 
autoruin 
conservata. 

Auctae 

bibliothecae 

Palatinae. 



P. 282. 

Stilus agreslis 
velerum scrip- 
toruni. [Note 
added by Bale.} 



Exemplaria 
prelis com- 



writers as welle of other nations, as of this yowr owne pro- 
vince mighte be brought owte of deadely darkenes to lyvely 
lighte, and to receyve like thankes of the posterite, as they 
hoped for at such tyme as they emploied their long and 
greate studies to the publique wealthe ; yea and farthermore 
that the holy Scripture of God might bothe be sincerely 
taughte and lernid, al maner of superstition and craftely 
coloured doctrine of a rowte of the Romaine bishopes totally 
expellid oute of this your moste catholique reaulme : I think 
it now no lesse then my very dewty brevely to declare to 
your Majeste what frute hath spronge of my laborius yourney 
and costely enterprise, booth rootid apon yowr infinite good- 
nes and liberalite, qualites righte highly to be estemid yn al 
princes, and most especially yn yow as naturally yowr owne 
welle knowen proprietes. 

Firste I have conservid many good autors, the which other 
wise had beene like to have perischid to no smaul incom- 
modite of good letters, of the whiche parte remayne yn the 
moste magnificent libraries of yowr royal Palacis. Parte also 
remayne yn my custodye. Wherby I truste right shortely so 
to describe your moste noble reaulme, and to publische the 
Majeste and the excellent actes of yowr progenitors (hitherto 
sore obscurid booth for lak of enprinting of such workes as 
lay secretely yn corners, and also bycause men of eloquence 
hath not enterprisid to set them forthe yn a florisching 
style, yn sum tymes paste not communely usid in England 
of wryters, otherwise welle lernid, and now yn such estima- 
tion that except truethe be delicately clothid yn purpure her 
written verites can scant finde a reader;) that al the worlde 
shaul evidently perceyve that no particular region may justely 
be more extollid then yours for trewe nobilite and vertues at 
al pointes renoumed. 1 Farthermore parte of the examplaries 
curiousely sought by me, and fortunately founde in sundry 
places of this yowr dominion, hath beene enprinted yn 
Germany, and now be yn the pressis chiefly of Frobenius 
that not al only the Germanes, but also the Italians them 
self, that counte, as the Grekes did ful arrogantely, al other 



1 Nobilitie renoumed. Leland corrected this phrase more than once. 
His latest suggestion (not fully marked) is, " nobilitie and vertues armed 
at all pointz with honor." 



LELAND'S NEW-YEARS GIFT xxxix 



nations to be barbarus and onletterid saving their owne, 
shaul have a directe occasion openly of force to say that 
Britannia primafuit parens, altrix, (addo hoc etiam & jure 
quodam optimo) conservatrix cum virorum magnorum, turn 
maxime ingeniorum. 

And that profite hath rysen by the aforesaide journey in 
bringging ful many thinges to lighte as concerning the 
usurpid autorite of the Bishop of Rome and his complices, 
to the manifeste and violente derogation of kingely dignite, 
I referre my self moste humbly to your moste prudente, 
lernid and highe jugement to discerne my diligence in the 
longe volume wheryn I have made answer for the defence 
of youre supreme dignite, alonly lening to the stronge pilor 
of holy Scripture agayne the hole College of the Romanistes, 
cloking theire crafty assertions and argumentes under the 
name of one poore Pighius of Ultrajecte in Germayne, and 
standing to them as to theire only ancre-holde agayne tem- 
pestes that they know wylle rise if treuth may be by licens 
lette yn to have a voice in the general concile. 

Yet here yn onely I have not pitchid the supreme marke 
of my labor whereonto yowr Grace moste like a princely ] 
patrone of al good lerning did animate me : but also con- 
sidering and expendinge with my self how greate a numbre 
of excellente goodly wyttes and writers, lernid with the beste, 
as the tymes servid, hath beene yn this your region, not 
only at suche tymes as the Romayne Emperours had re- 
course to it, but also yn those dayes that the Saxons pre- 
vailid of the Britannes, and the Normannes of the Saxons, 
could not but with a fervente zele and an honeste corage 
commend them to memory, els alas like to have beene per- 
petually obscurid, or to have bene lightely remembrid as 
oncerteine shadowes. Wherfore I, knowing by infinite 
variete of bookes and assiduus reading of them who hathe 
beene lernid, and who hath writen from tyme to tyme in this 
reaulme, have digestid in to foure bookes the names of them 
with theire lyves and monumentes of lerning, and to them 
addid this title, " De viris illustribus," following the profit- 
able exemple of Hieronyme, Gennadie, Cassiodore, Severiane, 
and Trittemie a late writer: but alway so handeling the 

1 Leland first wrote kingely, then corrected it to princely. 



Brytannia. 



Antiphi- 
larchia qua 
repettitur 
ambitiosum 
Ro. Episcopi 
imperiuDi. 



P. 283. 

Affectus 
aidoris erga 
pat riant . 
[Note added 
by Bale.} 



Libri quatuor 
de viris illus- 
tribus, sive de 
Scriptoribus 
Britannicis. 



xl LELAND'S NEW-YEARS GIFT 



Principes 
eruditi. 



P. 284. 



Ingenia scrip- 
forum Bri- 
tannicorum 
omni genere 
eruditionis 
exercitata. 



Ingens nu- 
merus serif - 
toruni rerum 
Britanni- 
carum. 



matier that I have more exspatiatid yn this campe then they 
did, as yn a thing that desired to be sumwhat at large, and 
to have ornature. The firste booke begynning at the Druides 
is deductid on [to] the tyme of the camming of S. Augustine 
yn to Engelande. The secunde is from the tyme of Augus- 
tine on to the advente of the Normans. The thirde from the 
Normans to the ende of the most honorable reigne of the 
mightty, famose, and prudent Prince Henry the VII. your 
Father. The fourth beginnith with the name of your 
Majeste, whos glorie in lerning is to the worlde so clerely 
knowen, that though emonge the lyves of other lernid 
menne I have accurately celebratid the names of Bladudus, 
Molmutius, Costantinus Magnus, Sigebertus, Alfridus, 
Alfridus Magnus, ^Ethelstanus and Henry the firste, Kinges 
and your progenitors; and also Ethelwarde, secunde sunne 
to Alfride the Create, Hunfride Duke of Glocestre, and 
Tipetote Erie of Worcester; yet conferrid withe yowr Grace 
they seme as smaule lighttes (if I may frely say my juge- 
mente, yowr highe modeste not offendid,) yn respecte of the 
day-starre. 

Now farther to insinuate to yowr Grace of what matiers 
the writers, whose lyves I have congestid ynto foure bokes, 
hath treatid of, I may right boldely say, that beside the cog- 
nition of the thre tunges, yn the which parte of them hath 
excellid, that there is no kinde of liberale science, or any feate 
concerning lerning, yn the which they have not shewen 
certeine argumentes of greate felicite of wytte; yea and con- 
cerning the interpretation of holy Scripture, booth after the 
auncient forme, and sins yn the scholastical trade, they have 
reignid * as in a certeine excellency. 

And as touchinge historical knowlege there hath beene to 
the numbre of a fulle hunderith, or mo, that from tyme to 
tyme hath with greate diligence, and no lesse faith, wold to 
God with like eloquens, perscribid the actes of yowr moste 
noble predecessors, and the fortunes of this your realme, so 
incredibly greate, that he that hath not scene and thoroughly 
redde theyr workes can little pronunce yn this parte. 

Wherfore after that I had perpendid the honest and 



1 Lyved is written above the word reignid, apparently not in Leland's 
hand. 



LELAND'S NEW-YEARS GIFT xli 



profitable studies of these historiographes, I was totally en- 
flammid with a love to see thoroughly al those partes of this 
your opulente and ample reaulme, that I had redde of yn 
the aforesaid writers: yn so muche that al my other occupa- 
tions intermittid I have so travelid yn yowr dominions booth 
by the se costes and the midle partes, sparing nother labor 
nor costes, by the space of these vi. yeres paste, that there 
is almoste nother cape, nor bay, haven, creke or peere, 
river or confluence of rivers, breches, waschis, lakes, meres, 
fenny waters, montaynes, valleis, mores, hethes, forestes, 
[chases^ wooddes, cities, burges, castelles, principale manor 
placis, monasteries, and colleges, but I have scene them; 
and notid yn so doing a hole worlde of thinges very 
memorable. 

Thus instructed I truste shortely to see the tyme that like 
as Carolus Magnus had emonge his treasours thre large and 
notable tables of sylver richely enamelid, one of the site and 
description of Constantinople, another of the site and figure 
of the magnificente cite of Rome, and the thirde of the de- 
scription of the worlde; so shaul yowr Majestic have this 
yowr worlde and impery of Englande so sette forthe yn a 
quadrate table of silver, if God sende me life to accomplische 
my beginninges, that yowr grace shaul have ready knowlege 
at the firste sighte of many right delectable, fruteful, and 
necessary pleasures, by the contemplation thereof, as often 
as occasion shaul move yow to the sight of it. 

And be cause that it may be more permanente, and far- 
ther knowen than to have it engravid in silver or brasse, I 
entende (by the leave of God) withyn the space of xii. 
monethes following, such a description to make of your 
reaulme yn writing, that it shaul be no mastery after for the 
graver or painter to make a like by a perfecte exemple. 

Yea and to wade farther yn this matier, wheras now al- 
moste no man can welle gesse at the shadow of the auncient 
names of havens, ryvers, promontories, hilles, woddes, cities, 
tounes, castelles, and variete of kind|Y]edes of people, that 
Caesar, Livie, Strabo, Diodorus, Fabius Pictor, Pomponius 
Mela, Plinius, Cornelius Tacitus, Ptolemaeus, Sextus Rufus, 
Ammianus Marcellinus, Solinus, Antoninus, and diver others 



Peragratio 
laboriosa totius 



p. 285. 

Descriptio 
totius Bntan- 



genti tabula. 



Liber de 
typographia 



Restitnta 
Cetera locorum 



Inserted by Burton. 



xlii LELAND'S NEW-YEARS GIFT 



p. 286. 

De Antiqid- 
tate Bri- 
tannica^ sive 
de Civili 
Historia libri 
quinquaginta. 



Libri sex de 
Insults Bri- 
tanniae 
adjacentibus. 



De nobilitate 
Britannica 
libri tres. 



K. H. 8. 

descendidfro m 
Brytane, 
Saxon, Nor- 
mane K. 
Conclusio a 
delectabili 
& utili. l 



make mention of, I truste so to open this wyndow that the 
lighte shall be seene so longe, that is to say, by the space of 
a hole thousand yeres, stoppid up, and the olde glory of your 
renowmid Britaine to reflorisch thorough the worlde. 

This doone I have matier at plenty al ready preparid to 
this purpose, that is to say, to write an history, to the which 
I entende to adscribe this title, De Antiquitate Britannica, 
or els Civilis Historia. And this worke I entende to divide 
yn to so many bookes as there be shires yn England, and 
sheres and greate dominions yn Wales. So that I esteme 
that this volume wille enclude a fiftie bookes, wherof eche 
one severally shaul conteyne the beginninges, encreaces, 
and memorable actes of the chief tounes and castelles of the 
province allottid to hit. 

Then I entende to distribute yn to vj. bokes such matier 
as I have al ready collectid concerninge the isles adjacent to 
your noble reaulme and under your subjection. Wherof thre 
shaul be of these isles, Vecta, Mona and Menauia, sumtyme 
kyngedoms. 

And to superadde a worke as an ornament and a right 
comely garlande to the enterprises afore saide, I have se- 
lectid stuffe to be distributid into thre bookes, the whiche I 
purpose thus to entitle, De Nobilitate Britannica. Wherof 
the first shaul declare the names of kinges, quenes, with 
theyr childerne, dukes, erles, lordes, capitaines and rulers yn 
this reaulme to the coming of the Saxons and their con- 
queste. The secunde shaul be of the Saxons and Danes to 
the victorie of Kinge William the Greate. The thirde from 
the Normans to the reigne of yowr moste noble grace, de- 
scendinge lineally of the Britanne, Saxon and Norman 
kinges. So that al noble mene shaul clerely perceyve theyr 
lineal parentele. 

Now if it shaul be the pleasure of Almightty God that I 
may live to performe these thinges that be al ready begune 
and in a greate forwardnes, I truste that this yowr reaulme 
shaul so welle be knowen, ons payntid with his natives 
coloures, that the renoume ther of shaul gyve place to the 

1 Leland substituted the above marginal note for the following, first 
written, " Votum honestum ut herba ad maturam perveniat segetem." 



LELAND'S NEW-YEARS GIFT xliii 

glory of no other region; and my great labors and costes, 
preceding from the moste abundant fonteine of yowr infinite P. 287. 
goodnes towarde me, yowr poore scholar and moste humble 
servante, shaul be evidentely scene to have not al only 
pleasid but also profited the studius, gentil, and equale 
readers. 

This is the briefe declaration of my laborius yorneye, 
taken by motion of yowr highenes, so much studiyng at al 
houres the fruteful prseferremente of good letters and aun- 
ciente vertues. 

Christe continue your most royale estate, and the pro- Commum 
sperite with succession in kingely dignite of your deere and Votum. 
worthily belovid sunne Prince Eduarde, graunting yow a 
numbre of princely sunnes by the moste gratius, benigne, 
and modeste lady your Quene. 

Joannes Lelandius Antiquarius scripsit. 



COUNTIES IN THIS VOLUME. 

Bedfordshire, pp. r, 2, 99-103. 

Berkshire, pp. 106, 108-111, 118-122, 125, 126, 306. 

Buckinghamshire, pp. 105, 106, 108-111. 

Cambridgeshire, pp. i, 327. 328. 

Cornwall, pp. 173-212, 315-326. 

Devonshire, pp. 169-173, 212-244, 298-301. 

Dorsetshire, pp. 151-155, 244-258, 295, 296, 303-305. 

Durham, pp. 69-77. 

Derbyshire, pp. 21, 96. 

*Gloucestershire, pp. 126-130. 

Hampshire, pp. 258, 269-285. 

Hertfordshire, pp. 104, 105. 

Huntingdonshire, pp. i, 2, 3, 99. 

Leicestershire, pp. 13-21, 97, 98. 

Lincolnshire, pp. 23-33, 37> 3$, 99- 

Middlesex, pp. 106, 107. 

Northamptonshire, pp. 3-13, 22, 99. 

Nottinghamshire, pp. 32, 33, 34, 88-90, 93-96, 97. 

^Oxfordshire, pp. 112-118, 123-125, 328. 

Rutland, pp. 22, 23. 

Somersetshire, pp. 135, 137-151, 155-168, 285-294, 296-298. 

Wiltshire, pp. 127, 130-135, 136, 258-269. 

Yorkshire, pp. 34-37, 38-69, 77-88, 90, 91. 

* See in Vol. Ill (Itinerary in Wales), Gloucestershire, pp. 38-40, 
99-102; and Oxfordshire, p. 39. 



ERRATA. 



Page 170, note b, read "Taw">r "Yeo." 
234, 1. 28, read " Patricii "for " Patritii." 
,, 240, note, read " Otter "for " Oter." 
246, note, read "MS. b fo. 138 v" for "MS. a," 

and dele the rest of the note. 
248, note, read " Yeo *? for " Yeovil." 
304, 1. 3 to 28, marginal note "Wiltshire." 



THE ITINERARY OF JOHN LEILAND. 

THAT FAMOUS ANTIQUARY. 

Begunne about 1538. 30. H. 8.* I.f 

FROM Cambridge to Eltesle. a village al by champeyne fo. i. 
counterey 8. miles. At Eltesle was sumtyme a nunnery Cambridge- 
wher Pandonia the Scottish virgine was buried, and there is a shire, 
well of her name yn the south side of the quire. I hard that 
when this nunnery was destroyid a new was made at Hinch- 
ingbroke by Huntendune. 

A mile from Eltesle toward S. Neotes is the limes of Cam- 
bridgshire. 

From Eltesle to S. Neotes b 4 miles. The elder parte of Hunts, 
the toune wher the paroche chirche ys kepith the old name of 
Ainsbyri so caullid corruptely for E[nulphesbyri]. 

[The rivar there harde by the towne stondinge on the este 
syde of it devidithe Huntyndunshire from Bedfordeshire, 
and yet a lytle lower bothe the ripes be in Huntendunshir. 

The bridge at Seint Neotes is of tymbar.] 

From S. Neotes to Stoughton d village by sum enclosid 
ground a 3. miles, it is in Huntenduneshir. There hard by 
the chirch is a pretty house of Olyver Leders, and pratie 
commodites about it. 

From Stoughtoun to Meilchbourn 6 village a 4. miles be Beds, 
much pasture, and sum corne ground. Here is a right fair 
place of square stone, stonding much apon pillerd vaultes of 
stone, and there be goodly gardeins, orchards, and ponds, 
and a Parke thereby. The place self is of an auncient build- 
ing, [but] the lord Westoun of S. [Johnes College in Lojndon 
the 3 [lorde of that House] afore the iaste Weston made the 
Haull newly. 

[* This title and date were written on the margin by William Burton.] 
[t Leland's MS. vol. i.; Stow's copy, vol. ii., fo. 117-198.] 

a Eltisley. b S. Neots. c Eynsbury. 

d Great Staughton. e Melchbourn, Beds. 

B 



2 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Beds. [There is buried a knyght of the Ordar of Seint Johnn's in 
the northe syde of the chapell there. 

This Milchburne is in Bedfordeshire almoste in the egge 
of it] 

fo. 2. About the quarters of Milchbourn, but not hard by it, ryse 
to armes of brokes of divers Springs, wherof one cummith 
owt of Higheham Parke. These 2. cum to one botom and 
streame, and so go by How village,* whereof the broke is caullid 
How-water. 

At How hath beene a fair Manor Place, sumtyme longging 
to the Strikelands of Huntendune-Shire, after to the Bifeldes, 
and of late it cam ynto partition of 3. doughtters. 

How Water after cummith to Stoughtoun village, and thens 
about[e a] mile lower then [S. Neotes in to] Use ryve[r]. 

Hig[heham Ferrares b market is a 3 myles from Milche- 
burne. 

Welington market not far from Avon ryver is a vi myles of. 
Bedford is a . myles of. Ther is meately plenty of wo ode 
about Michelburne, and Michelburne is countyd for one of 
the faireste howses of that shire.] 

Hunts. From Milchebourn to Kimoltoun c a market towne yn the 
egge of Huntenduneshire. The toune it self is but bare. 

The castelle is dowble dikid, and the building of it meately 
strong ; it longgid to the Mandeviles, Erles of Essax. Then 
to Bohuns, Erles of Hereford and Essax, and sins to the 
Strafordes. 

Syr Richard Wingfeld buildid new fair lodgyns and galeries 
apon the olde foundations of the castelle. The priory of 
Chanons not [far o]ut of Kimolton was [as I lear]nid of the 
foundation of the B]igrames. It [was a house but] of vii 
Chafnons : and be likelyhode Bygrame gave them no greate 
lands, for the Parsonage of Kymaltoun beynge above XL. li. 
a yere was impropriate to the Priorie, whos whole lands was 
but a c. Marks by the yere.] 

fo. 3. There lay yn this Priory few men of name buried : but of 
the Bigrams and the Corners. 

The name of the Manor Place of the Bigrams bering the 
name of them yet remainith thereaboute. 

There is a plotte now clene desolatid not a mile by west 

a How End. b Higham Ferrars. c Kimbolton. 



PART I 3 

from Kimoltoun, a caullid castel Hylle, wher appere diches Hunts, 
and tokens of old buildings. 

From Kimoltoun to Leightoun b on a hille 3. good miles 
be plain ground of pasture and corne but litle wood yn sight 
but whereas the villages be sett. The soyle betwixt exceeding 
[good for corne]. 

[The Lordeshipe of Laighton village longgithe to a pre- 
bend in Lincoln. One Carneballe, prebendarye there, dyd 
builde a peace of a praty house stondinge with in a mote. 
Smithe, now Incombent, hathe made a Fre Schole there.] 

From Leighton to Barnewel village c a vi miles by exced- Northants. 
ing faire corne and pasture ground. At this village remaine 
yet 4. strong towres parte of Berengarius Moynes castel, 
after longging to Ramesey Abbay, and now to Monteacute. 
Withyn the ruines of the castell is now a meane house foi 
a fermar. 

From Barnewelle to Oundale d a mile. 

The towne stondith on the farther ripe as I cam to it. 

The bridge over Avon is of great arches and * smaul apon Nene R. 
the causey a xvi. 

Ther is a little gut or broke cumming as I enterid, on the 
[lefte] hond into [Avon ryver amonge the arches of the 
bridge.] 

The toune hath a very good market and is al buildid of 
[stone. The paroche church is very fayre. One Robert 
Viate a marchaunt of the towne there, and Johan his wife 
made goodly sowth porche of the paroche of S. They 
made also on the south] side of that chirch yarde a praty fo. 4. 
almose house of squarid stone. And a goodly large haule 
over it for the bretherhodde of the chyrch. 

And at the west end of the chirche yarde they made 
lodgings for too cantuarie prestes, foundid there by them. 
The scripture in brasse on the almose house doore berith 
the date of the yere owr Lord 1485. as I remembre. 

[* Leland originally wrote the figures 5 before "great " and 2 before 
"small," but crossed them through, and interlined the words "apon 
xvi."] 

a Kimbolton. b Leighton Bromswold. 

c Barnwell, Northants. <* Oundle. 



4 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Northants. At the west north west ende of Oundale chirch yard * is 
the ferme or personage place impropriatid to Peterborow, it 
is a 5oli. by yere. Peterborow was Lord also of the town, 
and now the king hath alottid it onto the Quene's dowre. 

There I sawe another chirch or chapelle of S. Thomas, 
now of our Ladie, as I enterid into Oundale toun. The 
ryver of Avon so windeth aboute Oundale toune that it almost 
insulatithe it, savyng a litle by west north west. Going oute 
of the toune ende of Oundale towarde Fodringeye, a I rode 
[ovar a stone] bridge, [throughe the whiche] Avon [passith ; 
it is cawllid the Northe Bridge, beinge of a great lengthe, by 
cawse men may passe when the river overflowith,] the 
medowes lying' on every side on a great leavel thereaboute. 
I gessid that there were about a 30 arches of smaule and 
great that bare up this cawsey. 

From Oundale to Foderingeye a 2. miles by mervelus fair 
corne ground and pasture, but litle woodde. 

The toune self of Foderingeye is but one streat, al of stone 
building. The glorie of it standith by the paroche chirch 
of a fair building and collegiatid. 

King Edward the 4. for the love that he bare to Foder- 
ingey, had thought to have privelegid it with a market, and 
with putting doun weres and mills, to have causid that smaul 
lightters might cum thither. 

This chirch and place where the college is now was sum- 
tyme a nunnery. f The nunnes of this house were translatid 
to De la Pray [by Northampton, [in knowledge whereof the 
House of Foderingey dyd beare a pension to De la Pray.], 
Edmunde of Langeley sun to Edward the 3. got a licens as 
sum saye [to ma]ke a college there ; [but he d]id it not, pre- 
ventid [by dea]th. 

[He left two] sunnes Edward [and Richard] . . This 
fo. 5. Edward began the College and endowid it meately welle. 

It chauncid that Richard suspectid of treason was put to 
death at Hamptoun aboute such tyme as King Henry the 

[* A somewhat later hand here notes in the margin of Stow's copy, 
"cawlyd the bery-stede ; for that it was a beriege in the tyme of pest." 
Stow himself notes " Oundall churche was some tyme a cell to Petar- 
borow."] 

f Marginal note. 

a Fotheringay. 



PART I 5 

fiveth went ynto Fraunce. This Richard had a sun that Northants. 
was father to Edward the 4. 

Whereapon at such tyme as the bataile of Agincourt 
shoulde be faughte, Edward desirid of King Henry to 
have the fore warde of the batel, and had it; where be 
much hete and thronggid, being a fatte man, he was smoul- 
derid to death, and afterward brought to Foderingey, and 
there honorably buried yn the bodie of the quire, apon 
whose tumbe lyith a flat marbil stone with an image flatt yn 
brasse. 

After Edwarde's d[eathe Henry] the 5. con[sideringe his 
good service] confirmid [the college, and gave] to it cer[tayne 
landes of priories] of monk[es alienes, amonge the whiche 
was the Priorie of Newen, a by Leghe market in the borders 
of Glocestershire]. 

Then cam after Edward the 4. and sumwhat enving the 
glorie of Henry the fiveth made the College of his oune fun- 
dation, and buildid sum part of it as it is now, and causid 
the body of his father Duke of York to be brought from 
Pontefract thither, and to be layid on the north side of the 
highe altare, where also is buried King Edwarde the 4. mother 
in a vaulte over the which is a pratie chapelle. 

The faire cloistre of the college was made in King Edwarde 
the 4. dayes, one Felde beyng Master of the College at that 
tyme. This Felde sette [the] versis of the [book] caullid 
sEthi\ppum terras in the glass windowes with figures very 
featly. Richard Sapcote * knight the settar up of his familie 
in Huntendune-shire was biried at Foderingey anno dom. 
1477.] There be exceeding goodly [medowes] by Foderin- 
gey. [Foderingey] stondith on the farfther ri]pe of Avon 
as I enterpd into the] toune. 

[The bridg to Fotheringey] over Avon [is of tymber.] 

The castelle of Foderingey is fair and meately strong with fo. 6. 
doble diches and hath a kepe very auncient and strong. 
There be very fair lodggyns in the castel. And as I hard 
Catarine of Spaine did great costes in late tyme of re- 
fresching of it. 

[* Stow wrote Papeete in error here.] 



a Newent. 



6 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Northants. This castel longid of late tymes to Edmunde of Langeley 
Edward the 3. sunne and so lineally to the Dukes of York. 

The limes of Huntendunshir upon Avon ryver. 

Huntenduneshir cummith on the hither side of Avon to- 
ward Ailton, a wher Mr. Sapcote dwellith withyn a mile of 
Foderingey. 

Kirkham the knight dwellith aboute a mile from Foderin- 
gey, but is place is sum what distant from Avon. 

From Foderingey bak by Owndale 4. miles to Lilford 
village apon [Avon] where Elmes a gentil[man hath] a praty 
Manor pla[ce.] 

One told me that there was a stone bridg at Lilford over 
Avon. 

Thens to Thorfpe water mill a myle upon Avon where I 
saw the ruines of the vtter waulle of Waterviles castelle.] 

Thens a good mile to Thrapeston b village, wher the Lorde 
Mordant is Lord by copartion with Broune the Seriuent-at- 
law and Sir Wistan Brounes sunne as I hard. 

Thens a quarter of a mile to Thrapeston bridg having an 
8. arches of stone. Avon rennith under this bridg. 

From Foderingey to this bridge, I left Avon on the right 
hand, and after stille on to Northampton on the lefte hand 
alofe. 

At the very end of Thrapeston Bridge stand ruines of a 
very large Heremitage and principally welle buildid but a late 
discoverid and suppressid : and hard by is the toune of 
Iselep c on Avon as upon the farther ripe. And about a 
mile farther but not apon Avon ripe is Draiton d village 
and castelle, the pratiest place in those quarters, longging, 
as Iselepe dooth, in copartion onto the [Lor]d Mordant. 

Staford Erie of Wileshir, uncle to Edward late Duke of 
Bokingham, had Draiton by an heiregeneral of the younger 
Grene, and kept his housold yn it. 

The great Grene gave to his eldest sunne Grenes Northon, 6 
with a great portion of lands : and he gave Draiton with 
other lands to his younger sunne. 

This Drayton Castelle was moste buildid by Grene [that 
was] so great [a man in] Richard [the seconds] day[es, his 

a Elton. b Thrapston. c Islip. 

d Drayton. e Greens Norton. 



PART I 7 

landes came synce to 2. doughtars, and one of those Northants. 
doughtars partes cam synce on to 3. daughters.] 

[Thence] six good miles to Finton a bridg [of stone un]der 
the which Kete[ring water rennyth] having a [praty streame,] 
and a mile lower aboute the botom by Welingborow Market fo. 7. 
goith into Avon. And aboute a five miles higher is a bridge 
of stone apon Avon caullid Higheham-bridge. Higheham- 
Ferrars b toune is not far of it, and is a five miles from 
Welingboro. 

Welingborow c is a good quik market toune buildid of 
stone as almost al the tounes be of Northampton-shire, it 
stondith about a quarter of a mile from Avon river. 

From Welingburne to Northampton 8. miles al be cham- 
paine corne and pasture ground, but litle wood or none, even 
as it is betwixt Oundale and Welingborow. 

I passid over 2. praty brokes betwixt Welingborow and 
Northampton descending thorough 2. [val]leis, and so resort- 
ing ynto [Avon.] Almost in the midle way betwpxt] Weling- 
borow and Northampton [I lefte] Asscheby d more then a 
m[ile of on the left hand, wher hath bene a castle] that 
now is clene downe, and is made but a septum for bestes. 

The toune of Northampton stondith on the north side of 
Avon ryver, on the brow of a meane hille, and risith stille Nem R. 
from the south to the north. Al the old building of the 
toune was of stone, the new is of tymbre. 

There be yn the waulle of Northampton 4. gates, namid 
by este, west, north and south. The Este gate is the fairest 
of them alle. 

There is a faire suburbe withoute the South gate : and 
another, but lesse, withoute the Weste gate, yn the wich is 
a very pratie house ex lapide polite quadrato, it longith to 
Mr. . . 

The castel stondith hard by the West gate, and hath a large 
kepe. The area of the residew is very large, and bulle- 
warkes of yerth be made afore the castelle gate. 

Paroche chirches in Northampton withyn the waulles be 7. fo. 8. 
wherof the chirch of Al Halowes is principale, stonding yn 
the harte of the toune, and is large and welle buildid. 

a Finedon. b Higham Ferrers. 

c Wellingborough. d Castle Ashby. 



8 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Northants. There be in the suburbes 2. paroche chirches, wherof I 
saw one yn the west suburbe as I rode over the west bridge, 
fairly archid with stone, under the which Avon it self, not 
yet augmentid with Wedon water, doth ren. 

Chapelles. There is a chapelle of S. Catarine sette in a 
cemiterie in the toune, longging to the chirche of Al- 
Halowes, where that paroch dooth byri. 

And I saw the ruines of a large chapelle withowte the 
North gate. 

S. Andreas, the late [monastery*'] of blake monkes, stoode 
yn the north parte of the toune, hard by the North gate. 
Simon Saincteliz the first beyng Erie of Northampton and 
Huntendune made this house : but he is not buried there ; 
for he died yn Fraunce, and there buried. But Erie Simon 
the secunde, and Erie Simon the 3., sunne to the secunde, 
were booth buried in S. Andreas. There was also buried 
under a flatte stone in the quier an Archebisshop. 

There was byried also one Verney, that was made knight 
at the feeld of Northampton. 

S. James standith a little distant from the extreme part of 
the west suburbe. The waulle that cumpasith the hole 
site of the house is highe, faire, and large, ex lapide quadrato. 
fo. 9. De la Pray f 

There was a great bataille faught in Henry the \ j. tyme 
at Northampton x on the hille withoute the Southe Gate, 
where is a right goodly crosse, caullid, as I remembre, the 
Quenes Crosse, and many Walsch men were drounid yn 
Avon Ryver at this conflict. Many of them that were slayn 
were buried at de la Pray : and sum at S. John's Hospitale. 

S. John's Hospitale was originally foundid by one William 
Saincte Clere, 2 Archidiacon of Northampton, and brother to 
one of the Simons Sainctecleres, 3 as sum of Saincte John 
name them; but as I have redde alway they were caulid 
Saincteliz, 4 and not S. Clere. 

1 Northampton feld. [This, and the next three notes were set in the 
margin by Leland.] 

2 Gul. Licius. 3 Simones Licii. 4 Sanctus Licius. 

Left blank by Leland and Stow, added by Burton.] 
Leland left a blank of several lines after this word.] 



PART I 9 

This Hospitale stondith within the waulle of the toune, Northants. 
a litle above the South Gate. 

There is yn the north side of [the] chirch a high tumbe, 
wher is [burijed the Lady Margaret. 

In the south side lyith buried Elis Pouger with a French 
epfitaph.] 

S. Thomas Hospitale is with oute the toune, and joinith 
hard to the West Gate ; it was erectid within lesse then a 
hunderith yeres paste, and indu'id with sum landes, al by 
the citisens of Northampton. 

The Gray-freres House was the beste buildid and largest fo. 10. 
house of all the places of the freres, and stoode a litle be- 
yond the chief market place almost by flatte north. 

The site and ground that it stoode on longid to the cite, 
wherapon the citizins were taken for founders [therjof. 

There lay ij. of the Salisbyries buried in this house of Gray 
Frere. And as I remember it was told me that one of the 
Salisbyries doughtters was mother to Sir Wylliam Par and 
his elder brother. 

The Blake-Freres in the streate where the horse market 
is kept ons a weke. 

The White-Freres House stoode a litle above the Gray- 
Freres. 

The Augustine-Freres House stoode on the west side of 
the streate by the Southe Gate, hard agayne S. John's 
Hospitale. The Langfeldes of Buckinghamshire were taken 
as original founders of this house, and a late was the olde 
Langefeld knight of the same line so taken. Divers of 
the Langfelds were buried in this chirch. I heer of no men 
els of nobilite there biried. 

The hedde of Avon Ryver [rise the] a litle above a siden- fo. n. 
ham * of Gilesborow village,* and cummith by it there first 
receyving a botom : Gillesborow a vj. miles almost plain 
north from Northampton : and so touching by a few villages 
cummith to Northampton. 

[* The words above a are crossed through in Leland (and therefore not 
copied by Stow), apparently in error ; as they are needed for the sense 
they are here restored. Stow makes it " a litle sydon hand."] 



a Guilsborough. 



io LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Northants. The hedde of Wedon Water is, as I could lerne of 
Wedon men, at Faullesle a yn Mr. Knightele's poles, and yn 
Badby poles be springges also, that resorte to this streme : 
and beside there cummith a litle broke into Wedon stream, a 
very litle beneth Wedon : and as I stoode it cam yn by the 
farther ripe. Mr. Knightely, a man of great lands, hath 
his principal house at Faullesle, but it is no very sumptuus 
thing. Mr. Newenham Knight dwellith a myle of it. Faul- 
lesle pooles be aboute a myle from Charfton] b wher the hedde 
of Chare Ryver c is that rennith to Banbyri. d So that ther ys 
but an hille betwixt [the] heddes of these waters. [Wedon] 
Water goith from Wedon to Flour, 6 a village thereby ; after 
to Hayford village, 2. miles of, where the chefe house of 
the Mantelles is ; and thens to S. Thomas Bridge at North- 
ampton, a 3. miles of, wher it goith ynto Avon. And as 
Avon Water risith almost by north, so doth Wedon Water 
ryse by west. 

Wedon f is a praty thorough fare, sette on a playne ground, 
and much celebratid by cariars bycause it stondith hard by 
the famose way, there communely caullid of the people 
Watheling Strete. g And apon this the tounelet is caullid 
Wedon on the Streate. The tounlet of it self is very meane 
and hath no market. And the paroche chirch is as meane. 
A litle from the south side of the chirch yarde ys a faire 
chapel dedicate to S. Werburge, that sum tyme was a nunne 
fo. 12. at Wedon, wher was a monasterie yn Bede's tyme, syns de- 
stroied by the Danes. But wither there were any monastery 
at Wedon syns the Conquest, I could not well lerne there. 
The Vicar tolde me that the lordship of the toune did ons 
long to Bekharwik, a monasterie yn Normandie : and that 
after the priores alienes of the French ordre did lese their 
possessions yn England, King Henry the vj did gyve the 
lordship of Wedon to Eton College by Wyndesore. 

There apperith on the south side of S. Werburges chapelle, 
wher in hominum memoria was an area and fair building 
about it, and a chapel withyn it : now there is nothing but 
greate barnes longging to the fermar. 

Towcester is 7. miles from Wedon, and as much from 

a Fawsley. b Charwelton. c Cherwell. d Banbury. 

Floore. Weedon. Watling Street. 



PART 1 ii 

Northampton, al by playne corne ground and pasture. Northants. 
John Farmar tolde me that there appere certen ruines or 
diches of a castelle at Towcestre. Enquire farther of thys. 

From Northampton to Kingesthorpe a a mile, and a litle 
farther by Multon b Parke enclosid with stone, where is 
meately plentie of wood, it longgid a late to the Lord Vaulx, 
now to the Kinge. In it is no building, but a mene lodge. 

Kingesthorp is a goodly benefice, and yet is but a chapel 
to S. Peter's of Northampton by the Castelle, the which now 
is a very poore thing. 

The Erie of Warwick had 3. lordshipps in Northampton- 
shir, Hanslap, c Multon, and .... 

Thens by champayne ground, bering good grasse and 
corne, a ix. miles to Ketering, a pratie market toune. 

I rode over a bridge of tymbre or I cam to Ketering d by 
a quarter of a mile, under this bridge rennith a litle streame 
cumming almost originally from a village distant aliquot mil- 
liariis, caullid wherof the water takith name. 

And a litle beyond I rode over another bridge of tymbre, 
wher rennith a broke, bering the name of Skerford village, 
a v. miles of from whens it cummith; and this water rennith fo. 13. 
under the roote of hilling ground that the toune stondith of. 

A litle beyond the town of Ketering, as I went toward 
Gadington, I passid over a broke, that cummith from Ar- 
dingworth, a vj. miles of; so that bothe sides of the toune 
of Ketering be welle waterid. 

The confluence of these 3. brokes is a litle beneth Keter- 
ing in the medowes. 

From Ketering to Gadington, 6 a pratie uplandisch toune, 
2. myles, wher I passid agayne in the midle of the toune 
over Ardingworth water, that there rennith under a stone 
bridge. 

Thens to Welleden/ an uplandisch towne, 4. miles, where 
the soile is sumwhat furnishid about with wood : and plentie 
beside of corne and grasse. 

On the south side of Welleden a litle without it, hard by 
the highe way, ys a goodly quarre of stone, wher appere 
great diggyns. 

a Kings thorpe. b Moulton. o Hanslope. 

d Kettering. Geddington. * Weldon. 



12 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Northants. A litle withoute Welleden I passid over a broket, and 
thereby I saw a faire chapelle. And thens 2. miles by corne, 
pasture and wood to Deene. a 

There was one Yve sumtyme Lorde of Dene aboute the 
tyme of King John : and he had the landes of a priory sum- 
tyme there, and celle to Westminister and afore suppressid, 
of the Abbate of Westminster apon a certen rent. 

From Dene to Benifeld b 2. long myles. There appere by 
the west ende of the paroche chirch the dich and mines of 
an old castelle. 

Mr. Brudenel told me that he red ons in an old record of 
the kinges that Bassingburn, or one of a like name ending yn 
burne, was lord of it. Now it longgith to Souch of Codnor. 

Braybroke Castelle apon Wiland c water was made and em- 
batelid by licens that oiae Braybroke, a noble man in those 
[days] did obteine. it is a . . miles from .... Mr. 
Griphine is now owner of it, he is a man of faire landes. 

From Dene to Rokingham d by summe corne and pasture, 
but more wood grounde, a 3. miles. 

The castelle of Rokingham standith on the toppe of an 
hille, right stately, and hath a mighty diche, and bulle warkes 
agayne withoute the diche. The utter waulles of it yet 
stond. The kepe is exceding fair and strong, and in the 
waulles be certein strong tower. The lodgings that were 
within the area of the castelle be discoverid and faul to 
fo. 14. ruine. One thing in the waullis of this castelle is much to 
be notid, that is that they be embatelid on booth the sides. 
So that if the area of the castelle were won by cumming 
in at other of the 2. greate gates of the castelle, yet the 
kepers of the waulles might defende the castelle. I markid 
that there is a stronge tower in the area of the castell, and 
from it over the dungeon dike is a draw bridge to the dun- 
geon toure. 

There lyith a greate valley under the castelle of Roking- 
ham, very plentifull of corne and grasse. The Forest of 
Rokingham after the olde perambulation is aboute a 20. 
miles yn lenght, and in bredthe 5. or 4. miles in sum places, 
and in sum lesse. There be dyvers lodges for kepers of the 
falow dere yn it. 

a Dene. b Benefield. c Welland. d Rockingham. 



PART I 13 

And withy n the precincte of it is good corne and pasture Northants. 
and plentie of woodde. 

The launde of Benifeld with [in] this forest is spatious and 
[faire] to course yn. This launde [is a 3 miles] from Beni- 
feld village, and is no parte of it. 

From Rokingham to Pippewelle a the late abbay about a 
3. miles of by wood and pasture. There be faire buildinges 
at this place. 

The king huntid at a great park' of his owne caullid . . 
. . . . it is from Pipewelle a 4. [miles. ] 

From Dene to Haringworth a 3. miles be corne, grasse 
and sum wooddy grounde. 

The Lord Souche hath a right goodly manor place, by the 
paroche chyrch of this village, buildid castelle like. The 
first courte wherof is clene doune, saving that a greate peace 
of the gate house and front of the waulle by it yet stondith. 

The ynner parte of this place is meately welle maintainid, 
and hath a diche aboute it. The waulles of this ynner courte 
be in sum place imbatellid. 

And withyn this courte is a fair chapelle, in the bodie 
whereof lyith one of the Souches byried, and a great flat 
stone over hym. 

There is a parke by this manor place : and a fair lodge 
in it. I hard say that this place hath bene long tyme yn the fo. 15. 
Souches handes, and that they have countid it for one of 
their chefest howses. 

From Dene to Staunton b village, longging to Mr. Brudenel, Leicester 
10. miles. shire. 

In this way I rode by Rokingham, and after over Welande 
Ry ver, that departith there and much yn other places North- 
amptonshire from Leircestreshire. 

The bridge self of Rokingham departith as a limes North- 
ampton, Leircestershire and Ruthelandshire. 

The grounde bytwixt Dene and Staunton plentiful of 
corne, and exceding fair and large medowis on bothe sides 
of Weland. But from Rokingham to Stanton there was in 
sight litle wodde, as yn a countery al chaumpain. I rode 
over a notable broke or 2. bytwixt Weland water and Stanton. 

The broke that cummith by Stanton risith at 

& Pipewell. b Stonton Wyvile. 



H LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Leicester- From Staunton to Leyrcester & al by chaumpaine grounde 
shire. an 8. or 9. miles. 

And as I rode from Staunton I saw a 2. miles of Noseley 
village, where is a collegiate paroche chirch l of a 3. prestes, 
2. clerkes, and 4. choristes. Nosley * longid to the Blaketes; 
and an heire general of them aboute Edwarde the 3. tyme 
was married to one Roger Mortevalle that foundid the litle 
College of Noseley. This Noseley and other landes there- 
aboute cam onto 2. doughtters of one of the Mortevilles, 2 
wherof one was maried onto Hughe Hastinges ; 3 the other 
was a nunne, and alienid much of her parte. After this 
Noseley by an heire generale cam in mariage to Hasilrig, 4 in 
the which name it dothe yet remayne. The name of Hasilrig 
cam oute of Scotlande. 

Skefington b lay upward a mile and more from Noseley, 
wher rose the name of the Skefingtons. 

fo. 1 6. In passing betwixt Stanton and Leircester I rode over 2. 
or 3. brokes. 

The hole toune of Leircester at this tyme is buildid of 
tymbre : and so is Lughborow c after the same rate. 

S. John's Hospital landes for the most part was gyven by 
Edward the 4. to the College of Newark in Leyrcester. 

Other Robert Bossue, Erie of Leircester, or Petronilla, a 
countes of Leircester, was buried in a tumbe ex marmore 

1 Noseley College. 2 Mortua vallis. Mortevalle. 

3 Hastinges. * Hasilrig. 



[* Burton has these words instead of lines 5-14 (Nosley Scotlande) 
of Leland's text above : * ' Noseley belongid to the family of Mortivall 
sive de Mortua-valle, the last of which family was Roger de Mortivall, 
Bishop of Salisbury, sonne and heire of Sr. Anketill de Mortivell, Lord 
of Noseley ; which Roger dyed 4 E. 3, leaving Joice his sister his 
heire, who was maried to Robert de Sadington, whose daughter and 
sole heire Isabell was maried to Sir Rafe Hastinges Kt. who by her had 
issue Sir Rafe de Hastinges Kt. from whom George Hastinges, now 
Earle of Huntington, is lineally descended, and Margaret, first maried 
to S r . Roger Heron Kt. after to S r . John Blaket Kt. S r . Roger Heron 
had issue by Margaret his wife three daughters and heires, Isabell, 
Margaret, and Elizabeth. Isabell was maried to Thomas Haselrig of 
Fawdon in Northumberland, who brought to her husband this manner 
of Noseley, in which name it doth yet remaine."] 

Leicester. b Skeffington. Loughborough. 



PART I 15 

calchedonica yn the waul of the south of the high altare of S. Leicester- 
Marie Abbay of Leyrcester. ehire. 

The waulles of S. Marie Abbay be 3. quarters of a mile 
aboute. 

The Gray^Freres of Leircester stode at the ende of the 
hospital of Mr. Wigeston. Simon Mountefort, as I lernid, 
was founder there : and there was byried King Richard 3. 
and a knight caullid Mutton, sumtyme Mayre of Leyrcester. 

I saw in the quire of the Blake-Freres the tumbes of 



And a flat alabaster stone [with] the name of Lady Isabel, 
wfife] to Sr. John Beauchaump of Ho[lt] And in the north 
isle I saw the tumbe of another knight without scripture. 
And in the north crosse isle [a tombe] having the name of 
Roger Popnter] of Leircester armid. 

These thinges brevely I markid at Leyrcester. 

The castelle stonding nere the west bridge is at this tyme 
a thing of smaul estimation : and there is no apparaunce 
other of high waulles or dikes. So that I think that the 
lodginges that now be there were made sins the tyme of 
the Barons War in Henry the 3. tyme ; and great likelihod 
there is that the castelle was much defacid in Henry the 2. 
tyme, when the waulles of Leircester wer defacid. 

There was afore the Conqueste a collegiate chirch of 
prebendes intra castrum. The landes wherof gyven by 
Robert Bossu Erie of Leircestre to the abbay of chanons 
made by him withoute the walles, a new chirch of the residew 
of the old prebendes was erectid withoute the castelle, and 
dedicate to S. Marie, as the olde was. 

In this chirch of S. Marie extra castrum I saw the tumbe 
of marble of Thomas Rider, father to Master Richard l of fo, 17. 
Leircester. This Richard I take to be the same that yn 
those dayes, as it apperith by his workes, was a greate clerke. 
Beside this grave I saw few thinges there of any auncient 
memorie within the chirch. 

The collegiate chirch of Newarke and the area of it 
yoinith to another peace of the castelle ground. 

The college chirch is not very great, but it is exceding 
fair. There lyith on the north side of the high altare Henry 

1 Richardus de Leircestria. 



16 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Leicester- Erie of Lancaster, withowt a crounet, and 2. men childern 
shire. under the arche next on to his hedde. 

On the southe side lyith Henry the first Duke of Lan- 
caster : and yn the next arch to his hedde lyith a lady, by 
likelihod his wife. 

Constance, doughtter to Peter, King of Castelle, and wife 
to John of Gaunt, liith afore the high altare in a tumbe of 
marble with an image of [brasse] like a quene on it. 

There is a tumbe of marble in the body of the quire. 
They told me that a Countes of Darby lay biried in it, and 
they make her, I wot not how, wife to John of Gaunt or 
Henry the 4. Indeade Henry the 4. wille John of Gaunt 
livid was caullid Erie of Darby. 

In the Chapelle of S. Mary on the southe side of the 
quire ly buried to of the Shlrleys, knightes, with their wives ; 
and one Brokesby an esquier. Under a piller yn a chapelle 
of the south crosse isle lyith the Lady Hungreford, and 
Sacheverel her secund husbande. 

In the southe side of the body of the chirch lyith one of 
the Bluntes, a knight, with his wife. 

And on the north side of the chirch ly 3. Wigestons, greate 
benefactors to the college, one of them was a prebendarie 
there, and made [the fre] Grammar Schole. 

fo. 1 8. The cloister on the south weste side of the chirch is large 
and faire : and the houses in the cumpace of the area of the 
college for the prebendaries be al very praty. 

The waulles and gates of the college be stately. 

The riche Cardinal of Winchester gildid al the floures and 
knottes in the voulte of the chirch. 

The large almose house stondith also withyn the quadrante 
of the area of the college. 

A litle above the west bridge the Sore a castith oute an 
arme, and sone after it cummith in again, and makith one 
streame of Sore. Withyn this isle standith the Blake-Freres 
very pleasauntly. and hard by the Freres is also a bridge of 
stone over this arme of Sore. And after the hole water 
creping aboute half the toune cummith thorough the north 
bridge of a vij. or viij. arches of [stone.] And there Sore 
br[eketh into two] armes againe, [wherof the bigger] goith 

a Soar. 



PART I 17 

[by S. Marie abbay standing] on the farther ripe ; and the Leicester- 
other, caullid the Bisshoppes Water, bycause the Bisshop of shire. 
Lincoln's tenentes have privilege on it, and after sone 
methith with the bigger arme, and so insulatith a right large 
and plesaunt medow ; wherapon the abbay, as I suppose, in 
sum writinges is caullid S. Maria de pratis. Over the midle 
part of this arme of Bisshops Water is a meane stone bridge : 
and a litle beyond it is another stone bridge, thorough the 
which passit a litle land broke, cumming from villages not 
far of, and so rennith into Bisshops Water. And by Bisshops 
Water is a chapel longging to the Hospital of S. John. At 
this chapel lyith Mr. Boucher. Sore cumming again shortely 
to one botom goith a 4. miles of by the ruines of the castel 
of Mountsorelle. a 

S. Margaretes is thereby the fairest paroche chirch of 
Leircester, wher ons was [a] cathedrale chirch, and therby 
the Bisshop of Lincoln had a palace, whereof a litle yet 
standith. 

{John Peny] first Abbate of Leircester, [then Bisshop] of 
Bangor and Cairluel [is here buried in an] alabaster tumbe. 
[This Peny made the new bricke worke in Leicester Abbay, 
and muche of the bricke waulles.l 

From Leircester to Brodegate^ by ground welle wooddidfo. IQ. 
3. miles. At Brodegate is a fair parke and a lodge lately 
buildid there by the Lorde Thomas Gray, Marquise of 
Dorsete, father to Henry that is now marquise. There is a 
fair and plentiful spring of water brought by Master Brok as 
a man wold juge agayne the hille thoroug the lodge, and 
thereby it dryvith a mylle. This parke was parte of the olde 
Erles of Leicester's landes, and sins by heires generates it 
cam to the Lorde Ferrares of Groby, and so to the Grayes. 

Groby c 3. miles from Leircester. 

The parke of Brodegate is a vj. miles cumpace. 

From Brodegate to Groby a mile and an half much by 
woddenlande. There remayne few tokens of the olde 
castelle more then that, yet is the hille that the kepe of the 
castell stoode on very notable, but ther is now no stone work 
apon it. And the late Tho[mas Marquise filled] up the 
diche of [it with earthe, entending] to make an he[rbare 

a Mount Sorrel. b Bradgate. Grooby. 

C 



i8 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Leicester- there. The oldar] parte of the wo[rke, that now is at] Groby 
shire. was made [by the Ferrares.] But newer workes and build- 
inges there were erectid by the Lorde Thomas first Marquise 
of Dorset : emong the which workes he began and erectid 
the fundation and waulles of a greate gate house of brike, 
and a tour, but that was lefte half on finishid of hym, and so 
it standith yet. This Lorde Thomas erectid also and almoste 
finishid ij. toures of brike in the fronte of the house, as 
respondent on eche side to the gate-house. 

There is a faire large parke by the place a vj. miles in 
cumpase. There is also a poore village by the place and a 
litle broke by it. 

And a quarter of a mile from the place in the botom there 
is as faire and large a pole as lightely is in Leyrcestreshire. 
There issuith a broket out of this lake that after cummith by 
Groby, and [there] dryvith a mylle and after [resort]ith to 
Sore River. 

fo. 20. From Brodegate to Lughborow a about a v. miles. First I 
cam oute of Brodegate Parke into the foreste of Charley, b 
communely caullid the Wast. This forest is a xx. miles or 
more in cumpace, having plenty of woode : and the most 
parte of it at this tyme longgith to the Marquise of Dorsete. 
The residew to the king and Erie of Huntingdune. 

In this forest is no . good toune nor scant a village. 
Asscheby de la Zouche c a market toune, Whitwik d Castel 
and village, Lughborow Market, Wolvescroft Priorie joynith 
on the very borders of it. 

The ruines of Whitewik Castel long now by permutation 
of landes to the Marquise of Dorsete. Whitewik is a . 
miles from Leircester by * 

Riding almost in the entering of this forest I saw 2. or 3. 
quarres in hilles of slate stone, longging to the Marquise of 
Dorsete. 

And riding a litle farther I left the parke of Bewmaner, 
closid with stone waulles and a pratie logge yn it, longging a 
late to Beplemonts.] Thens to Lughborow Parke [a mile] 

[* Blank in MS.] 



a Loughborough. b Charnwood. Ashby-de-la-Zouche. 
d Whitwick. e Beau Manor. 



PART I 19 

more from Lughborow toune. [This] parke cam to the Leicester- 
Marquise of Dorsete by exchaunge of landes with the kinge. shire. 

Thens a litle way of to Burley Parke, a now longging also to 
the Marquise of Dorsete. 

Thens scant a mile to Lughborow, 6 where I passid over a 
litle brooke, the principal heddes wherof risith in Lugborow 
Parke and *...... 

The toune of Lugborow is yn largeness and good building 
next to Leyrcester of al the market'te tounes yn the shire, and 
hath in it a 4. faire strates or mo welle pavid. The paroche 
chirch is faire. Chapelles or chirchis beside yn the toune 
be none. 

At the south est ende of the chirch is a faire house of 
tymbre, wher ons King Henry the vij. did lye. 

The great streame of Sore River lay as I stoode on the 
left hond of the toune within lesse then a quarter of a mile 
of it, and thereabout went Lughborow Water into Sore. 

From Leircester to Lutterworth a market toune a x. miles fo. 21. 
toward Warwikshire. 

The toune is scant half so bigge as Lughborow, but in it 
there is an hospital of the fundation of 2. or 3. the Ver- 
dounes, that were lordes of auncient tyme of the towne. 

A good parte of the landes of the Verdounes be cum in 
processe now to the Lorde Marquise of Dorsete, and the 
college of Asscheley in Warwikeshir, by Nunneiton, c were 
the late Lorde Thomas Marquise of Dorsete was buried, was 
of the foundation of [Tho. Lorde Asteley.-\] And al the landes 
in a maner that the Lorde Marquise of Dorsete hath in that 
egge of Leircestershir, or Warwikshire, were longging sum- 
tyme to the Verdounes [and Astleis.Q There risith certeine 
springes in the hilles a mile from Lutterworth, and so cum- 
ming to a botom they make a brooke that passith by Lutter- 
worth and so 

Forestes yn Leicestershire. 

The foreste of Leyrcester yoining hard to the toune : it 

[* Blank in MS.] 

[t A marginal correction not in Leland's hand, later than Stow, 
evidently made by Burton. ] 

[J Added by Burton in Leland's MS.] 

[ Blank in MS.] 

a Burleigh. b Loughborough. c Nuneaton. 



20 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Leicester- is a v. miles lenghthe, but of no greate breede : and is re- 
shire, plenishid with dere. 

The foreste of Charley a a xx. miles yn cumpace. 
Parkes yn Leyrcestershire. 

The parke by S. Mary Abbay. The Frith Park sumtyme 
a mighty large thyng, now partely deparkid, and partely 
bering the name of the New Park, welle palid. 

Bellemontes Lease sumtyme a great park by Leircester, 
but now convertid to pasture. Barne Parke, and Towley 
Park, and Bewmanor. Al these be the kinges. 

The Lorde Marquise of Dorsete hath Groby, Brodegate, 
Lughborow, and Burley, fair parkes. 

The Lorde of Huntingdone hath Baggeworth Park, b where 
fo. 22. appere withyn a diche ruines of a manor place, like castelle 
building. Kirkeby Parke c a 4. miles from Leircester by 
Leyrcester Forest. 

And the Lorde of Huntingdon hath 3. parkes at Asscheby 
de la Zouch. This Asscheby hath beene in the Hastinges 
tyme, but sins that the Lorde Hastinges, so great with King 
Edward the 4. got it partaly by a title, partely by mony paid. 

The late Thomas Boloyne, Erie of Wileshire, made a title 
to it by the Lorde of Rocheford, which was heire to this 
Souche : and by hym the Lorde Rocheford had Fulburne d 
and other landes yn Cambridgeshire. 

There is a faire quarre of alabaster stone about a 4. [or 5.] 
miles from Leircester, and [not] very far from Beaumaner. 

From Brodegate to Bellegreve e village a 4. miles by woddy 
and pasture grounde. This village is aboute a mile lower on 
Sore River then Leircester is ; and I cam over a great stone 
bridge or I enterid into it. There dwellith a gentilman by 
the name of Bellegre a man of a 50. li. of possessions by the 
yere. 

There is also another mene gentilman of the Bellegreves 
yn Leircestershire. 

From Bellegreve to Ingresby f a 4. miles, partely by corne, 
pasture and woddy ground. This lordship longgid ons to 
one Algernoune, and after it was gyvin to Leyrcester Abbay. 
Now it is Brian Caves, that boute it of the king. It stondith 
very welle, and the grounde aboute it is very riche of pasture. 

a Charnwood. b Bagworth. c Kirby. 

d Fulbourne. e Belgrave. * Ingarsby. 



PART I 21 

Thens to Wiscumbe* a 4. miles by corne, pasture and Leicester- 
wood a 4. miles. Mr. Radeclif buildid here a right goodly shir e. 
house apon Smithe's ground, that now dwellith yn it, and fo. 23. 
hath married a sister of the Caves. I take this to be one 
of the fairest housis in Leicestershire, and to the fairest 
orchardes and gardines of those quarters : but it stondith 
lowe and wete, and hath a pole afore it, but al the vaine 
thereabout is goodly pasture. Launde b Priory is hard there by. 

The forest of Le * 

Gentilmen of Leyrcestershir that be there most of repu- 
tation. 

Villares [of JSrokesby.^] 

Digby [of Ttlton.] 

Brokesby [of Shoulby.] 

Neville of the Holte. 

Shirle toward Dunington, a man of very fair landes. 

Schefington [of Skefington^\ fo. 24. 

Purefey of Drey ton. % 

Vincente [of Pekleton.] 

Turvile J [of Thurlestonl\ 

Hasilrig \pf Nouseley^\ 

The mines of the castelle of Hinkeley c now longging to 
the king, sumtyme to the Erie of Leircester, be a 5. miles 
from Leyrcester, and in the borders of Leircester Forest; and 
the boundes of Hinkeley be spatius and famose ther. 

Dunnington Castelle d is in the border of the forest of 
Chaney toward Darbyshir ; and hath thereby a park. As I 
remember it is an 8. miles from Leircester ; it longgid as I 
hard sumtyme to the Erles Leyrcester ; now it is the kinges. 

Mielburne Castelle e a 2. miles from Dunington is praty, Derbyshire, 
and yn meately good reparation. 

Marke that such parte of Leircestershir as is lying by south 
and est in champaine, and hath litle wood. And such 

[* Leland here leaves half a page blank.] 
[t These seven places inserted from Burton, by Hearne.] 
[ The words Purefey of Dreyton, and Turvile, have been inserted in 
Leland's MS. since Stow copied it.] 
[ Lincolne in margin, written by Burton.] 



a Withcote. b Laund. Hinckley. 

d Castle Donington. e Melbourne Castle, 



22 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

parte of Leircestershir as lyith by west and north hath much 
woodde. 

fo. 25. From Wiscumbe partely thorough woddy ground of the 

Rutland- forest of Le[#fo7^,*] a and so in to Ruthelandeshir by woddy 

shire. first, and then al champain ground, but exceding riche of 

corne and pasture, to Uppingham a market toune a 4. miles. 

Uppingham is but one meane streate, and hath but a very 

meane chirch, yet it is countid the best town of Rutheland- 

shire. 

Luddington b is a mile of : and ther is the auncient manor 
place of the Bisshop of Lincoln. 

From Uppingham to Haringworth 3. litle miles, al by 
chaumpaine. 

About a mile from Haringworth I passid thorough a village c 
that is in Ruthelandshire. Haringworth is yn Northampton- 
shir, and standith on Weland Water. 

The shire of Rutheland lyith in a maner as it were in a 
roundel, and lyith partely apon Wiland water from Staun- 
ford d to the [very] bridge of Rokingham. 

Northants. From Dene to Cliffe-Parke e 3. miles : it is partely waullid 
with stone and partely palid. 

From Dene to Coliweston a 5. or 6. miles, partely by 
champain, partely by woodde ground. 

Almost yn the middle way I cam by Finshed/ lately a 
priory of blak chanons, leving it hard by on the right hond; 
it is a 4. miles from Stanford. Here in the very place wher 
the priory stoode was yn tymes past a castel caullid Hely, it 
longgid to the Engaynes : and they dwellid yn it, ontylle 
such tyme that one of them for lak of childern of his owne 
began a priory ther, gyving them landes even thereabout : 
wherby after the castelle was pullid downe to make up the 
priory, so that now there remaynith almost no token that 
ever ther was any castel there. 

Coly Weston g for the most parte is of a new building by 
the Lady Margaret, mother to Hery the vij. The Lord 
Cromwel had afore [begunne] a house ther. Bagges of 
purse[s yet] remayne there yn the [chappel]le and other places. 

[* Interlined by Burton.] 

* Leighfield. b Liddington. c Seaton. d Stamford. 

King's Cliffe. r Fineshade. 8 Colly Weston. 



PART I 23 

From Coly Weston to Grimesthorpe a about an 8. miles or fo. 26. 
9. most by playn ground, good of corne and pasture, but Lincoln- 
litle wood, saving about toward Vauldey Abbay, and Grimes- shire, 
thorp self. A good mile after that I cam out of Stanford I 
passid over a stone bridge under the which ran a praty 
river. I toke it for Wasch : b and here I markid that cummyng 
a litle oute of Staunford I enterid ynto a corner of Ruthe- Rutland, 
landshire, and so went a 3. miles onto such tyme as I cam 
to a forde, wher ran a bek rysing at a place not far of caullid 
Haly Welle, c as one there dyd telle me. This bek there 
devideth Rutheland from Lyncolnshire : and a 2. miles of I 
saw Castelle Bitham, d wher yet remayne great waulles ofLincoln- 
buildinge. Litle Bitham e a village ys hard thereby, booth in shire. 
Lincolnshir as yn the egge of it. The Lord Husey was a 
late lord of Bitham Castelle. A litle of Bitham risit of certen 
springes a broket, and about the ford that I spake of afore 
joynith with the broke that devidith the shires, and not far 
[of] is Robyn Hudde's Cros, a limes [of the] shires. 

It apperith by the ruines of Vauldey Abbay f a good half 
myle a this side Grymesthorp that it hath bene a great thyng. 

There ys yn the wood by Vauldey Abbay a gret quarrey of 
a course marble, wherof much belykelihod was occupied yn 
the abbey. 

There is a fayre parke betwixt Vauldey and Grimesthorpe. 

The place of Grimesthorpe was no great thing afore the. 
new building of the secunde court. 

Yet was al the old work of stone, and th[e g]ate house 
was faire and [strong,] and the waulles of ech[e side of] it 
embatelid. 

[There is also a] great dich about the house. 

From Grimesthorp to Corby about a 3. miles by chaum- fo. 27. 
payne ground, wher dwellith a gentilman of mene landes 
caullid Armestrong. 

Thens to Boutheby g a 3. miles, and therabout is meatly 
store of wodde scaterid. 

There was one Boutheby of very auncient tyme, the heyre 
generale of whom was marryed to Paynelle, and therby rose 
much the Painelles. 

a Grimsthorpe. b Wash. Holywell. 

d Castle Bytham. e Little Bytham. * Vaudey Abbey. 
Boothby Tagnal. 



24 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Lincoln- The chief house of the Paynelles had ons a 900. markes 
shire. o f landes by the yere : and it was welle conservid on tille 
about the tyme of Henry the 5. Then John Paynelle the 
farther and John his sunne, booth knighttes and great lechers, 
began to decline ; for John the father began to selle, and 
John the sunne begot abhominably a doughter of his owne 
doughter : and John the father apon this sold al the lande, 
parte owt of hand and parte in reversion ; and John the 
sunne dyid afore the father, and yong John'fs daughter] fled 
to other partes of Enfgland for shajme, and at the last maried 
one Dines, a wever, by whom she had childern : and after a 
3. descentes the landes of the Dines cam by an heire generale 
to one Bosson a knight, and his landes be also now cum to 
v. sisters heires generales, wherof one is wife to Richard 
Paynelle, now owner of Boutheby. Bosson was a man borne 
in Notinghamshir, and had part of his landes lying not far 
from Newark on Trent, and part lying in Yorkshir. Olde 
Sir John Paynelle had a secunde sunne caullid Geffrey, the 
was servant to the Quene of England, and yn good estima- 
tion. Wherapon thinkking his brother doughter dede, he 
made so importune sute, that at the laste he founde meanes 
by the king, that the Duk of Bedford was content that 
Geffrey should by of hym al such landes as Sir John Paynelle 
the father had sold onto hym, the which was the beste peace 
of the lande. 

But aboute the tyme that Geffrey had payid for the lande 
cam Dyne's wife, doughter to yong Sir John Panelle, and by 
a color got possession of Baroby a a manor of a 80. poundes 
by the yere, a mile from Grantham ; and so made clayme to 
the residew : so that at the laste composition was made, that 
she should have of the landes that the Duke of Bedeford had 
fo. 28. the lordship of Baroby and Dunington : and the residew to 
remayne to Geffrey Paynelle, the whiche was great graunt- 
father to Paynell now dwelling at Boutheby. 

Thimleby had by purches the lordship of Irenham * b of 
the old Sir John Paynelle, wher Thimleby now lyving hath 
build a fair place. 

[* Leland was doubtful of this word, after filling it in he put dots for 
erasure under " en." Stow therefore copied it Irham.} 

a Barrowby. b Irnham. 



PART I 25 

Though the Paynelles were lordes of the castelle of Lincoln- 
Newport Painel a in Buckinghamshire, yet they had a great shire, 
mynde to ly at Boutheby : wher they had a praty stone house 
withyn a mote. 

The Paynelles were founders of an abbay in Fraunce 
caullid Marteres. 

One Sir Rafe Painelle was as I hard vice-chamberlaine to 
king and constable of Bolingbrok Castelle. 

Olde Sir John Painell the father lyith buried on the north 
side of the high altare at Bouthby^ he died anno D. 1420. 
Elisabeth his wife liith in the north isle of the same chirch. 

One Sir Walter Painelle lyith buried in the paroch chirch 
of 

Geffrey Paynelle was father to Panelle, custumer of Boston, 
and he had a lordship of 4oli. of the old landes of the 
Paynelles. 

Pan[elle was fjather to Richard Paynelle [now dwelling at 
Bouthby.] 

One Bawdey a gentilman of mene landes dwellith at 
\_Somerby] a mile from Boutheby. 

Burne Market b is a 3. or 4. miles from Grymesthorpe. 
There appere grete diches, and the dungeon hil of an auncient 
castel agayne the west ende of the priori, sumwhat distant 
from it as on the other side of the streate bakwarde : it 
longgid to the Lorde Wake, and much service of the Wake 
fe is done to this castelle; and every feodarie knowith his 
station and place of service. 

I remembre that I red ons yn an historic of the castel of 
Burne : and I have redde that S. Edmund, king of the Este 
Angles, was crounid at Burne ; but I cannot telle wither it 
were thys Burne. 

From Grimesthorpe to Sempringham a v. miles, and a mile 
thens sumwhat inwarde on the lifte hond is the castelle of 
Fokingham, c sumtyme the Lorde Bardolphe's, syns the Lord 
Bellemonte's, now longging to the Duke of Northfolk; it hath 
bene a goodly house, but [now i]t fallith al to ruine. and it 
stondith even about the egge of the fennes. fo. 29. 

From Boutheby to Hayder d al by champaine ground, fertile 
of corne and grasse, 4. miles. One Bussey, cumming of a 

a Newport Pagnel. b Bourn. c Folkingham. d Haydor. 



26 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Lincoln- younger brother of the house of Busseys of Houg[h]eham, 
shire. dwellith in an old place at Haider, that he and his parentes 
hath in a fee ferine of the chirch of Lincoln. 

From Hayder to Sleford a a vj. miles, al by champaine 
grounde. Aboute a mile from Hayder I saw the mines of 
Cattely Priory, now longging to one Car of Sleford, a proper 
gentilman, whos father was a riche marchaunt of the staple. 

The towne of Sleford is buildid for the most part al of 
stone, as most part of al the townes of Kesteven be : for the 
soile is plentiful of stone. 

The chirch of Sleford is large. And for houses in the 
toune I markid but 2. very fair. The one longith to the 
personage, as a prebend of 16. li [yn] Lincoln, and standith 
at the [est endel of the chirch, and Carre House stonding [at 
the soujth side [of it.] 

Gentilmen of Kesteven. 

Bussy of Hougheham. 

Bussy of Haider. 

Thimleby knight at Irneham. 

Disney, alias de Iseney : he dwellith at Diseney ; and of 
his name and line be gentilmen yn Fraunce. Ailesham 
Priory by Thorney Courtoise was of the Disseneys funda- 
tion : and there were dyvers of them buried, and likewise at 
Diseney. 

Northton Diseney b is a 6. miles south west from Lincoln. 

Paynelle at Boutheby. 

Armine at Ergerby. 

Leghe dwelling at Ingoldesby is now a man of meane 
landes. his aunceter were men of fair landes. 

Haulle. 

Granteham a man of mene landes by Hayder. 

Cony a stapeler risen by marchaundise \atJBasmgthorpeJ] 

Vernoun toward Granteham. 

Porter about Granteham. 

Baudey a mile from Boutheby. 

Elis greatly risen bi marchaundise. 

Holland at Howelle. 

fo. 30. Withoute the towne of Sleford standith west south west 
the propre castell of Sleford, very welle maintaynid : and it 

a Sleaford. b Norton Disney. 



PART I 27 

is cumpasid with a renning streme dimming by a cut oute Lincoln- 
of a litle fenne lying almost flatte weste againe it. shire. 

The gate house of the castelle 2. porte colices. 

There is an highe toure in the midle of the castelle, but 
not sette apon [any] hille of reisid yerth. 

The vaultes of the castelle by the ground be fair. 

The house or manor place, lately almost new buildid of 
stone and timbre by the Lorde Husey, standith southeward 
withoute the toun. 

The chief spring of Sleford Water risith a litle from Roseby 
village a about a mile by west from Sleforde. 

From Sleforde to Ancaster a 4. miles by chaumpaine. 

Aboute a mile from Ancaster I passid over Wilesford b brok. 

Ancaster stondith on Wateling as in the high way to 
Lincoln ; it is now but a very pore strete, having a smaule 
chirch. An old man told me that it was sumtyme caullid 
Oncaster or Onkaster : but he shewid me no reason why. 1 

But in tymes past it hath bene a celebrate toune, but not 
waullid as far as I could perceive. The building of it lay in 
lenghth by south and north. In south ende of it be often 
tymes founde in ploughing great square stones of old build- 
inges and Romaine coynes of brasse and sylver. 

In the west ende of it, were now medowes be, ar founde 
yn diching great vaultes. 

The area wher the castelle stoode is large, and the dikes 
of it appere, and in sum places the foundation of the waulle. 

In the highest ground of the area is now an old chapel 
dedicate to S. Marie, and there is an her[em]ite. 

[This] area is right again the [east en]de of the paroche 
chirch. 

The tounelet of Ancaster is devidid into 2. lordeshipes. fo. 3 1 * 

The est side of it, at the southe ende whereof the castel is 
sette, is of the lordship of Wilesforde, sumtime longging to 
the Lord Crumwelle, and after, as I hard, solde with other 
thinges to the performaunce of one of the Lord Cromwelles 
willes; and after Burne Priory yn Kestene c had it by the 
meane as I hard of Margarete, mother to Henry the 7. The 
Duke of Southfolk hath it now. 

1 These words in the margin of the original, but omitted in Burton. 
a Rauceby. b Wilsford. Kesteven. 



28 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Lincoln- He that tolde me this saide that Foderingey was ons the 
shire. Lord Cromwelle : but I dowte of that. 

The west side of the towne, where the paroch \chircK\ * 
stondith, was the Vescys, and the patronage of the chirch, 
with impropriation, was gyven by one of the Vescys to the 
priory of Malton in Ridesdale. 

The Vescies were lordes of a castelle caullid Cadorpe a in 
Kesten a 3. miles toward north from Ancaster ; syns it cam 
to the Lord Bellemonte : and [now] the Duke of Northfok 
h[ath it.] 

The Duke of [Norfolk] hath by gifte a 600. mark land [of 
Bellemontes in] Lincolnshir. 

The he the of Ancaster conteynith in lenghth about a 14. 
miles, and in bredth a ... and cummith withyn a 
2. miles of the fennes. 

The toune of Ancaster hath on eche side of it a spring, 
and they cumming .to one botom anone after ren ynto Willes- 
ford streame, and so, as I remember, the broke goith thens 
to Ureby. 

An old man of Ancaster told me that by Ureby, or Roseby, b 
a plough man toke up a stone, and found another stone 
under it, wherein was a square hole having Romaine quoin 
in it. He told me also that a plough man toke up in the 
feldes of Harleston c a 2. miles from Granteham a stone, 
under the wich was a potte of brasse, and an helmet of gold, 
sette [with st]ones in it, the which was [pre]sentid to Catarine 
Princes [Dowag]er. There? were bedes of [silver in] the 
potte : and writings corruptid. 

0.32. From Ancaster to Temple Bruern al by champaine of 
Ancaster Heth a 4. miles. There be great and vaste build- 
inges but rude at this place, and the este ende of the temple 
is made opere drculari de more. 

The hethe about it is very good for shepe, as al Ancaster 
Hethe is. 

From Temple Bruern to Lincoln 10. miles by champaine. 

The Fosse diche begynnith a quarter of a mile above 
Lincoln, and so goith to Torkesey d side a 7. miles strait in 
lenght. 

[* Interlined by Burton.] 



Caythorpe. b Rauceby. c Harlaxton. d Torksey. 



PART I 29 

Bisshop Atwater began to dense Foss Dik, and brought to Lincoln- 
the midle the clensing of it from Torkesey side, in hope to shire, 
bring vesselles to Lincoln : sed statim moriente illo opus 
omnino neglectum. 

Grantham an 18. miles from Lindecoln. 

Lindis a from thens as from west south west tendith, 
saving that it windith into crokes estward ontil it cum to 
the se. 

The curse of Lindis Ryver from Lincoln to Boston a 50. 
miles be water as the crekes go, and 24. miles from Lincoln 
to Boston to take way by fery. 

Ther be no bridges on Lindis Ryver from Lincoln to 
Boston, but Thorn Brid a litle beneth High Bridge. 

High Bridge hath but one great arch, and over a pece of 
it is a chapelle of S. George. 

There be 4. commune places namid as ferys apon the 
water of Lindis betwixt Lincoln and Boston : the which 
feris leade to divers places. 

To Short fery 5. miles. 

To Tatershaul b fefry viij.l miles. 

To Dogdik c fery [a mile.] 

To Lanfgreth d fery five miles.] 

To Bfoston 5. miles.] 

The circuite of Lincoln cite is with yn the waulles by 

estimation a 

Gates in the waulles of the citie of Lincoln. 

Barre gate at the south ende of the toune. 

Baile gate by south a litle a this side the minstre. 

Newport gate flat north. Est gate and West gate toward 
the castel. 

It is very likely that in old tyme the toppe of the hille only 
was waullid and inhabitid. 

The ryver of Lincoln breking into 2. armes a very litle 
above the toun passith thoroug the lower part of Lincoln 
toune yn 2. severalle partes of the south ende of the toune 
very commodiusly, and over eche of them is an archid bridge 
of stone to passe thoroug the principal streate. 

The lesser arme lyith more southly, and the bridg over it 
is of one arche. The bigger armes fert cymbas piscatorias. 

* Witham R. b Tattershall. Dogdyke. d Langrick. 



30 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Lincoln- Gote bride to passe over the lesser arme. Highe bridge to 
shire, passe over the great arme. 

A very goodly house longging to Sutton is hard on the 
north syde of S. Annes chirch yarde. 

A litle above Gote bridge, on the este side of the high 
streat, is a fair guild haul, longging to S. Annes chirch e 
regione, of the fundation of Bitlyndon and Sutton, marchants. 

1 hard say that the lower parte of Lincoln town was al 
marisch, and won be policy, and inhabitid for the commodite 
of the water. 

This part of the toune is caullid Wikerford : and yn it be 
a ii. pavoche chirches, one there I saw in clene ruine, 
[be] side the other xi. [sic.] 

The White Freres were on the west side of the high 
streate [in] Wikerf[ord.] 

fo. 33. There be in the residew of the toun, as in the north parte 
apon the hille, xiij. paroche chirchis yet usid. I saw a rolle 
wherin I countid that ther were xxxviij. paroche chirchis yn 
Lincoln. 

There goith a commune fame that there were ons 52. 
paroche chirches yn Lincoln cite, and the suburbes of it. 

Sum hold opinion that est of Lincoln were 2. suburbes, 
one toward S. Beges, a late a celle to S. Mari Abbay at 
York : the which place I take be Icanno, wher was an house 
of monkes yn S. Botolphes tyme, and of this spekith Bede ; 
it is scant half a mile from the minster. 

The other by est streachid up toward Canwike villag a half 
a mile of from Lincolne. 

Ther was also a suburbe beyonde the north gate, and 
streachid toward Burton village, or more westwarde. King 
Stephane, as it is saide, destroied much of this suburbe. 

There lay a suburbe also without the Barre gate, by southe 
of the toune, and streachid toward a village caullid Brase- 
bridg, b [a litle] without Barre is a very fair [crosse] and large, 
and S. Catarines st[andeth in] this suburbe on the soufth 
west] side of [Barre gate.] 

It is easy to be perceivid that the toune of Lincoln hath 
be notably buildid at 3. tymes. The first building was yn 
the very toppe of the hille, the oldest part wherof inhabited 

a Canwick. b Bracebridge. 



PART I 31 

in the Britans tyme, was the northethest part of the hille, Lincoln- 
directely withoute Newport gate, the diches wherof yet re- shire, 
mayne and great tokens of the old towne waulles buildid 
with stone taken oute of [the] diche by it : for al the top of 
Lincoln Hille is quarre ground. This is now a suburbe to 
Newporte gate : in the which now is no notable thing but the 
ruines of the house of the Augustine Freres on the south 
side, and a paroch chirch of the est side : and not far from 
the chirch garth apperith a great ruine of a toure in the old 
towne waulle. Sum say that this old Lincoln was destroied 
by King Stephan, but I thinke rather by the Danes. Much 
Romaine mony is found yn the northe [fieldes] beyond this 
old Lincoln. After the destruction of this old Lincoln men fo, 34. 
began to fortifie the souther parte of the hille, new diching, 
waulling and gating it, and so was new Lincoln made out of 
a pece of old Lincoln by the Saxons. 

The third building of later tymes was in Wikerford, for 
commodite of water : and this parte is enwallid wher it is not 
defendid with the ryver and marisch ground. The ryver of 
Lindis fleatith a litle above Lincoln towne, and makith 
certen pooles wherof one is caullid Swanne Poole. 

The[r] springith a water above Chorleton village a a 2. 
miles or more by north from Lincoln, and this cummith in 
by the higher ripe of Lincoln Ryver a litle above the toune. 
So that by this broke, Fosse Dike water, and the ryver of 
Lincoln it is no mervaile though the water be sumtyme 
broode there, and over flow the medois al [about.] 

Gualterus, as I hard, caullid Dorotheus, Dene of Lincoln, 
a Scottisch man, first founder of the White Freres in 
Lincoln. 

There lay in a chapelle at the White Freres a rich marchant 
caullid Ranulphus de Kyme, whos image was thens taken 
and set at the south ende of the new castelle of the conducte 
of water in Wikerford. 

There is another new castelle of conduct hedde trans 
Lindimflu : and booth these be servid by pipes derivid from 
one of the houses of freres, that were in the upper part of 
Lincoln. 

Reginaldus Molendinarius, marchaunt of Lincoln, founder 

a Carlton. 



32 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Lincoln, of the Gray Freres. Henry Lacy, Erie of Lincoln, and one 
shire. Nunny, his almoner, were great benefactors to it. 

Henry Lacy and Nunny were great benefactors to the Gray 
Freres at York. 

Nunny was buried at the Gray Freres in York, 
fo. 35. From Lincoln to Torkesey a parte by march ground, and 
part by other, but very litle wood, a 7. miles. The olde 
buildinges of Torkesey wer on the south of the new toune, 
but there now is litle scene of olde buildinges, more then a 
chapelle, wher men say was the paroch chirch of old 
Torkesey, and on Trent side the yerth so balkith up that it 
shewith that there be likelihod hath beene sum waulle, and 
by it is a hille of yerth cast up : they caulle it the Wynde 
Mille Hille, but I thinke the dungeon of sum olde castelle 
was there. 

By olde Torkesey standith southely the ruines of Fosse 
Nunnery, hard by the stone bridge over Fosse Dik ; and 
there Fosse Dike hath his entering ynto Trente. 

There be 2. smaul paroche chirches in new Torkesey, and 
the Priory of S. Leon[ard stanjdith on theste side of it. 

The ripe [that Torkesey stanjdith on is sumwfhat higher 
ground] than is by the [west ripe of Trent.] 

Trent there devidith and a good deale upward Lincolnshire 
from Notinghamshire. 
Notts. John Babington dwellith at Raunton village b over Trent 

a good mile from Torkesey. 

Lines. From Torkesey to Marton village about a mile by plain 
sandy ground. At the north ende of this village lyithe the 
commune way of Watheling Streat to Dancaster, and thereby 
onto the other side of Trent is trajectus to Litleborough 
village, wherby it is communely caullid Litleborough fery. 
a mile above that northward is Stratton on the Streate, d a 
good through fare toward Dancaster that is a 14. or 15. miles 
of of it. 

From Marton to Snafe e on Trent, wher the late Lorde 
Darcy [had a] mene manor place [a 2. miles.] 

[Thence to] Gainesford f on Trent [a 2. miles.] 
fo. 36. The shore and upground from Trent ripe on Lincolnshire 

a Torksey. b Rampton. c Littleborough. 

d Stufton. e Knaith. f Gainsborough. 



PART I 33 

side to Gainesborough is al sandy : the ripe of Trent againe Lincoln- 
it is low and medow ground. shire. 

Gainesborow is a good market toune, and is a xij. miles 
from Lincoln. 

I saw no thinges much to be markid yn it, but the paroche 
chirch, wher lyith richely buryed Sir Thomas Borow, Knight 
of the Gartner, and Dna de Botreaux, his wife : obiit Thomas 
an. D. 1408. 

This Thomas was graundfader to the Lord Borow, that 
now is. He made most of the motid manor place by the 
west ende of the chirch yarde. 

This Lord Borow's father lyith yn the quiar. 
There lyith yn the same chirch Ds. Edmundus Cornewaile, 
that had a great motid manor place, caullid Thonak, in a 
wood, a mile by est from Gaynesborow. it longith it to the 
Cornewailes. Obiit anno D. 1322. 

Edmund foundid 3. cantuaries yn Gainesborow chirch. 
There is an old chapelle of stone yn the south part of 
Gainesborow toun, wher they of the toune say that many 
Danes be buried. 

There is also a chapelle of wood on Trent side by southe 
in Gainesborow : it is now desolatid. 
There is a parke by Gainesborow longging to the Lord Borow. 
There is another a ... miles of that Mr. Henege 
hath in keping. 

From Gainesborow over Trent ynto Notinghamshire, and 
so to Madersey village a a v. miles, 2. miles below medowes Notts, 
and 3. be corn and pasture ground. 

Or I cam to Madersey by a 2. miles I left 

Parke on the right hond, and a mile farther I saw the course 

on the lifte hond of ryver, over the which I 

passid by a bridge of hard * at the entering into Madersey 
village. 

Thens I roode a myle yn low wasch and sumwhat fenny 
ground, and a mile farther or more by higher ground to 
Scroby in Nottinghamshir. 

[* No blank here in original, but the word stone, or tymber> seems to 
be omitted after hard.} 



Mattersey. 
D 



34 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

fo. 37. In the mene tounelet of Scroby a I markid 2. thinges, the 
Notts, paroche chirch not bigge, but very welle buildid ex lapide 
polite quadrato. 

The second was a great manor place standing withyn a 
mote, and longging to tharchbishop of York, buildid yn to 
courtes, wherof the first is very ample, and al buildid of 
tymbre, saving the front of the haule, that is of brike, to 
the wich ascenditur per gradus lapideos. The ynner courte 
building, as far as I markid, was of tymber building, and was 
not in cumpace past the 4. parte of the utter courte. 

From Scroby to Bawtre a mile or more. 

Riding a very litle by yond Scroby manor place, I passid 

by a forde over the ryver : and so betwixt the 

pales of 2. parkes longging to Scroby I came to Bautre. 

Bawtre b is very bare and poore, 1 a poore market toune 
standing yn Yorkshire, as the inhabitantes of it told me : so 
that by this it shold seme that Scroby water in sum partes 
[devidijth the shires. 

Yorkshire, From Bautre to Dancaster an vij. miles by a great plaine 
West an d sandy ground caullid Blithelo, by the name of Blith ryver. 

Riding. -g ut Qr j cam to Lancaster I passid over the ford of a brooke 
3 a 3. miles of, wher, as I remembre, is Rosington bridge. 

I notid these thinges especially yn the towne of Dancaster. 
The faire and large paroch chirche of S. George, standing in 
the very area, where ons the castelle of the toune stoode, 
long sins clene decayid. The dikes partely yet be scene and 
foundation of parte of the waulles. There is a likelihod 
that when this chirch was erectid much of the ruines of the 
castelle was taken for the fundation and the filling of the 
waullis of it. 

There standith an olde stone house at the est ende of the 
chirch of S. George now usid for the town house : the which, 
as sum suppose, was a pece of the building of the old castelle 
or made of the ruines of it. 

There is in the declining in area castelli a prati litle house 
buildid of tymbre as a college for the prestes of the toun. 

There was another paroche chirch yn the towne yet stand- 
ing, but now it servith but for a chapelle of ease. 

1 Redundant. 
& Scrooby. b Bawtry. c Doncaster. 



PART I 35 

Ther was a right goodly house of White Freres in the Yorkshire, 
mydle of the towne now defacid : wher lay buried in a goodly W. R. 
tumbe of white marble a Countes of Westmerland, whos 
name, as one told me, was Margarete Cobham. The image 
of the tumbe is translatid ynto S. George Chirch, and by it 
as the crounet is made she shold be a duches. 

There was a house of Gray Freres at the north ende of the 
bridg, communely caullid the Freres Bridge, conteyning a 3. 
arches of stone. Here I markid that the north parte of 
Dancaster toune, yn the which is but litle and that mene 
building, standith as an isle : for Dun ryver at the west side 
of the towne castith oute an arme, and sone after at the este 
side of the town cummith into the principal streame of Dun 
again. There is also a great bridge of 5. arches of stone at 
the north ende of this isle : at the south ende of the which 
bridg is a great tournid gate of stone, at the west side whereof 
is a fair chapelle of our Lady, and therof it is caullid S. Mary 
Gate. At the est ende of this bridge be 2. or 3. great milles 
as at the water. 

There appere no tokens, as far as I could lerne or se, that 
ever Dancaster was a waullid toun ; yet there be 3. or 4. 
gates in it : whereof that in the west side is a praty tower of 
stone, but S. Marie Gate is the fairest. 

The hole toune of Dancaster is buildid of wodde, and the fo, 39. 
houses be slatid : yet is there great plenty of stone there 
about. 

The soile about Dancastei hath very good medow, corne, 
and sum wood. 

From Dancaster by south west to Tikhille a a 5. miles, 
partely by low pasture ground, partly by stony grounde but 
fruteful of corne. 

The market town of Tikhil is very bare : but the chirch is 
fair and large. One Estfelde, stuard sumtyme of Tikhil and 
Heatfeld, lyith ther in a tumbe of stone. Obijt an. D. 1386. 
The castel is well dichid and waullid with a very hard suart* 
stone hewid. The dungeon is the fairest part of the castelle 
Al the buildinges withyn the area be down, saving an old 

[* Suart in Leland, apparently = swarthy, dark-coloured. Stow has 
smart. ,] 

a Tickhill. 



36 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, haulle. There is a rylle that cummith by the towne fetching 
W. R. no far course of and resortith toward Rosington bridge. 

There was a house of Freres a lityl by west without Tikhil, 
where lay buried divers of the Fitz-Williams, as the graunt- 
father and father to my Lorde Privy Scale : the which now 
be translatid to the paroch chirch of Tikhil. [So ys Purefoy 
alias Clearfoyl\ * 

There were also buried diverse of Clarelles in Tikhill 
Priory. 

There ys yet a place by Tikhil caullid Clarelles Haulle. 

There is a wood by south of Tikhil caullid Toorne Wood, 
and is a v. miles in cumpace. 

The lordship of Tikhil was yn tyme past of such estimation, 
that it was namid the Honor of Tikhil. 

From Tikil to Cunesborow a 4. miles by stony way and 
enclosid ground. 

Wher I saw no notable thing but the castel stonding on a 
rokket of stone and dichid. The waulles of it hath be strong 
and full of toures. Dunns flu. alluit villa ;;/. 

From Cunisborow a to Dancaster a 3. miles by fruteful 
ground. 

From Dancaster to Heathfeld b by champayn sandy ground 
a 5. miles. There is a faire paroch chirch in the village ; 
and a parke therby. The logge or manor place is but 
fo. 40. meanely buildid of tymber. 

The quarters about Heatfeld be forest ground, and though 
wood be scars there yet there is great plentie of red deere, 
that haunt the fennes and the great mores thereabout, as to 
Axholm warde and Thurne village. 

The lordship of Heatfeld sumtyme longgid to the Lord 
Mowbray. 

From Heatfeld to Thurne village c 2. miles passing over an 
arme of Dune. 

By the chyrch garth of Thurne is a praty pile or castelet 
wel dikid, now usid for a prison for offenders in the forestes, 
but sumtyme longging to the Mulbrays as Thurne did. 

The ground al about Thurne is other playn, more or fenne. 

[* So Ckarfoy added in Leland's MS. since Stow copied it. He has 
not these words. ] 

a Conisborough. b Hatfield, Yorks. Thome. 



PART I 37 

From Thurne by water to the great lake caullid the Mere, Yorkshire, 
almost a mile over, a mile or more. This mere is fulle of w - R. 
good fisch and foule. 

From the Mere by water to Wrangton Cote a 3. miles in a 
smaule gut or lode. Al this way from the Mere to Wrangton 
the water berith the name of the Brier. The ground there 
is very fenni on booth sides. 

From Wrangton to wher I cam on land Lincoln- 

in the isle of Axholm about a mile : so that from Wrangton shire, 
thither the water is caullid Idille ; a yet is it the very same 
water that Bryer ys. And of certente Idille is the auntient 
name. 

The isle of Axholm is a x. miles in lenght by south and 
north : and in bredth a vj. miles by west and est. 

From the west point of Bikers Dike up a long to the great 
Mere, the soyle by the water is fenny, and morische, and ful 
of carres. 

The residew is meately high ground, fertile of pasture and 
come. 

The principal wood of the isle is at Bellegreve Park by 
Hepworth, and at Melwood Park not far from Hepworth. 

There is also a praty wood at Creole, a lordship a late 
longging to Selleby Monasterie. 

In the isle be 7. paroche chirches. fo. 41. 

Hepworth b is the best uplandisch toun for building in one 
streate in the isle. 

Axey c is a bigge paroche, but the houses be more sparkelid 
then at Hepworth. 

There was a castelle at the south side of the chirch 
garth of Oxtun, d wherof no peace now standith. The dike 
and the hille wher the arx stoode yet be scene : it was sum- 
time caullid Kinard. The fery over Trent is a quarter of a 
mile of. 

By Hepworth and joyning to Bellegreve Parke remaynith 
yet a great parte of the maner place of Lord Mulbray of 
Axholm, chief owner ontyl late dayes of the hole isle. 

By Milwood Park side stoode the right fair monasterie of 
the Carthusianes, wher one of the Mulbrais dukes of North- 
folk was buried in a tumbe of alabaster. 

a Idle. b Epworth. Haxey, d Owston. 



38 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Lincoln- Mr. Candisch hath now turnid the monasterie to a goodly 
shire, manor place. 

There was many yeres sins an old manor place at West- 
butter Wike a apon Trent ripe. 

It longid, as I lernid, to a gentilman caullid Bellethorp ; 
to whom cam also by heire general Burneham's landes, a 
gentilman of the same isle. 

Bellethorp's landes after descendid to Shefefeld : yn the 
which name it hath continuid a 5. or 6. descentes. For in 
the chirch yard of Oxton, half a mile from Melwood Park, I 
saw a 5. tumbes of the Sheffeldes. Young Shefeldes father 
is buried in the chirch of Oxtun. 

Sheffeld that was Recorder of London is buried in the 
Augustine Freres of London, he sett up highly the name of 
the Sheffeldes by mariage of the doughter and sole heyre of 
one Delves, to whom beside was descendid the landes of 
Gibthorp and Babington. This Sheffeld recorder began to 
build stately at Butterwik, as it apperith by a greate tour of 
brike. 

fo. 42. In the isle be now these 4. gentilmen of name, Sheffild, 
Candisch, Evers and Mounson. The landes of one Belle- 
wodde be cum by mariage to this Mounson, a younger sun 
to old Mounson of Lincolnshire. This old Mounsun is in a 
maner the first avauncer of his family. 

The fenny part of Axholm berith much galle, a low frutex 
swete in burning. 

The upper part of the isle hath plentiful quarres of ala- 
baster, communely there caullid plaster : but such stones as 
I saw of it were of no great thiknes and sold for a xijV. the 
lode. They ly yn the ground lyke a smothe table : and be 
beddid one flake under another : and at the bottom of the 
beddes of them be roughe stones to build withal. 
Yorks, From Dancaster to Causeby lesys b a mile and more, wher 
W. R. the rebelles of Yorkshir a lately assemblid. 

Thens a 2. miles farther I saw on the lifte bond an old 
manor place caullid wher the king dynid. 

And so to Wentbrid c a pore thorough fare a 5. miles, wher 
Wente ryver rennith under a praty bridge of v. arches of 
stone, and so to Pontefract a 3. miles. 

West Butterwick. b Scausby. c Went Bridge. 



PART I 39 

The ground betwixt Dancaster and Pontfract in sum places Yorkshire, 
meately wooddid and enclosid ground : in al places reason- w R - 
ably fruteful of pasture and corne. 

These be thinges that I most notid in Pontefract. 

Sum old people constantely adfirme that the rigge of 
Watelyng Streate went thorough the park of Pontfract. As 
far as I can gether this is the toune caullid Legeolium. After 
it was caullid Brokenbridg. Ruines of such a bridg yet ys 
scene scant half a mile est owt of old Pontfract ; but I cannot 
justely say that this bridge stoode ful on Watheling Streate. 

Pontefracte is a French name brought yn by the Laceys fo. 43. 
Normans for the English word of Brokenbridge. Wher as 
now the fairest parte of Pontefract stondith on the toppe of 
the hille was after the Conquest a chapel with a few sparkelid 
houses, the chapel was caullid S. Leonardes in the Frithe ; 
and as I can lerne this part of the new town was caullid 
Kirkeby. 

Edmunde Lacy buildid the college of White Freres in this 
part of Pontefract. 

Syr Robert Knolles, that was the notable warrior yn 
Fraunce, buildid in this part of Pontefract Trinite College, 
having an hospital yoinid to. In the college is a master and 
6 or 7. prestes : and yn the hospital be 13. poore men and 
wimen. Syr Robert Knolles was ons myndid to have made 
this college at his manor of Skouthorp 3. miles from Wal- 
singham : but at the desier of Constance his wife, a woman of 
mene birth and sumtyme of a dissolute lyving afore mariage, 
he turnid his purpose, and made it yn the very place of 
Pontfract, wher his wife was borne, endowing the college 
with a i8o//. land by the yere. 

The castelle of Pontfract, of sum caullid Snorre Castelle, 
conteinith 8. tourres, of the which the dungeon cast ynto 6. 
roundelles, 3. bigge and 3. smaul, is very fair, and hath a fair 
spring. Ther is in the dike by north the conestables tourre. 

King William Conquerour gave the castelle with the towne 
of Brokenbridg, and very much land lying thereabout, to 
Hilbert de Laceio, a noble Norman, this Hilbert foundid 
the college of S. Clemente in the castelle. 

Ther was a college and hospital in Brokenbridg afore the 
Conquest, wher the monkes lay ontil the priorie was erectid. 
it is yet an hospitale. 



40 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, Robert sun to Hilbert Lacy impropriate booth this hospital 
^- R - and S. Clementes yn the ostelle, apon conditions, to the 
new priorie. 

There is a dene and a 3. prebendes yet in S. Clementes in 
the castelle. 

The hospital of S. Nicholas of late dayes cam to the order 
of the priory of S. Oswald. 

The castel, town, and landes about Brokenbridg longgid 
afore the Conquest to one Richard Aschenald. Richard had 
Ailrik, and he had Swane, of whom cam Adam, of Adam 
cam 2. doughtters, wherof one of them was maried to Galfride 
Neville, the other to Thomas Burge. But nother of thes 2. 
had any part of the quarters of Brokenbridg. 

Robert sun to Hilbert Lacie foundid instigante Thurstino 
the priori of Pontfract, sending from monkes ad Fanum 
Charitatis filial de Ciuni. 

fo. 44. From Pontfract to S. Oswaldes by much enclosid and 
meately woddy ground a 3. miles or more. Where the 
paroche chirch of S. Oswaldes is now newly buildid, was in 
Henry the first tyme a house and chirch of poore heremites, 
as in a woddy cuntery, on tille one Radulphus Aldlaver, 
confessor to Henry the first, began the new monasterie of 
Chanons, and was first prior of it hymself. 

The building of this house is exceding great and fair : and 
hath the goodlyest fontein of conduct water that is yn that 
quarter of England. 

There lyith a praty pole at the west ende of the house. 

Secundus Prior a postremo fetchid this conduct a mile and 
a [halfe] of: and buildid an exceding faire keching also in 
the monasterie. 

From S. Oswaldes to Sandon village a about a 3. miles by 
enclosid ground, fruteful of wood, pasture and corne, as a 
very pleasaunt countrey to se to. 

Master Waterton, a man of fair landes, hath a praty manor 
house in Sandon paroch. The chirch of Sandon is appro- 
priate to S. Stephanes College at Westminster. 

At the est ende of this village is a praty castelet on an 
hilling ground with a diche aboute it. it longid to Warine 
Erie of Surrey : now to the king. 

Sandal. 



PART I 41 

From Sandon to Wakefeld a about a mile. Yorkshire, 

These thinges I especially notid in Wakefeld. W. R. 

The faire bridge of stone of 9. arches, under the which 
rennith the ryver of Calder. And on the est side of this 
bridge is a right goodly chapel of our Lady and 2. cantuarie 
prestes foundid in it, of the fundation of the townes men as 
sum say : but the Dukes of York were taken as founders for 
obteyning the mortemayn. 

I hard one say that a servant of King Edwardes (the 4.) 
father, or els of the Erie of Rutheland, brother to King 
Edwarde the 4. was a great doer of it. 

There was a sore batell faught in the south feeldes by this fo. 45. 
bridge. And yn the flite of the Duke of Yorkes parte, other 
the duke hymself, or his sun therle of Rutheland, was slayne 
a litle above the barres beyond the bridge going up into the 
toune of Wakefeld that standith ful fairely apon a clyving 
ground. At this place is set up a crosse in rd memoriam. 
The commune saying is there, that the erle wold have 
taken ther a poore woman's house for socour, and she for 
fere shet the dore and strait the erle was killid. The Lord 
Clifford for killing of men at this batail was caullid the 
boucher. 

The principale chirch that now is yn Wakefeld is but of a 
new work, but it is exceding fair and large. Sum think that 
wereas now is a chapelle of ease, at the other ende of the 
toune was ons the old paroch chirch. 

The vicarage at the este ende of the chirch garth is larg 
and fair. It was the personage house not very many yeres 
syns : for he that now lyvith is the 4. or 5. vicare that hath 
been there. 

Afore the impropriation of this benefice to S. Stephane 
College at Westminster, the personage was a great lyving ; 
yn so much that one of the Erles Warines, lordes of Wake- 
feld, and much of the cuntery thereabout did give the per- 
sonage to a sunne or nere kinsman of his : and he made the 
most parte of the house wher the vicarage now is. 

A quarter of a mile withowte Wakefeld apperith an hille of 
erth caste up, wher sum say that one of Erles Warines began 
to build, and as fast as he buildid violence of winde defacid 

a Wakefieid. 



42 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, the work. This is like a fable. Sum say that it was nothing 
W. R. but a wind mille hille. The place is now caullid Lohille. a 

The toune of Wakefeld streachith out al in lenght by est 

and west, and hath a faire area for a market place. The 

fo. 46. building of the toune is meately faire, most of tymbre but 

sum of stone. Al the hole profite of the toun stondith by 

course drapery. 

There be few tounes yn the inwarde partes of Yorkshire 
that hath a fairer site or soile about it. 

There be plenty of veines of se cole in the quarters about 
Wakefeld. 

From Wakefeld to Pontefract a vj. miles, parte by en- 
closure, part by champaine, especially in the midle way 
caullid as I remembre Wakefeld Moore. 

Almost in the midle way I lefte cole pittes a litle of on the 
right hande. And not far from this pittes is the principale 
hedde of Wente ryver. There is a hedde or 2. besides. 

From Pontefract to Castelleford village b 2. miles, most by 
enclosid ground. 

One shoid me there a garth by the chirch yard, where 
many straung thingges of fundations hath be found : and he 
sayid that ther had beene a castelle, but it was rather sum 
manor place. 

Under Castelleford bridge of vij. arches rennith Aire 
ryver, and a [3.] * miles above this west up into the land is 
Swillington bridg on the same ryver, and 2. miles beneth 
Castelforde is Fery c bridge. 

From Castelleford to Whitewood village d a mile. There I 
sawe in an enclosid pasture ground the diches and hilles of 
an old castelle hard apon the ripe of Calder ryver. It is now 
caullid the Castel Hille, and belongith to one Archibald 
Giseland of Lincolnshire. 

Wateling Streate lyith straite over Castelford bridge. 

Thens to Aberforde v. miles, partely by low medow, but 
most after by good high plaine corne ground. 

Ther ly by est of Aberford 2. or 3. long diches as campes 
of men of warre. 

I never saw yn any parte of England so manifest tokens as 

[* Blank in Leland and Stow.] 
a Lowhill. b Castleford. c Ferry bridge. d Whit wood. 



PART I 43 

heere of the large high crest of the way of Wateling Streate Yorkshire, 
made by hand. W. R. 

Aberford is a poore thorough fare on Wateling Streat. 

Cok bek springith about a mile by west of it and so ren- 
nith thorough it, and thens by much turning to Leade, an 
hamelet, wher Skargil had a fair manor place of tymber. 

Skargil a late knight left 2. doughtters to his heires, 0.47. 
wherof Tunstalle weddid one, and Gascoyne of Bedeforde- 
shire the other. 

Cok bek after crokith by Saxton and Teuton a villages 

feldes, and goith in to Warfe ryver a beneth 

Tadcaster. 

From Leade to Saxton village a mile. Wher Mr. Hundes- 
gate dwellith. In the chyrch yard were many of the bones 
of men that were killid at Palmesunday feld buried. 

They lay afore in 5. pittes, yet appering half a mile of by 
north in Saxton feldes. 

Towton village is a mile from Saxton, wher is a great 
chapell begon by by Richard 3. but not finishid. Syr John 
Multon's father layid the first stone of it. 

In this chapelle were buried also many of the men slayn 
at Palmesunday feeld. 

This feeld was as much fought in Saxton paroch as in 
Towton, yet it berith the name of Towton. 

From Towton to Uskelle village b aboute a mile : wher is 
a goodly house longging to a prebend yn York, and a goodly 
orchard with walkes opere topiario. 

Higden late Deane of York buildid much of this house. 

The ground about Uskel self is sumwhat low and medow- 
isch, as toward the faulle of waters about Nunappleton. The 
paroch of Ryder is but a mile from Uskelle. 

From Uskelle to Tadcaster a 3. miles by good corne and 
pasture ground and sum woodde. 

Tadcaster standith on the hither ripe of Warfe c ryver. and 
is a good thorough fare. 

The bridge at Tadcaster over W T arfe hath 8. faire arches 
of stone. 

Sum say there that it was laste made of parte of the ruines 
of the old castelle of Tadcaster. 

a Towton. b Ulleskelf. 6 Wharfe. 



44 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, A mighty great hille, dikes, and garth of this castelle on 
W. R. Warfe be yet scene a litle above the bridge ; it semith by the 
plot that it was a right stately thing. 

Tadcaster standith a mile and more from Wateling Streate 
that tendith more toward Cairlvel, and crossith over Warfe 
at a place caullid S. Helenesford, a mile and a half above 
fo. 48. Tadcaster : and on the other ripe is S. Helenes Chapelle. 

iij. miles and a half above S- Helenesford is Wetherby 
village, and there is a bridge of stone over Warfe. 

2. miles above Wetherby ys Harwood village,* and there is 
a ston bridg over Warf. 

vij. miles above Harwod is Otely, b and there is a bridg of 
stone over Warfe. 

From Tadcaster to Helegh c Priory about a 2. miles by 
enclosid ground, one Geffray Haget a noble man was first 
founder of it. 

In this priory were buried sum of the Depedales and 
Stapletons gentilmen : of whom one Sir Brian Stapleton a 
valiant knight is much spoken of. 

Geffray Haget was owner of Helegh lordship, and beside 
a great owner yn Ainste. d 

Ainste ys caullid of the Yorkshir men such partes as ly 
betwixt the ryvers of Owse, Nidde, Warfe and Aire. 

From Helegh Priory scant a mile to Helege village, there 
I saw great ruines of an auncient manor place of stone that 
longgid with the fair woddid park therby to the Erie of 
Northumbreland. It was, as far as I can perceyve, sumtyme 
the Hagetes lande. 

From Helegh village to York a vij., ij. by meatly woddy 
and enclosid ground, and 4. by playn champaine, fruteful of 
corn and grasse. 

[Here are three leaves left blank.] 

fo. 49. From York to Kexby bridge by champaine meately fertile 
East Riding, a v. miles. 

This bridge of 3. fair arches of stone standith on the praty 
ryver of Darwent, e that cummith by Malton, and as I gesse 
this bridge is toward the midle way bytwixt Malton and 
Wreshil/ wher about Darwent goith ynto Ouse. 

Bridges apon Darwent above Kexby. Staneford g bridge a 

a Harewood. b Otley. c Helaugh. d Ainstey. 

8 Derwent. * Wressell. & Stamford. 



PART I 45 

2. miles of. Butterhambridge a mile. Ousehambridge a 2. Yorkshire, 
miles of. Kirkham a 2. miles or more. Malton . . . . E. R. 
Yealdingha a 7. miles. Aybridge 3. miles. Aiton b brid 2. **. R> 
miles, and a 2. miles to the hed. 

The commune opinion ys yet that part of Darwent water 
ran to Scarburge, but by excaving of 2. sides of hilles, 
stones and yerth felle in great quantite doun and stoppid 
that course. 

Bridges on Darwent byneth Kexby be none, but men use East R. 
to passe over by feries, saving only Sutton bridg of stone 2. 
miles lower then Kexby. 

From Kexby to Wilberford village d a mile and a dim. 
Wher was a priory of nunnes : and on the left hond not far 
of was Catton Park, sumtyme the Percys, now the kinges. 

Thens to Barneby village e a 3. miles. 

And thens to Hayton village a 3. miles, wher is a praty 
broke rising a mile of yn the hilles, and passith to Darwent. 
as I hard. 

But or I cam to Hayton I passid over Pokelington bek, 
ly ving Pokelington f about a mile of on the lift hond. 

Thens to Thorp village a mile. 

Thens to Shepton village g a mile. 

Thens to Wighton h a gret uplandisch village a mile. 

Thens to Santon village, 1 wher Mr. Langdale dwellith, a 
mile. 

Thens to Lekenfeld j a vj. miles. 

And al this way bytwixt York and the parke of Lekenfeld 
ys meately fruteful of corn and grasse, but it hath litle wood. 
I lernid that al this part of the Est Ryding ys yn a hundred 
or wapentake caullid Herthil. k And sum say that it cummith 
one way to Wreshil, 1 and of other partes touchith much on fo. 50. 
the boundes of the Wold, but the Wold self is no part of 
Herthil. Pokelington a market toun of a surety ys in Herthil : 
and sum say ignorantly that Beverley ys also. But Beverley 
men take them self as an exept place. 

Lekingfeld is a large house, and stondith withyn a great 
mote yn one very spatius courte. 3. partes of the house, 

a Yeddingham. b Ayton. c Scarborough. 

d Wilberfoss. e Barmby-on-the-Moor. * Pocklington. 

8 Shipton. h Market Weighton. * Sancton, 

i Leconfield. k Harthill. 1 WresselL 



46 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, saving the meane gate that is made of brike, is al of tymbre. 
E. R. The 4. parte is fair made of stone and sum brike. 

I saw in a litle studiyng chaumber ther caullid Paradice the 
genealogie of the Percys. 

The park therby is very fair and large and meately welle 
woddid. 

Ther is a fair tour of brike for a logge yn the park. 

From Lekingfeld to Beverle a 2 miles. 

These thinges I notid yn Beverle. 

The collegiate chirche of S. John of a fair uniforme making, 
wherin, beside the tumbes of sainctes, be 3. tumbes most 
notable on the north side of the quier : yn one of them with 
a chapul archid over it is buried Percy Erl of Northumber- 
land, and his sun father to the last erle. 

In another is buried Eleanor, wife to one of the Lord 
Percys. And yn another of white alabaster Idonea Lady 
Percy, wife to one of the Lord Percys. 

Under Eleanor's tumbe is buried one of the Percys a preste. 

The prebendaries houses stand round aboute S. John's 
chirche yard. Wherof the Bishop of York hath one motid, 
but al yn mine. 

The fairest part of the provostes house is the gate and 
the front. 

There be besides yn the chirch of and 

the chirch of S. Nicolas by the holm, wher the gut for the 
fo. 51. catchis is [of S. Mary] chirch, at the north ende of the 
toune, is larg, and fair, and crosse islid. 

In the toune were of late 2. housis of freres. 

The Blak Freres, as sum say, of one Goldsmithes funda- 
tion, and so of the townes : but the Lord Darcy of late tyme 
strove for the patronage of it with the toun. 

The Gray Freres of the fundation of the Huthomes 
gentilmen of Scorburg b by Lekingfeld. The laste Erie of 
Northumbr. save one strave for the patronage of it. 

There were 4. hospitales in the toun. S. Giles, wherof one 
Wulse,*as it is thought, afore the Conquest, was [the foundarj.f 

[* Leland and Stow both wrote the long s without a stroke. Appa- 
rently it should be Wulfe.] 

[t Leland has no blank here, but omitted some word, which Stow 
supplied as above.] 

a Beverley. b Scorbrough. 



PART I 47 

it was longging to the bisshops of York ontyl such tyme that Yorkshire, 
Bisshop GuTard intitelid it to Wartre, a priorie of chanons in E - R - 
Yorkshir. It came a late to the Erie of Rutheland, and he 
suppressid it. 

Trinite Hospital yet stondith yn the hart of the toun : sum 
say one Ake foundid it. 

Ther was an hospital of S. Nicolas by the Blak Freres, 
but it is dekayid. 

Ther is an hospitale yet standying hard without the north 
Bargate of the foundation of 2. marchant men, Akeborow and 
Hogekin Overshal. As I remembre ther is an image of our 
Lady over this hospitale gate. 

Ther is an house also of the Trinite aboute the est side of 
the toune : and longgid to the order of the Knighttes of S. 
John's. 

The toune of *Beverle is large and welle buildid of wood. 
But the fairest part of it is by north, and ther is the market 
kept. 

Ther was good cloth making at Beverle : but that is nowe 
much decayid. 

The toune is not waullid : but yet be there these many 
fair gates of brike, North barre, New bigyn bar by west, and 
Kellegate barre by west also. 

From Beverle to Cotingham a a 3. mile, wherof 2. was welle fo. 52b. 
woddid, and at the 2. miles ende I left the great park of 
Beverle on the lift hond : and so a mile by low medow 
grounde to Cotingham. Al the ground about Cotingham up 
to Meause Abbay, and al that quarter that goith up on every 
side up to Kingeston apon Hulle is low ground very fruteful 
of medow and pasture. 

Entering into the south part of the great uplandisch toun 
of Cotingham, I saw wher Stutevilles Castelle, dobill dikid 
and motid, stoode, of the which nothing now remaynith. 
The landes of this signiorie and lordship greatly privilegid 
cam of later tymes by division ynto 4. partes, wherof now a 
late the king had one part, the Countes of Saresby another, 
the Erl of Westmerland the 3. and the Lord Poys the 4. At 
this tyme the king hath al, saving the Lord Poys part. fo, 53. 

At this present tyme be 4. sundry meane fermers houses, 

a Cottingham. 



48 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, as one for eche of the 4. lordes, withyn the castelle 
E - R- garth. 

The lenght of the toun of Cotingham is by sought and est. 

The paroch chirch of it is auncient and meatly larg. 

The personage is not very fair for so great a benifice. it 
lyyth on the north side of the chirch garth. 

The paroch of Cotingham is very larg. 

Ther rennith a bek by the est end of Cotingham, it risith 
yn a wood a mile of by north, and rennith by est a mile and 
a half by neth Cotingham yn to Hulle ryver at a place, as I 
remember, caullid Newlande. 

From Cotingham to Kingeston a about a 4. miles by low 
ground, wherof 2. miles be causey way, dikid on booth sides. 

Cotingham ys not even the next way from Beverle to 
Kingston, for going the next Kingeston is caullid but 6. miles 
from Beverle. 

The towne of Kingeston was in the tyme of Edward the 3. 
but a meane fischar toune, and longid as a membre to Hasille 
village b a 2. or 3. mile of, upper on Humber. 

The first great encreasing of the towne was by passing for 
fisch into Iseland, from whens they had the hole trade of 
stoke fisch into England, and partly other fisch. In Richard 
the secundes dayes the town waxid very rich : and Michael 
fo. 54. De la Pole, marchaunt of Hulle, and prentyce, as sum say, to 
one Rotenhering of the same toun, cam into so high favor 
for wit, actyvite, and riches, that he was made Counte of 
Southfolk, wherapon he got of King Richard the 2. many 
grauntes and privileges to the tonne. And yn his tyme the 
toune was wonderfully augmentid yn building, and was 
enclosid with diches, and the waul begon, and yn continuance 
endid and made al of brike, as most part of the houses of the 
toun at that tyme was. 

In the walle be 4. principal gates of brike. The north 
gate having 4. wardes, bytwixt the which and Beverle gate be 
12. touers of bryke, and yn one of them a postern. Ther 
be 5. toures of brike and a postern in one of them, as I 
remember, bytwixt Beverle gate and Miton gate. Ther be 
3. toures of brike betwixt Miton gate and Hasille gate of 3. 
wardes. And from thens to the mouth of the Havin mouth 

Kingston-upon-Hull. b Hessle. 



PART I 



49 



be a 5. toures of brik, to the which the Humber se cummith, Yorkshire, 
and in one of these is a posterne to the shore. And because E. R. 
that the waul from Hasilgate to this postern lyith strait as a 
lyne, ther is much gabylle making and wynding of hempe 
for smaul cordes. 

From the mouth of Hulle ryver upper ynto the Haven 
ther is no waulle, but every marchant hath his staires even 
to the north gate. 

Suburbes in the out part of the toun be none. 

Michael De la Pole buildid a goodly house of brik again 
the west end of S. Maries Chirch lyke a palace with goodly 
orchard and gardein at large, enclosid with brike. 

Michael De la Pole buildid also 3. houses besides in the fo. 55. 
town, wherof every one hath a tour of brike, 2. of them be 
in the hart of the toun. The 3. is apon Hulle ripe in the 
haven side. 

There be 2. chirchis yn the toun, the Trinite, and S. 
Maries, and nother of them by the name of an hedde paroch 
chirche. 

The Trinite Chirch most made of brike is the larger a gret 
deale and the fairer. 

Ther ly 4. notable chapelles on the south syde of this 
chirch, crosse islid. 

A chapel of the fundation of Hanby and one Richard 
Hansun marchauntes. 

The next is a chapel made as sum say by a chauncelar of 
Lincoln. 

The 3. is a chapelle of stone, made by Bisshop Alcock, 
borne in Beverle : wheryn Gul. Alcok [and Johan,] parentes 
[to the bishop] be buried, and ther is a cantuarie. 

The lowest chapelle is caullid the Mariners Chapelle. 

Ther is also a chapel in the body of the chirch made by 
one Rippelingham, prest, whos father a marchaunt of the 
toune lyith there : and ther is a cantuarie. 

Ther is a chapelle also on the north side of the crosse isle 
of one Robert Frost, a marchaunt man. 

The tourre in the crosse isle of this chirch for the belles is 
larg and fair. 

In the south side of this chirch yarde is the fre schole 
erectid by Bishop Alcock. 

In the west end of the chirch yard is the fair row of 
E 



50 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

fo. 56. longginges from* prestes of the toun made by one John 
Yorkshire, Grigge, mair of the toun, and by it is an hospitale made by 
E - R - the same John Grigge. 

And therby ys the Mariners Hospital. 

Selbys Hospitale is on the north side of the chirch yard. 

Selby is buried yn the south side of the waulle of isle by 
the quire : and his wife also, with very fair images. 

The White Freres College stode by Beverlegate. The 
Percys were, taken for founders of it. 

The Augustine freres stode at the est ende of Trinite Chirch. 

The toun haul is therby and a tour of brik for a prison. 

Most part of the brik that the waulles and houses of 
Kingston wer buildid was made without the south side of the 
toun; the place is caullid the Tylery. 

At such tyme as al the trade of stokfisch for England cam 
from Isleland to Kingeston, bycause the burden of stokfisch 
was light, the shipes were balissid with great coble stone 
brought out of Isleland, the which yn continuance pavid al 
the toun of Kingeston thoroughout. 

The toune of Kingeston had first by graunt custodem, then 
bailives, then maire and bailives : and in King Henry the 6. 
tyme a maire, a shirive, and the toun to be shire ground by 
it self. 

One told me that their first great corporation was grauntid 
to Kingeston a 180. yere syns. 

The charter house of the De la Poles fundation, and an 
fo. 57. hospitale of their fundation stonding by it, is without the 
north gate. The hospitale standith. Certein of the De la 
Poles wher buried yn this Cartusian monastery : and at the 
late suppressing of it were founde dyverse trowehes of leade 
with bones in a volte under the high altare ther. Most part 
of this monastery was buildid with brike, as the residew of 
the buildinges of Hulle for the most part be. 

The next trajectus from Kingston to the shore of Humbre 
in Lincolnshir is about a 3. mile to a place caullid Golflete. a 

Yet the communer traject is from Kingeston to Berton b 

[* Sic in Leland, both words being contracted. He evidently meant 
lodginges for, so read by Stow and Burton. See the same spelling on 
p. 53, 11. 10, II. Loggeings was Leland's regular spelling.] 



Goxhill. b Barton. 



PART I 51 

apon \Humber\* and that is a 7. miles of: and is cotmtid, Yorkshire, 
by reson of the violent casting of the streme, as good a E - R- 
passage as to Golflete. 

From Kingeston to Patrington, wher is an havenet or 
creke for shipes, a x. miles, on Humber shore on Yorkshir. 

Thens to Ravensburg, the very point on York side of the 
mouth of Humber, 10. miles. 

Thens to Hornesey a smaul creke an 18. miles. 

Thens to Bridlington haven a 12. miles. 

Thens to Flamborow b hed, pointing into the se, a 3. miles ; 
and so a 9. miles to Scarborow : c and as the next way liyth, 
Scarborow is as nere to Bridlington as it is to Flamburg. 

Thens an 8. miles to a fischer tounlet of 20. bootes caullid 
Robyn Huddes Bay, d a dok or bosom of a mile yn lenghth ; 
and thens 4. miles to Whiteby, 6 wher is an havenet holp with 
a peere and a great fischar toune. 

Thens to the mouth of Tese f a xv. miles. 

From Kingeston to Beverle g a vj. miles, by the gainest way East Riding, 
a v., by low pasture and marsch ground, and a mile by en- 
closid and sumwhat woddy ground. 

From Beverle to Walkington village a 2. mile, one by 
enclosid, and another by chaumpain good corne ground. 

From Walkington village to Northcave village v. miles by 
fair champain corn ground. 

There rennith a broke by Northcave and so into Humbre. 

From Northcave to Scalby a 3. miles, al by low marsch 
and medow ground, leving the arme of Humbre on the lift 
hond yn sighte. 

This fenne is communely caullid Waullyng Fenne, h and 
hath many carres of waters in it : and is so bigge that a 58. 
villages ly in and butting of it, wherof the most part be yn 
Houghden lordship longging to the Bisshop of Duresme : 
and part yn Harthil Hunderith. 

The fenne is a 16. miles in cumpace, and is al of Hough- 
denshire. 

From Walkington to Hoveden i a xij. miles, al yn Hove- fo. 58. 
denshir. 

[* Leland has no blank, nor does Stow supply the word.] 

& Hornsea. b Flamborough. Scarborough. 

a Robin Hood's Bay. e Whitby. * Tees. 

8 Beverley. h Walling Fen. * Howden. 



52 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, And thens Hovedenshir goith almost to the mouth of 
E. R. Darwent, and so up on Humber shore as good as 20. miles 
by water to very boundes of Feriby. 

From Scalby to Hoveden 4. miles, scant one by enclosid 
pasture, and 3. by morische and fenny ground. 

The toun of Howden the only market of Howdenshire is 
of no great reputation. The colligiate chirch is auncient and 
meatly faire. Ther be 5. prebendes by these names, Hove- 
dene, Thorpe, Saltmarsch, Barneby and Skelton. In the 
quire lyith one John of Hovedene, whom they caul a sainct, 
one as they say of the first prebendaries there. 

It apperith by inscription of a very fair stone varii Mar- 
moris that the bowelles of Walter Skerlaw, 1 Bisshop of Dirham, 
were biried in Howden Chirch. 

There is also a turn be, in a chapel of the sout part of the 
crosse isle of the chirch, of one of the Metehams. 

The Bisshop of Dirham palace liyth on the south of the 
chirch, wherof the first part at the entre is of tymber : the 
other 3. most of stone and part of brike. 

Certen chirchis of Howdenshir do homage to Hoveden 
Chirch. 

Ther is a park by Hovedene longging to the Bisshop of 
Duresme yn the way to Wresehil. 

In Hovedenshir be these gentilmen of most fame. 

Meteham of Meteham, half a mile from Humberside. 

Mounteton of 

Portington of Portington. 

From Hovedene to Hemingburge a yn the way toward York 
> about a 2. miles. 

There be yn the smaule collegiate chirch of Hemingburgh 
longging to Dyrham 3. smaul prebendes. 

fo. 59. From Hoveden to Wresehil b a 3. miles al by low 
medow and pasture ground, wherof part is enclosid with 
hegges. 

Yet is the ground that the castelle of Wresehil standith 
on sumwhat high yn the respect of the very lough ground 
theraboute. 

1 He built the steeple and repaired the church and hall of the mannor, 
and dyed 1406, 7. H. 4. Burton, marginal addition, fo. 23. 

a Hemingborough. * Wressel. 



PART I 53 

Most part of the basse courte of the castelle of Wresehil is Yorkshire, 
al of tymbre. E - R - 

The castelle it self is motid aboute on 3. partes. The 4. 
parte is dry where the entre is ynto the castelle. 

The castelle is al of very fair and greate squarid stone both 
withyn and withowte. wherof (as sum hold opinion) much 
was brought owt of Fraunce. 

In the castelle be only 5. towers, one at eche corner almost 
of like biggenes. The gate house is the 5, having fyve long- 
ginges * yn high[t], 3. of the other towers have 4. highes in 
longginges : the 4. conteinith the botery, pantery, pastery, 
lardery and kechyn. 

The haule and the great chaumbers be fair, and so is the 
chapelle and the closettes. 

To conclude, the house is one of the most propre beyound 
Tr[ent]e, and semith as newly made : yet was it made by a 
youngger brother of the Percys, Erie of Wiccester, that was 
yn high favor with Richard the secunde, ande bought the 
maner of Wresehil, mountting at that tyme litle above 3o//. 
by the yere : and for lak of heires of hym, and by favor of 
the king, it cam to the Erles of Northumbreland. 

The basse courte is of a newer building. 

And the last Erie of Northumberland saving one made 
the brew house of stone without the castelle waulle, but hard 
joyning to the kechyn of it. 

One thing I likid excedingly yn one of the towers, that 
was a study caullid Paradise, wher was a closet in the midle 
of 8. squares latisid aboute : and at the toppe of every square 
was a desk ledgid to set bookes on f cofers withyn them, and 
these semid as yoinid hard to the toppe of the closet : and 
yet by pulling one or al wold cum downe, briste higthe in 
rabettes, and serve for deskes to lay bokes on. 

The garde robe yn the castelle was excedingly fair. And fo. 60. 
so wer the gardeins withyn the mote, and the orchardes 
withoute. And yn the orchardes were mountes opere topiario 
writhen about with degrees like turninges of cokilshilles, to 
cum to the top without payn. The ryver of Darwent rennith 
almost hard by the castelle. and about a mile \ lower goith 

[* i.e., lodgings.] [t Books on bis in Leland.] 

[ A mile bis in Leland. ] 



54 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, ynto Owse. This ryver at greate raynes ragith and over- 
E. R. flowith much of the ground there aboute beyng low medowes. 

There is a parke hard by the castelle. 

From Wresehil to .... Fery about a mile, most 

Yorks, by medow ground, and so a xj. miles to York, wherof 

Ainsty. mos t part was in sight medow and morisch ground, and 

but meane corne, but toward York the soyle and corne was 

better. 

The towne of Yorke stondith by west and est of Ouse 
ryver, renning thorough it : but that parte that liyth by est is 
twis as great in buildinges as the other. 

Thus goith the waul from the ripe of Owse * of the est 
parte of the cite of York. 

Fyrst a great towre with a chein of yren to caste over the 
Ouse : then another tower, and so to Boudom gate : from 
Boudom bar or gate to Goodrome gate or bar x. toures. 
Thens 4. toures to Laythorp a posterngate : and so by the 
space of a 2. flite shottes the blynde and depe water of Fosse 
cumming oute of the forest of Galtres defendith this part of 
the cyte without waulle. Then to Waume gate 3. toures, 
and thens to Fisscher gate stoppid up sins the communes 
burnid it yn the tyme of King Henry the 7. Sum say that 
Waume gate was erectid at the stopping up of Fisschar gate : 
but I dout of that. And yn the waul by this gate is a stone 
with this inscription : LX. yardes yn lenghth Anno D. 1445. 
William Todde mair of York did this coste. 

fo. 61. Thens to the ripe of Fosse a 3. toures, and yn the 3. a 
posterne. 

And thens over Fosse by a bridge to the castel. Fosse 
bridge of [5.] arches above it : Laithorpbridg on Fosse of 3. 
arches. Monke bridge on Fosse of 5. arches withoute Good- 
rome gate. 

The area of the castelle is of no very great quantite. 
There be a 5. ruinus toures in it. 

The arx is al in ruine : and the roote of the hille that yt 
stondith on is environid with an arme derivid out of Fosse 
water. 

These be the notable places withyn the waul of that part of 
York that standith on the est side of Owse. The cathedrale 

a Ouse. 



PART I 55 

chirch with the palace betwixt Boudom gate and Godrom Yorkshire, 
gate. S. Leonardos sumtyme a priory of chanons. Ainsty. 

There be viij. arches yn eche of the side isles of the body 
of the cathedrale chirch of York, and 4. on eche part of the 
cros isle, and 9. on eche of the isles of the sides of the est 
part of the chirch. 

The Augustine Freres bytwixt the toure on Ouse ripe and 
Owse bridge having 6. arches. 

The White Freres not very far from Laythorpe gate. 

Ther was a place of the Bigotes hard withyn Laithorp 
gate, and by it an hospital of the Bigotes fundation. Syr 
Francis Bigot let booth the hospital and his house al to mine. 

The hospitale of S. Antony foundid about a 100. yeres 
syns, by a knight of Yorkshir, caullid John Langtoun. Sum 
say that he was mair of York. 

The Gray Freres not far from the castelle. 

The priori of Blak Chanons with the hospital of S. 
Leonardes. 

The hospitale northwarde above Fosse bridge of the 
foundation of the marchantes of the toun, and dedicate to 
the Trinite. 

The chapelle on Fosse bridge. 

Ther was a fundation of an hospitale hard without the 
very side of Michelgate of the erecting of Syr Richard of 
York, mair of York, whom the communes of Yorkshir when 
they enterid into York by brenning of Fisscher gate in the 
reign of Henry the 7. woold have behedid. But the funda- 
tion was never finishid. 

S. Marie Abbay without Boudom gate. 

S. Andreas a house of chanons Gilbertines by Owse with- 
out Fisschargate. 

Ther was a house of religion about one of the barres of 
Yorke, wherby the burgeges of York and the Henawdes that 
cam to war in aid of Edward the 3. faute, and divers were 
slain. I hard one say that it was a house of Whit monkes. 

A chapelle and the toun haule above Ousebridg on the 
est ripe with a (aula civicd) and an hospitale. 

A chapelle or chirch on Ouse bridg. 

Ouse bridg hath 6. archis. 

From York to Aire-Mouth apon Ouse by water a 24. miles, 
Thens to Hulle 24. miles. 



56 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

v* 6 v From York [to] Borow Bridge a by water a 16. miles. 
Ainstv ' The west P art of the cite of York is this enclosid : first a 
turret, and so the waul rennith over the side of the dungeon 
of the castelle on the west side of Ouse right agayn the 
castelle on the este ripe. The plotte of this castelle is now 
caullid the old baile and the area and diches of it do mani- 
festely appere. Betwixt the beginning of the firste part of 
this west waulle and Michel gate be ix. toures : and betwixt 
it and the ripe again of Owse be a xi. toures, and at this 
lower tower of the xi. ys a posterne gate : and the toure of it 
is right again the est toure to draw over the chaine on Owse 
betwixt them. 

In this west part was a priory of blak monkes caullid the 
Trinite. [Mauricius Panill was foundar there of in the 16. 
yere of William Rufus.] * 

The nunnery of Clement Thorpe stode without the waul 
of the west part right again S. And[re]as. 

Ther was also not far from Michel gate a house of Blake 
frerfes.] 

The fraunches and liberties of Yorke streache far aboute 
them, especial by the enclosinges of certeyn ryvers there- 
about. And one way it cummith to the very bridge of Tad- 
caster apon Warfe.f 

fo. 63b. From York to Stokton b yn the moore a 3. miles by low 
North pasture and moorisch ground. 

Riding Thens a 5. miles by much lyke ground, and so passid over 
a broke cumming from Shirifwottes Castelle quarters. The 
place wher I passid over it is communely caullid the Spitel, 
corruptly for hospitale. 

A litle beyond that as about half a mile is Whitewelle 
village : J c and a mile of on the right hond by a wood ys 
Kirkham. 

Thereabout the feeldes for a miles space were inclosid, and 
sum woodes therabout. 

Thens a 2. miles by fyrry to a bek caullid Crambek, cum- 
ming from Hinderskelle d Castelle standing yn ground ful of 

[* Added by Stow.] [f Leland left nearly two pages blank here.] 
[J Leland wrote uilgage in error.] 



* Boroughbridge. b Stockton. c Whit well. d Hinderskelfe, 



PART I 57 

springes. This bek goith into Darwent not far of. Hinder- Yorkshire, 
skel a is 3. miles from Malton. N. R. 

Malton is 26. miles from Hulle, xx. to Beverle, vj. to 
Hulle. Thens to Malton a 3. miles : and the ground is 
hilly there and daly, and plentiful of corne and pasture. 

The toune of Malton stondith as I cam onto it on the fo. 64. 
hither side of Darwent, and hath a good market and 2. 
chapelles in it as members to the paroche chirch of Malton 
yet stonding, where the late priory yn old Malton was. It is a 
quarter of a mile above the toun on the same side of Darwent. 

The castel of Malton hath been larg, as it apperith by the 
ruine. There is at this tyme no habitation yn it, but a mene 
house for a farmer. 

These men hath the lordship of Malton in partition. The 
Lord Clifford, Yevers, and one of the Coniers. But Yevers 
hath beside the hole lordship of old Malton. 

Lord William Vescy and diverse of the Yevers wer buried 
at Malton. The old inheritaunce of the Yevers is Wotton 
Castelle yn the bisshoprik. Yevers hath also a goodly [lord- 
ship] by Mitford in Northumbreland caullid Berwik on the 
Hil. b 

The Lord Vescy left' a doughter that was maried to Aiton. 
and the doughter of Aiton was maryed to the Lord Brom- 
feld : and his 3. doughters to Clifford, Yevers, and Coniers 
of Sokburne. 

Rie c cumming out of Blakmore passith by Rivers d Abbay, 
and takith in of the lift hand of it Ricolle : then Seven, then 
Costey and Pykering brooke. 

Seven risith, as I could estimate, in the side of Blake 
More, and thens goith by Sinington, 6 wher the Lord Latimer 
hath a fair manor place a 4. miles from the town of Pykering: 
and about a mile above .... bridge on Ry goith 
ynto Rye water. 

Costey springith in the egge of the very toun of Pykering 
at a place caullid Keldehedde, and goith ynto Rie a 2. miles 
beneth Pykering about Kyrkeby Minster/ 

Pykering water risith in Blakemore and goith half a mile 
benethe Pikering in[to Costey.] 

a Hinderskelfe. b Berwick-on-the-Hill. c Rye. 

d Rivaulx. e Sinnington. f Kirkby Misperton. 



58 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, Mount Ferrant Castelle stoode 2. miles from Malton in 
N. R. the lordship and paroche of Byrdeshaul. a It is now clerely 
defacid, and bussches grow wher it stoode. This castelle 
sum time belongid to the Lord Maulley, of the which stok 
ther were 8. yn succession, al by the name of Peter. The 
laste of these Peters left 2. dough ters, wherof one was maried 
to Bigot, and the other to Salwaine. Bigot had yn division 
Mougreve with 8. tounelettes ther about the se cost longging 
to it, wherof Seton therby was one, he had also Mountferrate 
with Birdeshaul and Suadale lordship in Richemontshire, 
with other. 

Saulwayne had for his part of Maulleys landes the barony 
of Eggeston b on Eske not far from Whitby, also Lokington, c 
Barugh, d not far from Watton on Hulle ryver (ther was ons 
a fair manor place of Maulleys at Barugh), Nessewik and the 
lordship of Dancaster : * for the which Dancaster he tooke 

fo. 65. a lordship caullid of Percy, the which 

after by attaindure of one of the Percys cam thus to the 
kinges handes. For though Percys were restorid to their 
inheritaunce, yet they lost Dancaster as a peace got by 
exchaung or byinges. 

The only house and lordship of Ceterington 6 was Bigotes 
of Yorkshir first inheritaunce there. For it longid afore to 
Bigot Erl Marescal, and so cam as landes entailid to the 
heire male to a younger brother of the Bigotes. Diverse of 
the Bigotes ly buried in the paroch chirch of Ceterington. 

Sum say that Mount Ferrant was thus throuen doune. 
The 2. of the Bigotes of Ceterington after the death of Bigot 
Marescal did secretely woe and wan the wylle of one of the 
Albemarles doughters Erie of Holdernes. Wherapon Albe- 
merle with great indignation, Bigot being absent, assaultid 
Mount Ferrant, wan it and rasid it : yet Bigot after made his 
peace with Albemarle : and had his doughtter by meane of 
intercessor, emong whom the prior of Watton was chifest, to 
whos house Bygot after for love impropriatid the personage 
of Byrdeshaule. And sum say that this Bigot made of the 

[* Petrus de Malo lacu dominus de Dancastre, in margin. L.] 



a Birdsall. b Egton. c Lockington. 

d Brough. e Settrington. 



PART I 59 

manor place of Mougreve a castel in recompence of Mount Yorkshire, 
Ferrant. N. R. 

Mougreve a Castelle stondith on apon a craggy hille : and 
on ech side of it is an hille far higher then that whereon the 
castelle stondith on. The north hille on the toppe of it 
hath certen stones communely caullid Waddes Grave, whom 
the people there say to have bene a gigant and owner of 
Mougreve. There is by these stones a bekyn. Out of the 
mores by Mougreve cum doun by many springes, 2. bekkes, 
one of eche side of the castelle, and yn the valeys of the 2. fo. 66. 
great hilles. The one is caullid Sandbek, the other Estbek, 
and shortely after goith to the se that is not far of. 

From Malton to Shirburne villag b about an 8. miles by Bast R 
champaine ground, fruteful of grass and corne, but litle or 
no wood. The Erie of Saresbyri was lord of Shirburn : and 
King Richard had it by Anne his wife. 

From Shirburne by hilles on the right hond and low 
ground with carres on the lift hond a v. miles to Semar, c a North R. 
great uplandisch toune, having a greate lake on the south 
west side of it. Whereof the toun takithe name. 

I saw yn the quire of the meane paroch chirch there a 
playn marble stone yn the quire, with an epitaphi yn French, 
wher were buried John Percy and Johan de Aton. 

The manor place of the Percys at the west [end of the] 
chirch garth is large [but of no richje building : the chapel 
[yn it only] ys welle buildid. 

Thens a mile by meatly playn ground, and so 2. miles 
more yn a vale enclosid with stepe hilles on ech side to 
Scardeburg. 

Scardeburg toune d though it be privilegid, yet it semith to 
be yn Pikering Lithe, for the castelle of Scardeburgh is 
countid of the jurisdition of Pikering, and the shore from 
Scardeburgh to the very point of Philaw e bridge by the se 
about a vj. miles from Scardeburgh toward Bridlington is of 
Pikering Lith jurisdiction. Scardeburg wher it is not de- 
fendid by the warth and the se is waullid a litle with ston, 
but most with diches and waules of yerth. In the toune to 
entre by land be but 2. gates : Newburgh gate, meately good, 
and Aldeburgh gate, very base. The toune stondith hole on 

a Mulgrave. b Sherburn. Searaer. 

d Scarborough. e Filey. 



60 LELAND'S ITINERARY 



fo 67. a s ^ at y c ^ e : an ^ s hoi[th very] fair to the se side. Th[er is 

Yorkshire, ^ ut one ] P ar oche chirch in the town, of our Lady, joyning 

N. R. almost to the castelle : it is very faire and is isled on the 

sides, and crosse islid, and hath 3. auncient towres for belles 

with pyramides of them : wherof 2. toures be at the west end 

of the chirch, and one yn the midle of the cross isle. There 

is a great chapelle by side by the Newborow gate. 

There were yn the toun 3. howsis of freres, gray, blake 
and white. 

At the est ende of the totme, on the one poynt of the 
bosom of the se, where the harborow for shippes is, stondith 
an exceding goodly larg and stronge castelle on a stepe rok, 
having but one way by the stepe slaty crag to cum to it. 
And or ever a man can entre aream Castelli ther be 2. toures, 
and betwixt eche of them a draw bridg, having stepe rok on 
eche side of them. In the first court is the arx and 3. toures 
and row, and then yoinith a waul to them, as an arme downe 
from the first courte to the point of the se cliffe, conteining 
in it vj. toures, wherof the 2. is square, and fulle of longging, 
and is caullid the Quenes Towre or lodging. 

Without the first area is a great grene, conteyning (to 
reken down to the very shore) a xvj. acres, and yn it is a 
chapelle, and, beside, olde waulles of houses of office that 
stoode there. But of al the castelle the arx is the eldest and 
the strongest part, the entery of the castelle betwixt the draw 
bridges is such that with costes the se might cum round 
about the castelle, the which standith as a litle foreland or 
poynt betwixt 2. bayes. 

At the south est point of Scarburgh toun by the shore is 
a bulwark, now yn ruine by the se rage, made by Richard 
fo. 68. the 3. that lay a while at Scardeburg Castelle, and, beside, 
began to waul * a pece of the toun guadrato saxo. 

Ther cummith by south este of the bulwark a rill of fresch 
water, and so goith ynto the se. 

I hard there of an old mariner that Henry the First gave 
grete privilege to the town of Scardeburge. 

The peere wherby socour is made for shippes is now sore 
decayid, and that almost yn the midle of it. 

[* The word waul is obscure, but this is probably the right reading. 
Stow has began toward, which gives no sense.] 



PART I 61 

The toune of Scardeburge is 36. miles from Hulle. 30. to Yorkshire, 
Beverle and vj. to Hulle. N. R. 

From Scardeburg to Robyn Huddes Bay a an 8. miles : and 
thens to Whitby, wher a new key and port is yn making of 
stone faullen down yn the rokkes thereby : and al this is 
cliffy shore : and so is the shore to Tese mouth thens just 
1 6. miles, saving a 6. miles toward the mouth of Tese 
ryver. 

From Scardeburg to Bridlington 9. miles al be cliffes to East R. 
Flamborow, and so to the mouth of Bridlington haven. 

As Flamburgh Point lyith, Bridlington lyith as nere to 
Scardeburgh as Flamburg doith. 

Flamburg b is now taken rather for a maner place then a 
castelle. 

From Bridlington to Hornesey c a xij. miles by .... 
shore. 

Thens xviij. miles to Ravenspurgh, d and x. to Patrington, 
a toun of no market, yet having an havenet. Thens to 
Heddon haven a 6. miles, and 4. to Hulle. 

Heddon e hath beene a fair haven toun : it standith a mile 
and more withyn the creke, that cummith out of Humbre 
ynto it. 

The se crekes parting aboute the sayde toun did insulate 
it, and shippis lay aboute the toun : but now men cum to it 
by 3. bridges, wher it is evident to see that sum places wher fo. 69. 
the shippes lay be over growen with flagges and reades : and 
the haven is very sorely decayid. 

There were 3. paroche chirchis in tyme of mynde : but 
now ther is but one of S. Augustine : but that is very 
fair. 

And not far from this chirch garth appere tokens of a pile 
or castelle that was sumtyme ther for a defence of the town. 
The town hath yet greate privileges with a mair and bailives : 
but wher it had yn Edwarde the 3. dayes many good shippes 
and riche marchaunts, now there be but a few botes and no 
marchauntes of any estimation. Suaruing * and choking of 

[* Suaruing \ from verb to swerve, to turn aside.] 



a Robin Hood's Bay. b Flamborough. c Hornsea- 

d Ravensburgh. e Hedon. 



62 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, the haven, and fier defacing much of the toun hath beene 
B. R. the decay of it. 

Sum say that the staple of woulle of the north partes was 
ons ther. Treuth is that when Hulle began to flourish, 
Heddon decaied. 

The Erie of Albemarle and Holdernes was lord of Heddon : 
and also of Skipton yn Craven at the same tyme. 

This erle had a great maner place at Newton, a mile 
byneth Hedon, nerer to Humbre then it. for it stondith on 
the lower side of the creke : and Heddon on the upper. 

Ther be 2. cantuarie prestes foundid by the Albemarles at 
Newton. 

The Albemarles had also a castelle or great manor place 
at Skipsey a yn Holdernes, not far from the shore, a vj. or vij. 
miles from Bridlington. 

The countery of Holdernes ys thus encludid. First by 
the confines on the shore betwixt Bridelington and Skipsey. 
Then for the Erles Dike, made by one of the Albemarles 
Erles of Holdernes : and this dyke ys a 3. or 4. miles from 
Bridlington, and goith withyn a litle of Frodingham-bridge 
fo. 70. of tymbre, the only bridge on Hulle water : so that the ende 
of the diche cummith with the water of it a litle above the 
bridg as Hulle ryver goith. It flouith at high springges to 
Frodingham bridge. 

Then from this bridg that is a 2. miles or more byneth 
Dryfelde b the ryver of Hulle kepith yn the march of Holder- 
nes to the very mouth of Hulle haven : and thens the marche 
of Holdernes is to Ravenspur the very mouth of Humbre : 
and thens the occean se to the shore bytwixt Skipsey and 
Bridlington. 

From Scardeburg to Aiton c a 3. miles, wher cumming 
over Darwent I saw 'a manor place sumtyme longging to a 
knight caullid Aiton : now to the best of the Yevers. At 
this manor place is a tower or pile. 

Thens to Brunston d a 3. or 4. miles : and a 3. miles to 
Wileton, 6 wher is a manor place with a tower longging to 
Cholmeley. This Cholmeley had much of one Hastinges (a 
knight) landes. This Cholmeley hath a howse also at 
Rollesley: and Cholmeley's father that now is was as an 

* Skipsea. b Driffield. c Ayton. d Brompton. e Wilton. 



PART I 63 

hedde officer at Pykeringe, and setter up of his name yn that Yorkshire, 
quarters. N R - 

Thens to Pykering : and moste of the ground from Scarde- 
burg to Pykering was by hille and dale meate plentifull of 
corn and grasse but litle wood in sight. 

The toune of Pykering a is large but not welle compact to 
gither. The greatest part of it with the paroch chirch and 
the castel is on the south est part of the broke renning 
thorough the toune, and standith on a great slaty hille. The 
other part of the toun is not so bigge as this : the brook 
rennith bytwixt them that sumtyme ragith, but it suagith 
shortely agayn : and a mile beneth the toun goith ynto 
Costey. 

In Pykering Chirch I saw 2. or 3. tumbes of the Bruses, fo.7i. 
whereof one with his wife lay yn a chapel on the south syde 
of the quier. and he had a garland about his helmet. Ther 
was another of the Bruses biried in a chapel under an arch 
of the north side of the body of the quier : and there is a 
cantuarie bering his name. 

The Deane of York hath by impropriation the personage 
of Pykering. to the which diverse chirchis of Pykering Lith 
doith homage. 

The castelle stondith in an end of the town not far from 
the paroch chirch on the brow of the hille, under the which 
the broke rennith. In the first court of it be a 4* toures, of 
the which one is caullid Rosamunde's Toure. 

In the ynner court be also a 4. toures, wherof the kepe is 
one. The castelle waulles and the toures be meatly welle ; 
the logginges yn the ynner court that be of timbre be in 
ruine, in this inner court is a chappelle and a cantuarie prest. 

The castelle hath of a good continuance with the towne 
and lordship longgid to the Lancaster bloode : but who 
made the castelle or who was owner of it afore the Lancasters 
I could not lerne there. The castelle waulles now remaining 
seme to be of no very old building. 

As I remembre I hard say that Richard the thirde lay 
sumtyme at this castelle, and sumtyme at Scardeburgh 
Castelle. 

In the other part of the toune of Pykering passing over [a] 

a Pickering. 



64 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, brook by a stone bridg of v. arches I saw 2. thinges to be 

N - R - notid, the mines of a manor place, caullid Bruses-Haul, and 

a manor place of the Lascelles at Keldhed. The circuite 

of the paroch of Pykering goith up to the very browes of 

Blakmore, and is xx. miles in cumpace. 

fo. 72. The park by the castelle side is more than vij. miles in 
\cumpace\ but it is not welle wooddid. 

The liberties of Pikering Lith and limites touchith to the 
very bridg of Philaw a by the shores side a 6. miles from 
Scardeburg toward Bridlington, and thens again by the shore 
to Scardeburg Castelle, and so upward toward Whiteby. 

In another place toward the wald it goith to Normanby 
bridge. 

And in another corner it goith to [the] very browes of 
Blakmore. So that I reken it sum way as good as a xx. 
miles in lenghth, at non part latitudine. 

And though yn sum part it passith over Darwent by 
Aiton, yet in another place toward Malton, Darwent doth 
exclud it. 

And there I lernid of Mr. Conestable, that the cuntery 
lying on the north est side of Darwent from Shirburne b 
paroch to Stanford bridg on Darwent is of an hunderith, 
bering the name Hercrosse, and lyith bytwixt the woold and 
Ridale. 

These houses of religion were in Pikering Lith on Darwent : 

Wikeham c a priory of nunnes, and Yeallingham, d a 2. 
miles lower on Darwent, a priory also of nunnes. 

There stode lower on this ryver, but not in Pykering Lith, 
Malton and Kirkham priories. 

From Pykering to Thornton bridge on Rie ryver a 3. miles. 
So that descending from Pykering toun I passid thorough 
a plain low medow lying in the same paroch : and I gessid 
it to be in cumpace a 4. miles. 

But or I cam to Rie, e I passid over Costey water, that a 
mile lower then Pikering receyvith Pykering brok, a bigger 
water then it. 
fo. 73. * From Rie to Appleton a mile and more : and thens to 

[* CentemJ "antes, in margin. L.] 



Filey. b Sherburn. c Wykeham. d Yeddingham. e Ryton. 



PART I 65 

Hinderskel a a 2. miles and a half, part by low but most by Yorkshire, 
high ground. There is a fair quadrant of stone having 4. N - R- 
toures buildid castelle like, but it is no ample thing. The 
latter building of it semith to have bene made by the Gray- 
stok, whos landes the Lord Dacres now hath. 

The park of Hinderskel by my estimation is a 4. miles yn 
cumpace, and hath much fair yong wod yn it. 

From Hinderskel to Shirhuten b Castelle a 4. miles, most 
by high ground. 

A mile a this side Shirhuten I left on the right hond . . 
. . Mr. Gower's auncient manor place. 

The castelle of Shirhuten, as I lernid there, was buildid 
by Rafe [Nevill} * of Raby the first Erl of Westmorland of the 
Nevilles : and I hard that in his tyme he buildid or greatly 
angmentid or repairid 3. castelles by side. 

There is a base court with houses of office afore the enter- 
ing of the castelle. 

The castelle self in the front is not dichid, but it stondith 
in loco utcunque edito. 

I markid yn the fore front of the first area of the castelle 
self 3. great and high toures, of the which the gate house was 
the midle. In the secunde area ther be a 5. or 6. toures, 
and the stately staire up to the haul is very magnificent, and 
so is the haul it self, and al the residew of the house : in so 
much that I saw no house in the north so like a princely 
logginges. 

I lernid ther that the stone that the castel was buildid with 
was fetchid from a quarre at Terington c a 2. miles of. 

There is a park by the castel. 

This castel was wel maintainid, by reason that the late 
Duke of Northfolk lay ther x. yers, and sins the Duk of 
Richemond. 

From Shirhuten b to York vij. miles, al in the forest offo. 74. 
Galtres, wherof 4. miles or more was low medowes and 
morisch ground ful of carres, the residew by better ground 
but not very high. 

Owte of this side of the forest cummith as a drener of it 
Fosse water to York. 

[* Interlineation in Leland's MS. since Stow's time, by Burton.] 

a Hinderskelfe. h Shcrriff Hutton. c Teningt-,r.. 

F 



66 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, I saw very litle wood yn this quarter of the forest. 
N. R. There is a place in York caullid David Haul, assignid as 

a place of punischment for offenders in Galtres. 

From York to Tollerton a lordship with a village longging 
to the office of the thesaurer of York Minster 8. miles by 
higher ground then the other part of Galtres, and reasonably 
woddid. 

Then I saw on the right hond a 4. miles of the castelle of 
Crek, a gyven by King Ecbright to S. Cuthebert. 

Ther remainith at this tyme smaul shew of any old castel 
that hath beene there. There is an haul with other offices 
and a great stable voltid with stone of a meatly auncyent 
building. The great squar tower that is thereby, as in the 
toppe of the hille and supplement of logginges, is very fair, 
and was erectid totally by Neville Bisshop of Duresme. 

There is a park, and the circuite of the lordship is 7. miles: 
the value being a 40/7". by the yere. 

From Tollerton I passid a 2. miles farther in the forest of 
Galtres, and ther it extendith no farther. 

About this place loking on the left hand I saw Miton 
village, b that is x. miles by north west from York : wherby 
the Scottes had victory of the Englisch host in Edward the 
2. tyme. 

f. 75- Thens a miles * to Herperby village c by meatly good corn 
ground, pasture, and medow, and sum wooddes. 

Thens to Thornton bridge, of 3. arches on the depe and 
swift stream of Swale, a mile. 

And thens to Topeclif, d an uplandisch toune, a 3. miles, 
wher I cam over Swale by bridge of tymbre. 

The praty manor place of Topclif stondith on a hille 
about half a mile from the toune, almost on the ripe of 
Swale. 

The last Erl of Northumbreland did cost on this house. 

There long 2. partes f to this manor, the bigger wherof is 
a 6. or 7. miles in cumpace, and is welle wooddid. 

From Topclif to Brakenbyri, 6 wher Master Lacelles hath 

[* Stow has mile.'} [t Stow reads parks.] 



Crayke. b Myton. c Helperby. 

d Topeliffe. e Brackenborough. 



PART I 67 

huildid a very praty house, a 4. miles : and hard therby ren- Yorkshire, 
nith Wisk ryver, and devidith the lordshipes of Brakenbyri N. R. 
and Kirkby Wisk. 

I saw the smaul market toun of Tresk & on the right hond 
about a mile from Brakenbyri. 

At Tresk was a great castel of the Lord Mowbrays. And 
there is a park with praty wood about it. 

There is much land about that quarter, holden of the 
signiorie of Tresk. 

The broke caullid Coddebek rising yn the browes of Blake 
More therby cummith by Tresk, and after goith into [ Wil- 
lowebefc] * ryver. 

From Kirkeby Wisk to Northalverton b a 4. miles by 
pasture and corne ground. 

I markid by much of the way as I roode from Tollerton 
onto Wisk bridg, most communely caullid Smithon bridge, 
that I passid yn a meately fertile valley bytwixt Blakemore 
hilles by est, and Richemontshir hilles by weste, a good 
distance being bytwixt them. 

The towne of Northalverton is yn one fair long streate 
lying by south and north. 

The paroch chirch of it is large, but in it I saw no tumbes 
of noble men yn it. 

Ther was a house of freres in the est side fo. 76. 

of the toune. 

And yn the same coste but a mile or I cam ynto the 

towne I saw the Hospitale of S foundid by 

. . . . Bisshop of Dyrham. 

At the west side of Northalverton a litle from the chirch 
is the Bisshop of Dyrham's palace, strong of building and 
welle motid. 

And a 2. flite shottes west north west from it be diches 
and the dungeon hillewher the castelle of Alverton sumtyme 
stoode. No part of the walles thereof now apperith. 

There cummith a very litle bek thorough the toun of 
Northalverton as from est to west, and is communely caullid 
Sunnebek. 

[* Inserted since Stow's time, (?) by Burton.] 



Thirsk. D IMorthallerton. 



68 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, A litle by north without Alverton toun is a bridg of one 
N - R - arch of stone, thorough the which cummith a bygger broke 
then Sunnebek, and rising partely out of [the est] cummith 
toward the west, and passith thorough the medowes bytwixt 
the castelle hilles and the bisshopes palace, and therabout 
receyvith Sunnebek into it, and within half a mile lower goith 
into Wisk. 

Northalvertonshir is holely of the dition of the Bisshop of 
Duresme, and such gentilmen as have landes there be of the 
holde of the bisshop. 

These gentilmen be of most name in Northalvertonshire : 

Strangwaise of Harlesey, a wher Strangwaise the juge buildid 
a praty castelle. 

Malory. 

Coniers at 

Vincent in Smithon b paroch a litle* beyond Smithon 
bridge. 

Thwaites, whose house I saw on the lift hond, a litle a this 
side Smithon bridge. 

fo. 77 , Ther is very litle wood yn Northalvertonshire : and but 
one park at Huten c now withoute deere. 

The shire of Northalverton strechith one way from within 
a litle of Ripon nere to Tese bank, and on the est is limitid 
with Blakemore-hilles, and on the west with Richemontshire. 

The place caullid Cowton More, wher, as sum say, was 
the feld of the standard bytwixt the Englisch menne and the 
Scottisch, is, as I lernid, a 4. miles by north west from 
Alverton. 

There is good corne in Northalverton, yet a great peace of 
the ground that I saw at hand bytwixt Northalverton and 
Smithon bridge is low pasture and mores, wherof part beere 
sum fyrres. 

From Alverton to Smithon d bridge a 6. miles, wher Wisk 
rennith cumming a 6. miles of by este from Smithon. 

Thens a 3. miles to the trajectus over Tese to Sokbourne. 
Notable bridges on Tese. 

Yareham e bridg of stone, a 3. miles above Stokton, made, 
as I hard, by Bisshop Skirlow. 

[* The original has lithe, Stow reads litle.'] 
a Harlsey. b Smeaton. c Hutton. d Smeaton. e Yarm. 



PART I 69 

Croft bridge. Yorkshire, 

Perse a bridge. N. R. 

Sokburne b where as the eldest house is of the Coniers, 
with the demains about it, of a mile cumpace of exceding 
plesaunt ground, is almost made an isle as Tese ryver 
windedith about it. 

A litle beneth the maner place is a great were for fisqh. 

In the paroche chirch of Sokbourn is the tumbe of Sir 
John Coniers, that maried Elisabeth, eldest [daughter] to 
Bromflete Lord S. John, and Bromflet, as I saw it ons 
writen, was made Lord Vescy by King Henry the 6. for he 
had much of the Lord Vescy land by mariyng the doughter 
and heir of Aton a knight, that came lineally of a doughter. 

Anastasia the 2d. doughter was maried to the Lord 
Clifforde, and Katarine to Eure. 

The house and land of Sokburn hath bene of auncient 
tyme the very inheritaunce of the Coniers, whos name (as I 
lernyd of hymself) is in auncient writingesCongres not Coniers. 

From Sokburn to Niseham c apon Tese a 3. miles : and fo, 78. 
then a v. miles to Darington by pure good corne. Durham. 

Darington d bridge of stone is, as I remembre, of 3. arches, 
it is the best market town in the bisshoprick, saving Duresme. 

There is an exceding long and fair altare stone de vario 
marmore, hoc est, nigro albis maculis distincto, at the high 
altare in the collegiate paroche chirch of Darington. 

There is a dene longging to this college and . . . 
prebendaries. 

The Bisshop of Duresme hath a praty palace in this toune. 

From Darlington to Acheland e 8. good miles by resonable 
good corne and pasture. 

A mile a this side Akeland Castelle I cam over a bridg of 
one great arch on Gaundelesse f a praty ryver rising a vj. 
miles of by west : and renning by the south side of Akeland 
Castelle goith a litle beneth it to the great streame of Were. g 

Gaundeles rising by west cummith by Westakeland, 1 ' byS. 
Helenes Akeland, 1 by S. Andreas Akeland,- 1 and by Bisshop 
Akelande. 

a Piercebridge. b Sockburn. c Neasham. 

d Darlington. e Bishop Auckland. f Gaunless. 

8 Wear. h West Auckland. * St. Helen's Auckland. 

J St. Andrew's Auckland 



70 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Durham. The towne self of Akeland is of no estimation, yet is ther 
a praty market of corne. 

It standith on a praty hille by t ween 2. ryvers, wherof Were 
lyith on the north side, and Gaimdelesse on the south, and 
an arow shot or more benethe they meete and make one 
streame, and ren to the este. And ech of these rivers hath 
an hille by it, so that Bisshop Castelle Akeland standith on 
a litle hille bytwixt 2. great [hills]. 

There was of very auncient a manor place logging to the 
Bisshop of Duresme at Akeland. Antonius de Beke began 
first to encastellate it, he made the greaut haulle, there be 
divers pillors of blak marble spekelid with white, and the 
exceding fair gret chaumbre with other there. 

He made also an exceding goodly chapelle ther of stone 
welle squarid, and a college with dene and prebendes yn it, 
and a quadrant on the south w[est] side of the castell for 
ministers of the college. 

Skerlaw, Bisshop of Duresme, made the goodly gate house 
at entering ynto the castelle of Akeland. 

fo. 79. There is a fair park by the castelle having falow dere, wild 
bulles and kin. 

From Bisshop Akeland to Walsingham a a 7. miles, thens 
to Frosterley 2. milys, thens to Stanhop b 2. miles, thens to 
Estgate c 2. miles, thens to Westgate 2. miles, thens to Wer- 
dale Chapel d 2. miles; and al these places, saving Werdale 
Chapell, be on the north side of Were. 

The Bisshop of Duresme hath a praty square pile on the 
north side of Were ry ver caullid the Westgate, and thereby is 
a parke rudely enclosid with stone of a 12. or 14. miles yn 
cumpace: it is xvj.* miles up in Were Dale from Akeland 
Castelle. 

There be, as I hard, sum litle ferme holdes in this 
park. 

On the side of Were river is Stanop. Stanop 6 is xij. miles 
from Akeland : and is the hedde paroch of Werdale. 

Woulsingham f on Were sumtime a smaul market, now 
none, is a vij. miles above Akeland. 

[* Leland first wrote xij,, then corrected it to xvj.] 

a Wolsingham. b Stanhope. c East Gate. 

d St. John's Weardale. e Stanhope. f Wolsingham. 



PART I 71 

The ryver of Were risith a 8.* miles above Stanope or Durham, 
more. And though the upper part of Weredale be not very 
fertile of corne ; yet ys there very fine gresse in the dale self 
wher the ryver passith. 

The very hedde of Were risith of 2. smaul waters, Burnhop* 
and Kelope. b Burnhop cummith by south and Kelhop by 
north, they 2. joining make Were. Ther cummith also 
Welop c [be]k in by Kelhop. 

There resorte many redde dere stragelers to the mountaines 
of Weredale. 

Weredale lying as pece of the west marches of the bis- 
shoprik toward Westmerland is wel wooddid : and so be the 
quarters of Akeland : for by the name it apperith to have 
beene ful of okes. 

Binchester now a poore villag stondith on the south side 
of Were, and is but half a mile beneth Castelle Akeland. 

It stondith on the brow of an hille, and there I saw, as I 
roode on the south side, a litle fosse, and inditia of old 
buildinges. 

In the ploughid feeldes hard by thys village hath and be 
founde Romaine coynes, and other many tokens of antiquite. 

Betwixt Akeland and Bincester is an exceding fair bridg 
of one arch apon Were. There is another a litle above 
Duresme caullid Thunderland Bridge. 

From Binchester to Branspeth d 4. miles, al by mountaine fo. 80. 
ground, as is about Akeland, and not fertile of corne, but 
welle woddid. 

Ar I cam by a mile and more to Branspeth I passid by a 
ford over Were ryver. 

The village and castelle of Branspeth stondith on a rokky 
among hilles higher then it. 

On the southe west part of the castelle cummith doune a 
litle bek out o the rokkes and hilles not far of. 

The castelle of Branspeth is stronly f set and buildid, and 
hath 2. courtes of high building. Ther is a litle mote that 
hemmith a great peice of the first court. In this court be 3. 
toures of logging, and 3. smaule ad ornamentum. The 

[* Leland first wrote 2, but correcting it to 8 forgot to write an.] 
[t Stow has strongly, ,] 



a Burnhope. b Killhope. c Wellhope. d Brancepeth. 



72 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Durham, pleasure of the castelle is in the 2. court : and entering into 
it by a great toure I saw in schochin in the fronte of it a lion 
rampaunt. Sum say that Rafe Nevile the first Erie of West- 
merland buildid much of this house. 

The erle that is now hath set a new peace of worke to it. 
In the paroch chirch of S. Brandon at Branspeth be dyvers 
tumbes of the Nevilles. 

In the quier is an high tumbe of one of them porturid with 
his wife. This Neville lakkid heires males, wherapon a great 
concertation rose bytwixt the next heire male and one of the 
Gascoynes. 

There lyith also in a chapelle on the south side of the 
quier a Countes of Westmerland sister to Bouth Archebisshop 
of York. There lyith in that chapelle also the Lord Neville, 
father to the erle that is now. This Lorde Nevile died his 
fo. 81. father the erle yet lyving : wherapon the erle toke much 
thought and dyed at Horneby* Castelle in Richemontshir, 
and ther is buried in the paroche chirch. 

The Erie of Westmerland that is now had an elder brother, 
and he lyith in a litle tumbe of marble by the high altare on 
the south side. And at the feete of hym be buried 4. childern 
of the erles that now lyvith. 

I hard at Branspeth that Rafe the first Erie of Westerner- 
land was buried at his college of Stanethrop b by Raby. And 
that another of them was buried at the freres of North- 
Alverton. c 

From Branspeth to Duresme about a 3. miles. 

Or ever I cam nere Duresme d by half a mile and more I 
passid over a bridge of one great arche, and another smaul, 
stonding on a praty river, caullid Dernesse alias Devernesse, 
and a litle above that cam Broune river ynto it. 

Broune risith above Repaire Park, and so cumming by it 
goith after into Dernesse. 

Dernesse risith and goith into Were 

at 

The towne self of Duresme stondith on a rokky hille : and 
stondith as men cum from the south cuntre on the \nortti\ 
ripe of Were : the which water so with his course naturale in 
a botom windith about, that from Elvet a greate stone bridge 

a Hornby. b Stainclrop. c Northallerton. d Durham. 



PART I 73 

of 14. arches it crepith about the toune to Framagate bridge Durham. 

of 3. arches also on Were, that betwixt thes 2. bridges or a 

litle lower at S. Nicolas the toune except the lenght of an 

arow shot is brought in insulam : and sum hold opinion, that 

of auncient tyme Were ran from the place wher now Elvet 

bridge is straite down by S. Nicolas now stonding on a 

hille : and that the [ojther course, part for pollicy and part 

by digging of stones for building of the town and minstre, fo. 82. 

was made a valley, and so the water-course was conveyid that 

way, but I approve not ful this conjecture. 

The close itself of the minstre on the highest part of the 
hille is welle waullid, and hath diverse fair gates. The chirch 
self and the cloister be very strong and fair : and at the very 
est end of the chirch is a crosse isle by side the midle crosse 
isle the minstre chirch. 

The castelle stondith stately on the north est side of the 
minstre, and Were rennith under it. The kepe stondith a 
loft and is state * buildid of viij. square fascion, and 4. highes 
of logginges. Bisshop Fox did much reparation of this 
dungeon : and he made beside in the castelle a new kychen 
with the offices and many praty chaumbers. 

Tunstal hath also done cost on the dungeon and other 
places of the castel, and hath buildid a goodly new galery 
and a stately stair to it, and made an exceding strong gate of 
yren to the castelle. 

In that part of Duresme toun that is almost exclosid with 
Were be 3. paroch chirches and a chapell. S. Oswaldes is 
countid to be auncient. There be a 3. paroche chirches mo 
in the suburbe. 

The greatest suburbe is by Elvet bridg, and hath certen 
smaul streates. 

The suburbe over Framagate bridg hath 3. partes. the 
south streat on the lift hand, the crosse streate on the midle 
toward Akeland, and the 3. on the right hand, bering the 
name of Framagate, and leding to Chester a and to New- 
Castelle. 

The building of Duresme toun is meately strong, but it is fo. 83. 
nother high nor of costely werke. There appere sum peaces 

[* Stow has stately.'} 
* Chester-le-Street. 



74 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Durham, of waulles of the toune joyning to a gate of the palace waul, 
but the toun iVself with yn the peninsula is but a smaul thing 
in respect o/ cumpace of al the stately close : so that it 
alonly may ^e caullid the waullid toune of Duresme. 

In the sanctuary or holy chirch yard or sanctuarie of 
Duresme be very many auncient tumbes, it stondith on the 
south side of the minster : and at the hedde of one of them 
is a crosse of a 7. fote longe, that hath had an inscription of 
diverse rowes yn it, but the scripture cannot be red. Sum 
say that this crosse was brought out of the holy chirch yarde 
of Lindisfarn isle. 

Weremouth a is about an 8. miles from Duresme, and 
about a vj. from Tinemouth, or rather Newcastel. 

There is no bridge memorable on Were beneth Duresme 
but Chester bridge. Were cummith within a quarter of a 
mile of the toun self [of Chester.] 

From Duresme over Framagate bridge to Chester in the 
Streate, b partely by a litle corne ground, but most by moun- 
tainiouse pasture and sum mores and firres. 

Or I cam in Chester I saw scant half a mile of it Lomeley c 
Castel apon an hil, having praty wood about it, and about 
Chester self is likewise sum wodde. The toune of Chester 
is chiefly one streate of very meane building yn lenght : ther 
is beside a smaul streat or 2. about the chirch; that is 
collegiatid, and hath a dene and prebendaries, but it is of a 
very meane building ; and yn the body of the chirch is a 
tumbe with the image of a bisshop yn token that S. Cuthberth 
ons was buried or remained in his feretre there. 

At the very ende of the toune I passid over Conebrooke, 
and ther is a fair stone bridge of 3. arches over it. 

Thens to Geteshed d vij. miles by montaniouse ground 
with pasture, heth, more, and fyrres. And a litle a this side 
Getehed is a great cole pit.* 
fo. 91. From Duresme over Elvet bridge to Sunderland bridges a 

[* Here follows the direction, "Turne to the ix. lefe folowing." 
Then comes a blank leaf, and seven leaves filled with genealogical 
extracts out of several rolls, with Leland's comments upon them. These 
are printed in Appendix I. The narrative continues at the mark x on 
the ninth leaf, against the words " From Duresme."] 

a Wearmouth. b Chester-le-Street. c Lumley. d Gateshead. 



PART I 75 

2. miles and a half, there Were is devidid ynto 2. armes, and Durham, 
after shortely meating makith an isle. The first bridg as I 
cam over was but of one arche, the other was of 3. Thens 
a mile and more of I cam over Burne broke that goith ynto 
Were therabout, and a litle above on the hil is Burneham 
Claxton's house. Burnham is a man of a hunderith mark 
land by the yere. Then I rode thorough a great wod stonding 
on a hille, and so cam by hilly, morisch and hethy ground to 
S. Andres Akeland a 8. miles from Duresme : and left hard on 
my right hond one of the parkes of Akeland waullid with stone. 

At S. Andres Akeland the Dene of Akeland hath a great 
house : especially for barnes and other houses of husbondry. 

From S. Andres Akeland to Raby Castel 5. miles, part by 
arable but more by pastures and morisch hilly ground baren 
of wood. Raby is the largest castel of logginges in al the 
north cuntery, and is of a strong building, but not set other 
on hil or very strong ground. 

As I enterid by a causey into it ther was a litle stagne on 
the right hond : and in the first area were but 2. toures, one 
at ech ende as entres, and no other buildid;yn the 2. area as 
in entering was a great gate of iren with a tour, and 2. or 3. 
mo on the right hond. 

Then were al the chief toures of the 3. court as in the hart 
of the castel. The haul and al the houses of offices be large 
and stately : and in the haul I saw an incredible great beame . 
of an hart. The great chaumber was exceding large, but now 
it is fals rofid and devidid into 2. or 3. partes. I saw ther a 
litle chaumber wherin was in windowes of colerid glasse al 
the petigre of the Nevilles : but it is now taken doun and 
glasid with clere glasse. 

There is a touer in the castel having the mark of 2. capitale 
B from Berthram Bulmer. 

There is another tower bering the name of Jane, bastard 
sister to Henry the 4. and wife to Rafe Nevile the first Erl of 
Westmerland. 

Ther long 3. parkes to Raby wherof 2. be plenishid with fo. 92. 
dere. The midle park hath a lodge in it. 

And thereby is a chace bering the name of Langeley, b and 
hath falow dere : it is a 3. miles in lenght. 

a St. Andrew's Auckland. b Langley. 



76 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Durham. The king hath a forest of redde deere yn the more land at 
Midleton a an viij. miles west from Daraby. Dr. Noteres is 
parson of Midleton. 

Stanthorp b a smaul market toun is about half a mile from 
Raby. Here is a collegiate chirch, having now a body and 
2. isles. I hard that afore Rafe of Raby tyme ther was that 
alonly that now is the south isle. 

In this south isle, as I hard, was buried the grauntfather 
and grandedam of Rafe Raby, and they made a cantuarie 
there. In the waul of this isle appere the tumbes and images 
of 3. ladys, wherof one hath a crounet, and a tumbe of a man 
child, and a flat tumbe, varii marmoris. Ther is a flat tumbe 
also with a playn image of brasse and a scripture, wher is 
buried Richard sun and heire to Edward Lord of Bergevenny. 

This Edward was the fift sun of Daraby. Johanna Bewfort 
was his mother. This Edward had another sun caullid 
George, and was lord after : and he had Georg also lord, and 
he left Henry now Lorde of Bergevenny. 

John by Rafes first wife was Lord Neville. Richard by 
Johan his 2. wife was Erie of Saresbyri. Robert was Bisshop 
of Duresme. George was Lord Latimer. Edward was Lord 
Bergevenny, and, as I remembre, Rafe had William that was 
Lord Falconbridge. Rafe Neville the first Erl of Westmer- 
land of that name is buried yn a right stately tumbe [of] 
alabaster yn the quire of Stanthorp College, and Margarete 
his first wife on the lift hond of hym : and on the right hond 
lyith the image of Johan his 2. wife, but she is buried at 
fo. 93. Lincoln by her mother Catarine Swineford Duches of Lan- 
caster. 

This Johan erectid the very house self of the college of 
Stanthorp, b it is set on the north side of the collegiate chirch, 
and is strongly buildid al of stone. 

Ther rennith by the north side of the college a bek caullid 
Langley Bek. it risith a 5. [miles] of by west in the paroch 
of Midleton, a and cumming thorough Langeley takith the 
name of it, and a mile or more beneth goith into Tese lower 
then Salaby Mr. Brakenbyris place. 

From Stanthorp to Barnardes Castel d by meately good 
corne and pasture 5. miles. This is a meatly praty toun, 

Middleton. b Staindrop. c Selaby. d Barnard Castle. 



PART I 77 

having a good market and meatly welle buildid. The toun Durham. 

self is but a part of Gaineford paroch, wher the hed chirch is 

6. miles lower on Tese and in the bisshoprike. The castelle 

of Barnard stondith stately apon Tese. The first area hath 

no very notable thing yn it, but the fair chapelle, wher be 2. 

cantuaries. In the midle of the body of this chapel is a fair 

marble tumbe with an image and an inscription about it yn 

French. Ther is another in the south waul of the body of 

the chapelle of fre stone, with an image of the same. Sum 

say that they were of the Bailliolles. The inner area is very 

large, and partely motid and welle furnishid with toures of 

great logging. Ther belong 2. parkes to this castelle ; the 

one is caullid Marwood, and thereby is a chace that berith 

also the name of Marwood, and that goith on Tese ripe up 

into Tesedale. 

There is but a hil betwixt the chaces of Langeley and 
Marwod. 

This is by a nere estimation the course of Tese : 

Yade More hath the hedde of Tese, then it takith a 
course emong rokkes, and reseyving divers other smaul 
hopes or bekkes, and cummith much by wild ground for 
a 8. or x. miles to ^Egleston* bridge wel archid : then to 
Barnard Castel bridge very fair of 3. arches : then to Perse b 
brid[g]e sumtime of 5. arches, but a late made new of 3. 
arches. 

There is a prati chapel of our Lady hard by Perse bridg 
[of] the fundation of [John Bail]liol King of [Sco]ttes. 

Thens to Crofte bridge 5. miles; and so to Yarham c fo.94. 
bridge a ... miles ; and thens to Stokton, wher is a 
fery, 3. miles ; and so a 4. miles to Tesemouth. 

From Barnardes Castelle over the right fair bridge on Tese Yorkshire, 
of 3. arches I enterid straite into Richemontshire, that stil N - R - 
streaccith up with that ripe to the very hed of Tese. 

From this bridge I ridde a mile on the stony and rokky 
bank of Tese to the bek caullid Thuresgylle, a mile from 
Barnardes Castelle, and there it hath a bridge of one arche 
and straite enterith into Tese. 

The priory of Egleston d joinith hard to this bekk and also 
hanggith over the high bank of Tese. 

a Egglestone. b Piercebridge. c Yarm. d Eggleston Abbey. 



78 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, Ther is meatly good wood on eche side of Tese about 
N - R - Barnardes Castel. 

I saw in the body of the chirch of Egleston to very fair 
tumbes of gray marble. In the greatter was buried, as I 
lernid, one Syr Rafe Bowes, and yn the lesser one of the 
Rokesbys. 

Hard under the clif by Egleston is found on eche side of 
Tese very fair marble, wont to be taken up booth by mar- 
belers of Barnardes [Castelle] and of Egleston, and partly to 
have be wrought by them, and partely sold onwrought to 
other. 

Out of a booke of Mr. Garter's. 

One of the Bigottes Erie Mareschal was founder of Chart- 
mail a Priory. 

One of the Nevilles Lord of Midleham was founder of 
Coverham Priory. 

One Theobald was founder of Camsey b in Southfolk : and 
by him Lord Willoughby. 

Ingelramus* Lord Coucy was Erie of Bedeford anno D. 

I337- 

fo. 95. From Egleston to Gritey bridge of 2. or 3. arches a 2. mile 
by pasture, corn and woode. 

Gretey is a village standing on Watheling-streate, and hath 
the name of Gretey ryver that rennith thorough it, and by 
Mr. Rokesby's d place goith ynto Tese. 

There is a park hard thereby waullid with stone caullid 
Bigenelle e Park, it longgith to the Lord Scrope. 

There apperith manifestly in diverse places by Gretey f 

From Gretey to Ravenswath f a v. miles, and ther passing 
over the praty river of Ravenswath I cam to the village and 
castelle of Ravenswath. 

This ryver risith a 7. or 8. miles of the castel in the hilles 
by west north west : and passing a 3. miles lower goith into 
Swale, wher the ryver of Swale is nerest to Ravenswath 
Castel it is a 3. miles of. 

[* Leland first wrote Emgerant, then corrected as above.] 
[t No blank here, but Leland omitted something.] 

Cartmel. b Campsey. c Greta Bridge. 

d Rokeby. e Brignall. * Ravensworth. 



PART I 79 

The castelle excepting 2. or 3. [square towers and] a fair Yorkshire, 
stable [with a conduct commyng] to the haul [syde hathe no N. R. 
thinge mejmorable in it. [There is a parke by 3. miles in 
compase.] 

From Ravenswath to Richemont a 3. long miles, by a mile 
wherof I ridde thorough a greate woodde on a hille, and 
ther were dyverse wilde brookes renning thorough stones 
and resorting to Swale. The grounde betwixt Ravenswath 
and Richemont ful of hilles, sum good corn, and much more. 

I cam thoroug a great long strete in Richemont or I cam 
to the top of the hille, where the best of the toune caullid 
the Bailly and the Castelle. Sum think that the place wher 
the Baily was ons extima area castelli, and sins buildid with 
houses ; waullid it was, but the waul is now decayid. The 
names and partes of 4. or 5. gates yet remaine. 

There is a chapel in Richemont toune with straung figures 
in the waulles of it. The people there dreme that it was [ons 
a temple of ijdoles. 

[Gillings, b wher some thinke] the lordes [manor was afore 
the] Conquest is a [2. miles from the toune of Richemount]. 

From Richemont to Midleham first a mile by ille rokky fo. 96. 
ground, but first over Richemont bridge of 4. arches, and 
then vij. miles al by mory grounde and litle wood nere in 
sight. 

A litle or ever I cam to Midleham c I passid over Ure by 
a ford. 

Midleham is a praty market toun and standith on a rokky 
hille, on the top wherof is the castel meately welle dikid. 

Al the utter part of the castelle was of the very new setting 
of the Lord Neville caullid Darabi. The ynner part of 
Midleham Castel was of an auncient building of the Fitz- 
randolp. 

From Midleham to Wenslaw d about a mile, and ther is a 
great bridge of stone over it made many yere sins by a good 
person of Wencelaw, caullid Alwine. 

To Bolton a 3. miles. The toun is very rude : but the 
castelle, as no great howse, is al compactid in 4. or 5. towers. 
Ther is a praty parke hard by it. 

[Thens to a] place in a great rok [a 2. myles of wher] my 

a Richmond. b Gilling. c Middleham. d Wensley. 



So LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, Lord Scrop [sekethe for leade] to Midleham 

N. R. poor part . . .* 

From Midleham to Gervalx a Abbay a 2. miles, most by 
enclosid pastures. 

A little beneth Midleham I went over Cover ryver : and 
therby, on the lift hond, it went into Ure. 

Thens to Masseham, b a praty quik market town and a faire 
chirch, a 4. miles, by wood, pasture and sum good corne. 

At the ende of Masseham townlet I passid over a fair 
ryver caullid Bourne. It goith into Ure therby a litle byneth 
the bridg. 

The lordship of one of the Aldeborows lyith agayn the 
ripa as I cam super Burn,f wher it goith into Ure. Thens to 
Gruelle Thorp c a 3. or 4. miles bi hilly, and lingy, and sum 
morisch ground. And thens by much like ground a 3. miles 
to Ripon. After that I passid from Thorp half a mile I left 
hard on the lifte hond Kirkeby Malesart, d wher Moulbray 
had ons a great castelle. This paroch of Kirkby Malesart is 
large. The lordship now longith to the Erl of Darby. 

The [cuntrye thereabowght] is welle [wooddyd, from 
Midleham] to Ripon [and about Ripon]. 

fo. 97, The olde towne of Ripon stoode much by north and est, 
as I could gather by veuing of it. 

The best of the toune now standith by west and southe. 

The old abbay of Ripon stoode wher now is a chapelle of 

our Lady in a botom one close distant by 

from the new minstre. 

One Marmaduke abbate of Fountaines, a 

man familiar with Salvage Archebisshop of York, obteinid 
this chapelle of hym and prebendaries of Ripon : and having 
it gyven onto hym and to his abbay pullid down the est end 
of it, a pece of exceding auncient wark, and buildid a fair 
pece of new werk with squarid stones for it, leving the west 
ende of very old werk stonding. 

[* Even Stow cannot fill up this gap. Here he has a note in his 
copy, " decayed, that shuld folow about 3. lynes or more."] 

[f Leland first wrote " mouth of Tese," he then struck through Tese 
and interlined " ripa as I cam super Burn" over the words. The above 
reading appears to be his final ntention. ] 



a Jervaulx. b Masham. Grewelthorp. d Kirkby Malzeard. 



PART I 8 1 

He began also and finishid a very fair high waul of squarid Yorkshire, 
ston at the est end of the garth, that this chapel stondith yn : w - R - 
and had thought to have enclosid the hole [garth with a like] 
waulle, and [to have made thjere a celle of [white monks. 
There lyethe one of the Englebys] in the est end of this 
chapel, and there lyith another of them yn the chapelle 
garthe, and in the chapel singith a cantuarie prest. 

One thing I much notid, that was 3. crossis standing in 
row at the est ende of the chapelle garth. They were thinges 
antiquissimi operis^ and monumentes of sum notable men 
buried there : so that of al the old monasterie of Ripon and 
the toun I saw no likely tokens left after the depopulation of 
the Danes in that place, but only the waulles of owr Lady 
chapelle and the crosses. 

The new minstre is set up of the hille, a fair and bigge 
pece of work : the body of the chirch of very late dayes made 
of a great widnesse by the treasour of the chirch and help of 
gentilmen of the cuntery. 

Ther be 3. great old towres [with pyramides on] them, 2. 
at the [west end, and one in] the midle [of the crosse isle].* 

The commune opinion is that Odo, Archebisshop of fo. 98. 
Cantewarbyri, cumming ynto the north partes with King 

had pitie of the desolation of Ripon chirch, 

and began or caussid a new work to be edified wher the 
minstre now is. 

Howbeit the hole chirch that now standith indubitately 
was made sins the Conquest. 

The minstre now servith for the paroch chirch. 

The prebendaries houses be buildid in places nere to the 
minstre, and emong them the archebisshop hath a fair palace. 
And the vicars houses be by it in a fair quadrant of square 
stone buildid by Henry Bouet Archebisshop of York. 

The paroch is of a very great cumpace, and goith one way 
to Pateley Bridg a vij. miles of. 

In the paroch be sum chapelles of ease. 

There hath bene about the north part of the olde towne a 
paroch church by the name of Alhalowes. 

The very place wher the market stede and the hart of the 
[towne is, was] sumtyme caullid [Holly-Hille of holy] trees 

[* A line of the MS. cut off here.] 
G 



82 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, ther [growing, whereby it] apperith that [this parte of the] 
w> Rt toun is of a [newer buyldynge.] 



There apperith by est north est at the toune end of Ripon 
a great hille of yerth cast up in a playn close, bering now the 
name of Ilshow Hille, wher be al likelihod hath beene sum 
great forteres in the Britons tyme. 

And at the very north ende of the toun in a side of a 
close behind the bisshops palace is another hille lyke a kepe 
of a castel, bering the name of Alhalowis Hilles. So that 
one of the hilles standith directely set agayn the conspect 
of the other. 

Al the hole towne standith as I cam to it on the hither 
ripe of Skelle, a praty ryver cumming out of the west and 
renning by south on the toune first under a stone bridge, 
and then under a bridge of wood, and about a quarter of a 
mile lower into Ure, almost in the midle way betwixt North 
Bridg and Hewwik a Bridge of stone on Ure. 

[These 2. bridges on] Ure be a 3. [quartars of a myle] 

distant one [from the othar.]* 

fo. 99. Ther be in the town of Ripon 3. hospitales, S. Marie 
Madalenes and S. Johns of the Archebisshops of York funda- 
tion. Magdalenes is on the hither ripe of Skelle as I cam to 
the town, but hard on it. 

S. Johns is on the farther ripe of Skelle, and sumwhat nere 
onto it. 

The hospital of S. Anne of the foundation of a gentilman 
of the cuntery thereby, whos landes be now disparkelid by 
heires general to divers men, is hard on the hither ripe 
of Skelle. 

And about this part of the toun Skelle for mille dammes 
is devidid into 2. partes, and sone after cummith agayn to 
one botom. 

There hath bene hard on the farther ripe of Skelle a great 
numbre of tainters for wollen clothes wont to be made on 
the town of Ripon : but now idelnes is sore encresid in the 
toun, and clothe making almost decayed. 

The fair about the fest of S. [Wolfride] at Ripon is much 
cele[bratid for byenge of horses.] 

[* A line is apparently cut off here.] 
a Hewick. 



PART I 83 

[The toune itselfe of] Ripon standith on Yorkshire, 

From Ripon to West Tanfeld about a 4. miles, part by w> R - 
wood part by pasture and come. 

And as I cam out of Ripon I passid by a great park of 
thArchbisshopes of York a vj. miles in cumpace. 

And or ever I cam to West Tanfeld I passid by fery for 
lak of bridge. 

The tounelet of West Tanfelde a standith on a cliving 
ground hard by Ure, a ryver of a colowr for the most part of 
soden water, by reason of the colowr and the morisch nature 
of the soile of Wencedale, b from whens it cummith. 

In the chirch of West Tanfelde be dyverse tumbes in a 
chapelle on the north side of the chirch of the Marmions. 

Wherof one is in an arch of the waulle, and that semith 
most auncient. 

Then lyith [there] alone a lady [with thapparaill of a] 
voues. 

[And another lady] with a crounet [on hir hedde.] 

Then is there an high tumbe of alabaster in the midle of f . 100. 
the chapel, wher, as I hard say, lyith one Lorde John 
Marmion. 

And yn the south side of the chapelle is another tumbe 
of the Marmions buried alone. 

There is a master and 2. cantuarie prestes at Weste 
Tanfelde of the fundation of one of the Marmions : and 
there is another cantuarie besides these. 

The castelle of Tanfeld, or rather, as it is now, a meane 
manor place, stondith harde on the ripe of Ure, wher I saw 
no notable building but a fair tourid gate house and a haule 
of squarid stone. 

One Claregenet, baily or surveier at Tanfeld, hath an 
auncient booke of the Erles of Richemont and the 
Marmions. 

There be 2. fair parkes at Tanfeld and meately plenty of 
wood. 

Est Tanfeld c lyith about a mile lower on Ure ryver. 

I hard say of one at West Tanfeld that ther were 3. 

doughtter heires to and that Marmion 

had one of them. 

West Tanfield. b Wensleydale. c East Tanfield, 



84 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Leiland. 

Yorkshire, But loke wither that Marmi[W.r landes~\ descendid not tc 
w * R - 3- [daughters as heires gene]raile, and that the \Lord FitzhugK\ 
nother were not ...... * 

Passing over the ryver of Skelle, and soone after over Ure 
at a forde byneth Huewik bridge, I saw on the one hand the 
lordship of Huten Conyers a now longging to Malory, wher 
hath bene a parke but litle wood in it. This lordship long- 
gith to the territorie and libertees of Northalverton, b and yet 
is it enclosid about with landes of Richemontshire. 

There is a fair chapel of freestone on the farther ripe of 
Ure at the very end of Hewwik bridge, made bi an heremite 
that was a mason : it is not fulle finishid. 

The marches Richemontshire cummith one way to the very north bridge 
of Richemont- on Ure by Ripon. And it cummith another way to Borow 



I saw on the other hand a lordship caullid, as I remembre, 
Gindene , wher is a fair manor place of stone of late tymes 
longging to the Warde, whos 3. heires general wer thus 
maried, one to Musgrave of Cumbreland and Westmerland, 
[another to Nejville of Thornfton Bridge.] 

fo. 101. From Ginden lordeship to Borow-bridge by corne and 
pasture grounde a 3. miles. 

There I passid over a great bridge of stone on Ure. 

The toune is but a bare thing, it stondith on Wateling- 
Streate ; almost at the very ende of this towne cummith a 
litle broke a 4. or 5. miles of by west caullid Tudlad, and 
rennith into Ure a very litle beneth Borough-bridge. 

A litle withowt this towne on the west parte of Wateling- 
Streate standith 4. great maine stones wrought above in conum 
by mannes hand. 

They be set in 3. several feldes at this tyme. 

The first is a 20 foote by estimation in higeth, and an 18. 
foote in cumpace. The stone towarde the ground is sum- 
what square, and so up to the midle, and then wrought with 

[* This memorandum is nearly gone in Leland's MS., the words in 
italics are supplied from Burton ; the other words still existed in Browne 
Willis's days. Stow omitted this note.] 



Hutton Conyers. b Northallerton. c ? Givendale, 



PART I 85 

certen rude bol[tells] in conum. But the very [top is broken] Yorkshire, 
of a 3. or 4. foote [by estimation]. Other 2. of like shap w> R - 
stand in another feld a good but shot of: and the one of 
them is bigger then the other : and they stand within a 6. or 
8. fote one of the other. 

The fourth standith in a several feld a good stone cast 
from the other ij., and is bigger and higher then any ef the 
other 3. I esteme it to the waite of a 5. waine lodes or 
more. 

Inscription could I none find yn these stones : and if ther 
were it might be woren owt : for they be sore woren and 
scalid with wether. 

I take to be trophea a Romanis posita in the side of 
Watheling-Streat, as yn a place moste occupied yn yorneying, 
and so most yn sighte. 

They stonde [all] as loking ab occiden\te in orientem}. 

Aldeburge a is about a quarter of a mile from Borough- fo. 102. 
bridge. This was in the Romaines tyme a great cite on 
Watheling-stret, caullid Isuria Brigantum : and was waullid, 
wherof I saw vestigia qucedam, sed tenuia. It stoode by south 
west on Ure ryver. 

The cumpace of it hath beene by estimation a mile. 

It is now a smaul village : and in it a paroch chirch, wher 
ly buried 2. or 3. knightes of the Aldeburges (Syr Guliam 
Aldeburg, Syr Richard Aldeburgh*), dwelling sumtyme in 
that paroch, whos heires yet remaine ther, but now men of 
meane landes. 

There be now large feeldes, fruteful of corn, in the very 
places wher the howsing of the town was; and in these 
feeldes yereley be founde in ploughing many coynes of sylver 
and brasse of the Romaine stampe. 

Th[ere hath bene] found also [sepultures, aqua duci\us> 
and \tessellatapavimenta : also spurres sytt with stones and 
many othar straunge things]. 

Ther is an hil in the side of the feld, wher the old toun 
was, caullid Stothart, as it had b[ene] a kepe of a [castle.] 

Gnaresburg b is a 3. or 4. miles from Aldeburgh, partely by 
pasture and corne and sum wood. 

[* These names are added in the margin.] 
Aldbo rough. b Knaresborough. 



86 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, I lefte a park on the lift hond a mile or I cam to Knarres- 
W. R. burgh. 

Ther be 2. parkes beside this that longith to Gnarresburgh, 
al be metely welle woddid. The toune self of Knarresburgh 
takith name of the rokky ground that it stondith on. 

The toune is no great thing and meanely buildid, but the 
market trier is quik. 

The castel stondith magnificently and strongely on a rok, 
and hath a very depe diche, hewing out of the rok, wher it is 
not defendid with the ryver of Nidde, that ther rennith in a 
deade stony botom. 

I numberid a n. or 12. towres [in the waull] of the 
castelle, [and one very fa] ire beside [in the second area. 
There longe 2. bridg]es of stone [to this towne, the] upper is* 



fo. 103. A little above Marche, but on the farther ripe of Nidde, 
as I cam, is a welle of a wonderful nature, caullid Droping 
welle. For out of the great rokkes by it distillith water con- 
tinually into it. This water is so could, and of such a nature, 
that what thing so ever faullith oute of the rokkes ynto this 
pitte, or ys caste in, or growith about the rokke and is 
touchid of this water, growith ynto stone : or els sum sand, 
or other fine ground that is about the rokkes, cummithe 
doune with the continualle droning of the springes in the 
rokkes, and clevith on such thinges as it takith, and so 
clevith aboute it and givith it by continuance the shape of a 
stone. 

There was ons, as I hard say, a conduct of stone made to 
convey water from this welle over Nid to the priory of 
Knaresburgh ; but this was decayed afore the dissolution of 
the house. 

A litle beneth Marche-bridge on the hither side of Ure, as 
I cam, I saw an old chapelle yn a rok hewen owte of the 
mayne stone. 

[The priory selfe of Knarresburgh is a 3. quarters of a 
mile benethe Marche bridge ripa citeriori or I cam over 
Nidde.] One Robert Flowr, sunne to one Tok Flour, that 
had beene 2. tymes mair of York, was the first beginner of this 
priory. He had beene afore a litle while a monk yn New- 

[* A line gone here before Stow's time.] 



PART I 87 

minster-Abbay in Morpeth, forsaking the landes and goodes Yorkshire, 

of his father, to whom he was heir as eldest sunne, and desiring \V. R. 

a solitarie life as an heremite resortid to the rokkes by the 

ry ver of Nidde : and thither, apon opinion of sanctite of hym, 

resortid other : and then he institutid his companie in the sect 

of freres of the Order de Redemptione Captivorum, alias S a . Maturing 

Trinitatis. Estoteville gave landes to this house, at such 

tyme as he lay at Knarresburgh : but wither Estoteville were 

Lord of Gnarresburgh, or had the custodie of it for the [king,] 

I canfnot] yet telle the [certente:] 

[Knarresburg now] longgith [to the Duchie of Lancaster. 

King John was ons, as I harde say, of an il wille to this fo. 104. 
Robert Flour : but yet after he was beneficial to hym and to 
his. Sum of the Floures landes at York was gyven to this 
priory, and the name of the Flowres remaynid onto late 
dayes yn York. 

The river sides of Nidde be welle woddid above Knarres- 
burgh for a 2. or 3. miles : and above that to the hedde al 
the ground is baren for the most part of wood and corne, 
as forest ground ful of lynge, mores and mosses with stony 
hilles. 

The forest from a mile beneth Gnarresburgh upward to 
very Bolton yn Craven is about a 20. miles yn lenght : and 
yn bredeth it is in sum places an viij. miles. 

The principal wood of the forest is decayed. 

[Knarresburge is a 12. miles from Yorke. 

Nidde goith into Ure corruptely there caullyd Ouse at 
Nunnemonk* a 14. myles as the watar rennithe from 
Gnarresburgh towne.] 

From Gnarresborow over Nid ryver almost al by wood a 
mile to Plumton, a wher is a park and a fair house of stone 
with 2. tourres longging to the same. Plumton is now owner 
of it, a man of fair land : and lately augmentid by wedding 
the doughter and heir generale of the Babthorpes. 

From thens passing a 2. miles by a stony soile, but sum- 
what by fruteful of corne and grasse, I saw Spofford b half a 
mile of on the lift hond : wher the Erie of Northumbreland 

[* Stow has Nunnmonk, the above is Leland's spelling, as shown by 
Hearne and Brown Willis. It refers to Nun Monkton. The three lines 
are quite gone now.] 

a Plompton. b Spofiorth. 



88 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Yorkshire, had a goodly lordship and manor place with a parke. The 

W. R. manor place was sore defacid in the tyme of the Civile 

Warre betwixt Henry the 6. and Edward the 4. by the Erie 

of Warwik, and Marquise Monteacute his brother, to whom, 

as I remember, the Percys landes were gyven. 

Thens to Wetherby a smaul market toun on a hille, wher 
I saw \crucem antiqui op\eris> a 3. or [4. miles by come,] 
pasture, [and sum woode.] 

fo. 105. Thens over a stone bridge on Warfe to [* Aberford] 
on Watheling-Streate a 6. "miles, and or ever I cam to this 
thorough fare I saw by the space of 2. or 3. miles the very 
playn crest of Watheling-Streat. 

Thens by the strait crest of Watheling-Streat a 3. miles or 
more, and then leving it on the righte hond I went to 
Brotherton (wher Thomas, sunne to King Edward the first, 
was borne, the quene by chaunce laboring as she went on 
hunting,) a 3. miles : and then by a causey of stone with 
divers bridges over it to dreane the low medow waters on the 
lift hand into Aire ryver about a mile to Fery-bridge, a wher 
the first Lord Fitzgualter of the Radecliffes was killid, flying 
from Cokbek-felde. 

Then over Fery-bridge of vij. arches, under the which ren- 
nith Aire. The thorough fare there is no great thing but 
metely wel buildid. 

Fery-bridge about half a mile from Pontfracte. 

[From Fery-bridge to Wentbridge . . . miles, and so 
to Dancaster . . . miles. 

I sawe by certaine miles or I cam to Dancaster b the very 
mayne crest of Wathelynge strete.] 

From Dancaster to Rosington bridge of tymbre a 3. miles, 
al by champain ground. 

Ther rennith a praty broke thorough this bridge, the 
heddes wherof risith of divers springes by west. 

Rosington c chirch and village is a quarter of a mile of 
apon an hillet. 

Notts. From Rosington to Blith d most by woody ground, part by 
corne, pasture, and medow, a 5. miles. 

There renne to brookes as I cam into the very toun of 

[* Blank in Leland, L.T.S. supplies.] 
* Ferrybridge. b Doncaster. c Rossington. d Blyth. 



PART I 89 

Blith, the first that I cam over was the greatter, and cum- Notts, 
mithe thither from the weste : the other rennith hard by the 
utter houses of the towne ; and this, as they told me, was 
namid Blith. And, as I remembre, it is the very self water 
that cummith from Werkensop, a or els Werkensop-water 
rennith into it. 

Both thes waters mete togither a litle beneth Blithe [towne 
in the mjedowes, and gopth by Scroby b mjilles a 2. miles 
[lower.] [The market towne] of Blithe is [pratily buildyd. 
In the priory at theste] ende of the [churche ar to be sene 
graves of noble-men.] 

I askid of a castelle that I hard say was sumtyme at Blith : fo. 106. 
but other answer I lernid not but that a litle or I cam ynto 
the toune ther apperith yn a wood sides token of an auncient 
building. 

About a mile beyond Blith I passid by a park caullid 
\Hodsak? *] wher Master Clifton hath a fair house. 

And a 2. miles farther much by hethy and then woddy 
ground I cam over a smaul broke with a litle stone bridge 
over it : and so strait into Werkensop, a praty market of 2. 
streates and metely welle buildid. 

There is a fair park hard by it : and the beginninges of a 
fair manor place of squarid stone yn the same. 

The olde castelle on a hille by the towne is clene downe 
and scant knowen wher it was. 

This toune, castelle and large park longgid first to the 
Lovetotes, then, as sum say, to one of the Nevilles. 

Then were the Furnivalx of certente owners there : and 
after the Talbotes. 

The priorie of the blak cha[nons] the[re] was a thing of 
[great buildinges, and a place of sepulture to the afore sayde 
noble men]. 

From Wirkensope I rode a longe by the pale that environith 
the great wood, caullid Roome-wood, by the space of 2. miles 
and more, and there I passid over a litle bridge, under the 
which rennith Wilebek- water. Wile hath 2. hedde springes, 
wherof the one risith not very far above Wilebek-abbay. 

[* In Burton's hand.] 



a Worksop. b Scrooby. Hodsock. 



90 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Notts. The bigger risith farther of by west, and aoout Wilebek cum 
to one botom. The abbay of Wilebek a is aboute half a mile 
on the righte hond above the aforesaide bridge. One Waulley 
hath bought this wod of the king, it longgid, as I hard, to 
Werkensop Priory. 

From this bridge to Cukeney-village b about a mile : and 
ther cam doun a broke from west, resorting, as one saide, to 
Wilebek streme, or Wilebek to it. 

Thens a 2. miles by corne, wood, and pasture to Warsop c 
village, and there ran a bek ; and this, as the other doith, 
resortith to RurTord-streame. 

Thens to Maunsefeld, d a praty market toun of one paroche, 
by like ground a 3. miles : and there rennith in the midle of 
it a [rille, and in the bottom, as I rode out of the towne a 
praty broke risynge] west a 4. miles [of] and so it goith [to 
Cjlypeston e a [3. miles lojwer and [so to Rufford water.] 



fo. 107. Fundatio monasteriorum de Kirkham, Rivaulx & 
Wardona ;* & successio Dominorum de Ros. 

Ds. Walterus Espek miles strenuus duxit in ux. Adelinam, 

qutz peperit ei unicum nomine Walterum, qui posted lapsus equo 

cervicem fregit prope parvuam petrinam crucem versus Frithby. 

Turn Walterus ex parte Christum statuens heredem consilio 

Gulielmi Gartonensis rectoris avunculi sui erexit monaster. de 

Yorks.,E. R. Kirkham anno D. 1122. <5> anno reg. Henrici I. 22. ibique 

statuit prcedictum Gulielmum primum Priorem, educatum 

videlicet in monasterium S. Oswaldi. Gualterus Espek dedit 

[* The three leaves of vol. i. of Leland's manuscript, originally 
numbered 107, 108, 109, had been cut out after Stow's, but before 
Hearne's time, and are now found bound up near the end of the MS. 
vol. viii., where they have been re-numbered as pages 79-84. Iceland 
himself refers to them in a side-note a little further on (see p. 97). They 
were consequently omitted by Hearne in 1710; but the editor of the 
second edition of his work (1744) restored them to their place in the 
text, as above, adding a further page from vol. viii. containing the 
names of houses of which Thomas, Earl of Rutland, was patron. Stow 
copied these leaves, including the list of names, in this place. ] 



Welbeck. b Cuckney. Market Wars' p, 

<i Mansfield. e Clipstone. 



PART I 91 

jus patronatus 7. ecdesiarum per ipsum appropriatarum monas- 
terio de Kirkham, 6 terras, redditus 6 possessiones ad 
summam mille 6 centum marcarum in comitibus Eboracetisi 
& Northumbriensi. 

Vixit Gualterus d fundatione monasterii de Kirkham 30. 
annis. 

Postea fundavit monasterium de Rievalk anno D, 1131. Yorks.,N.R. 
Deinde monasterium de War dona A. D. 1136. Beds. 

Gualterus obiit sine liberis. Tres sorores Gualteri par\tite 
sunt hereditatem\. 

Haivisa i a . soror nupsit Gulielmo Bussy. 

Albreda 2. nupsit Nicholao Traily. 

Adelina 3. nupsit Petro Ros. Sed Gualterus dedit Adeline 
sorori sues inter cetera spedaliter advocationem de Kirkham 6 
Rievalux. 

Gualterus vestem monachicam accepit in monasterio Rieval- 
lensi, ubi post biennium obiit : ibidem sepultus in ostio capituli 
7. Id. Mart, anno D. 1154. [19. Steph.~\ 

Successio Dominorum de Ros. 

Petrus de Ros genuit ex Adelina Espek Robertum de Ros. 

Petrus de Ros sepultus Rievalli. 

Robertus de Ros duxit in uxorem Sibyllam de Worlonge, 
6 genuit ex ea Everardum de Ros. 

Everardus accepit quandam Rosam in uxorem, 6 genuit 
Robertum de Ros dictum Fursan. 

Robertus dictus Fursan duxit in ux. Isabellam filiam regis 
Scot ice, (5^ genuit ex ea. Gul. de Ros. 

Robertus de Ros dictus Fursan levavit castrum de Helmesley, fo. 108. 
^ de Wark> 6 Templariis dedit Ribeston, 6^ postea dimisit 
terras suas : <5^ dedit Gul. filio suo castrum de Helmesley 
cum pertinentiis 6^ advocat : monasteriorum de Kirkham, 
Rievalx 6 War don. Et dedit Roberto filio suo castrum de 
Werk cum pertinentiis 6 baronia in Scotia ad tenendum de 
Gul. fratre c5^ heredib. suis per servitium militare. 

Postea dictus Robertus Fursan factus est templar ius, 6 Lon- 
dini sepultus. 

Gul. de Ros duxit in uxorem Luciam, 6^ genuit Roberlum 
de Ros. 

Hie Gul. sepultus est in monasterio de Kirkham coram 
summo altar i. 

Robertus filius Gul. duxit in ux. Isabellam heredem dc 



92 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Daubeney, 6 genuit Gul. de Ros. Hie Robertus sepultus est 
apud Kirkham in tumba marmorea. 

Gul. de Ros duxit in ux. Matildam de [ Vd\ulx \]ieredeni\ 
medietatis terrarum Joannis de Vaulx, 6 genuit ex ea Gul. de 
Ros, 6 sepultus est in monasterio de Kirkham in tumba mar- 
morea ex parte boreali. 

Gul. filius Gul. duxit in ux. Marionem de Badelesmere, 6 
genuit ex ea Gulielmum, Thomam, Margaretam 6 Matildam, 
6 sepultus est apud Kirkham in mausoleo lapideojuxta magna 
altare ex parte australi. 

Gul. duxit in ux. Margaretam filiam Domini Radulphi 
Neville, qui moriebatur in terra sancta sine herede, 6 ibidem 
sepelitur. 

Thomas f rater Gul. successit, 6 duxit in ux. Beatricem 
filiam Radulphi comitis Stafford ; 6 genuit ex ea Joannem, 
Gulielmum, Thomam, Robertum, Elisabeth 6 Margaretam. 

Hie Thomas obiit apud Uffington, 6 sepultus est Rievalli. 

Joannes filius Thomcs duxit in ux. Mariam de Orbe, 
sororem comitis Northumbr. qui decessit sine herede masculo 
apud Cipres versus terram sanctam^ 6 sepultus est Rievalli. 
fo. 109. Gul. successit fratri suo Joanni, qui duxit in ux. Mar- 
garetam filiam Domini Joannis de Arundelle, 6 genuit 
Joannem, Thomam, Robertum, Gulielmum, 6 Richardum, 
Beatricem, Aliciam, Margaretam 6 Elisabeth. Hie Gul. 
obiit apud Belviderum * 1 d. Sept. anno D. 1314., 6 sepultus 
est ibidem in medio chori prioratus. 

Joannes successit Gul. patri 6 duxit in ux. Margaretam, 
filiam 6 heredem Philippi de Spenser: qui Joannes obiit in 
Francia sine herede de corpore suo ; cum quo obiit Gul. f rater 
ejus in vigilia Paschce anno D. 1421. qui Joannes sepultus est 
apud B elver um juxta pair em suum. 

Thomas successit fratri Gul. 6 duxit in ux. Alenoram 
filiam D\ Richardi de Bellocampo comitis Warwiri, ex qua 
genuit Thomam, qui natus est 9. die Septembris anno D. 1427. 
6 anno Henrici VI. 6. 

Hie Thomas habuit in ux. Philippam i m filiam D*. 
Joannis de \Tiptote\ sorori comitis Wigornie [et heredis tertia 
partis terrarum suarum]. Thomas genuit ex hac Philippa 

[* The id in this word is written above the line ; in the next paragraph 
the word is uncorrected.] 



PART 1 93 

Edmundum de Ros, Alenoram, Isabellam, Margaretam 6- 
Joannam. Thomas obiit apud castrum * .... anno 
D. 1461. 

Edmundus obiit sine prole anno D. 1508. 23. die mensis 
Octobr. 6* sepultus est in Ecclesia parochiali de Endefeld. 

Elenora i a filia Thomce de Ros nupsit Roberto Maners 
militi, 6 genuit Georgium, Edwardum, Elisabeth 6 Ceciliam. 

Georgius duxit in ux. Annam filiam Anna ducissa de 
Excester 6 Thomce Sellinger militis. Qu<z Anna ducissa 
fuit soror regis Edwardi 4*. 

Dictits Georg. genuit ex Anna Thomam, Oliverum, Anto- 
nmm, Richardum, Joannem, Elizabeth, Catarinam, Elenoram, 
Ceciliam, Annam. 

Georgius exist ens in bello cum Henrico 8. contra Francos 
accepit gravem infirmitatem, 6 obiit anno D i . 1513. sepultus 
\est Londini~\ in ecclesia monialium [de Haliwell^\ 

\Patronatus Abbat. 6 Prior. Thomcz comitis de Rutheland. vol. 8, 
Kirkham Prior. P- ^5- 

Rievalx Abbat. 

Wartre Prior, canon, or. S. Aug. 
Beauvoir Prior, monach. 
Frestan Prior, monach. 
Newsted Prior, monach. 
Irford Prior, monial. 
Domus Carmelitarum in Boston. 
Domus fratrum heremit. in Novo Castro. 
Eccl. Colleg. de Bolton in Alendale in Nortliumbr. 

Wardon Abbat. 

Pentaney Prior, or. S. Aug. 

Domus Carmel. in Blakeney. 

Suteley. 

Domus Carmel. in Cantebr. 

Domus fratrum Prczdic. in Linnel\ f 



Gumming out of the town of Maunsefeld a withyn a litle fo. no. 
way I passid over the brooke that rennith yn the vale hard 

[* Blank in Leland.] [t See note to p. 90. 



Mansfield. 



94 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Notts, by it. This broke risith a 3. miles by west above the toun 
of Mauncefeld : and a 3. miles lower goith by Clypeston, as 
I harde. 

Soone after I enterid, withyn the space of a mile or lesse, 
ynto the very thik of the woddy forest of Shirwood, a wher ys 
great game of deere. And so I rode a v. myles in the very 
woddy grounde of the forest, and so to a litle pore streat a 
through fare at the ende of this wood. 

A litle or I cam to the ende of this woodde I left about a 
quarter of a mile on the right hond the ruines of Newstede, b 
a priory of chanons. 

By this Newstede rennith Line c ryver, that cummith after 
to Lineton-Abbay, and thens to Notingham, and a litle beneth 
Notingham ynto Trent. 

From the [thorough fare] sayde I roode ov[er a low ground 
lyke a more by the space of halfe a mile, and then cumming 
to highe ground, and somewhat] in sight by hilling I passid 
a mile, and then I roode by a mighty great park by the space 
almost of a 3. miles. 

This park is caullid Beskewood, d and longith to the castelle 
and lordship of Notingham. 

Thens I passid by ij. or 3. hilles by the mountenaunce of 
a 2. miles, and so to Notingham. 

Notingham e is booth a large toun and welle buildid for 
tymber and plaster, and standith stately on a clyminge* 
hille. 

The market place and streate both for the building on the 
side of it, for the very great widenes of the streat, and the 
clene paving of it, is the most fairest withowt exception of al 
Inglande. 

Ther be 3 paroches chirches [St. Mary, St. Peter, St. 
Nicholas} ; but the chirch of S. Mary is excellent, [new 
and unifo]rme yn work, and so [many fair wynldowes yn it 
that [no artificer can imagin]e to set mo ther. [Southeward 
fo. in. as to the] water side be great clifes and rokkes of stones, that 
be large and very good to build with, and many houses sette 
on the toppes of them : and at the botom of them be great 

[* Leland has clyninge, Stow read it clyming.} 

& Sherwood. b Newstead. c Leen. 

d Bestwood, * Nottingham. 



PART I 



95 



caves wher many stones hath bene diggid out for buildinges Notts, 
yn the toune, and these caves [be partly usyd for dwellynge 
howses], and partely for cellars and store houses. 

Ther hath beene 3. houses of freres,* as I remembre, 
whereof 2. stoode 'toward the west of the towne and not far 
from the castelle.f 

The towne hath be meately welle wallid with stone, and 
hath had dyvers gates ; much of the waul is now down, and 
the gates saving 2. or 3. 

There is no suburbe over the stone bridge of a I arches 
over Line on the south side of the toune. 

And loke as the towne and the [ground] that it stondith 
on and [that that is about it by] north is highe, [so all the 
grownd on] the south side [without the towne] is a playn low 
me[dow grownd where at rienne] but litle [lins and Trent 
river]. 

I have written yn a smaul peace of papire certayne other 
notable thinges of Notigham. 

The castelle of Notingham stondith on a rokky hille as on 
the west side of the towne : and Line ri[ver]et goith by the 
rootes of it. 

There is [a great] likelihod that the castelle was buildid of 
stones taken owt of the rokke and the great diches of it. 

The base court is large and metly stronge. 

And a stately bridge is there with pillers bering bestes and 
giantes over the diche into the secund warde : the fronter of 
the which warde in the entering is exceding stronge with 
toures and portecoleces. 

Much part of the west side of this inner ward as the [h]aul 
and other thinges be yn [r]uines. 

The est side is stronge and well tourrid. 

And so is the south side. f II2 

But the moste bewtifullest part and gallant building for 
lodgyng is on the northe side, wher Edward the 4. began a 
right sumptuus pece of stone work, of the which he clerely 
fmichid one excellent goodly toure of 3. hightes yn building, 
and brought up the other part likewise from the foundation 

[* Stow has in the margin, Gray and White Friars. ] 

[t S. John's Hospitall was withoztt the towne, Stow's margin.] 

[f Blank in MS.] [ Burton (a) has rcne.} 



96 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Notts, with stone and mervelus fair ciimpacid windoes to layyng of 
the first soyle for chambers, and ther lefte. 

Then King Richard his brother as I hard ther forcid up 
apon that worke another peace of one lofte of tymber, making 
rounde wyndowes also of tymbre to the proportion of the 
aforesaid wyndoes of stone a good fundation for the newe 
tymbre windowes. So that surely this north part [is an ex- 
ceding fayre] pece of worke. 

The dungeon or kepe of the castel stondith by south and 
est, and is exceding strong 6 natura loci 6 opere. Ther is 
an old fair chapelle and a welle of a gret depthe. And there 
is also a choclea with a turret over it, wher the kepers of the 
castelle say Edwarde the thirdes band cam up thoroug the 
rok and toke the Erie Mortymer prisoner. Ther is yet a fair 
staire to go downe by the rok to the ripe of Line. 

There be diverse buildinges bytwixt this dungeon and the 
ynner court of the castelle, and ther goith also doune a stair 
ynto the grounde, wher Davy Kinge of Scottes, as the castel- 
lanes say, was kept as a prisoner. 

I markid in al 3. chapelles yn the castelle and 3. welles. 

The litle ryver of Line and [the] great strem of Trente cum 
fo. 113. nere together in the medowe on the south side of the town : 
and when any land waters cum doune, much of the vale and 
medowis ther be over flowen. 

The great streame of Trente and the great bridge over it 
with * ... arches of stoone is not past a ij. flite shottes 
from the bridge of Line hard on the south side of Notingham. 

Line ryver goith in the medowes a litle beneth Notingham 
ynto Trent. 

Derbyshire. Darby a is a xij. miles from Notingham, and at Sawlafery b 
almost in the midle way is a stone bridge with a causey and 
many arches partely over the very gutte of Trent, and partely 
for cumming to bridg by the medoes for rysinges of the Trent. 
Notts. Bytuixt the bridge over Trent agayne Notingham onto 
Newark bridg that is xij. miles of [is] none, [nor any] from 
Newark to th[e mouth of Trent but passage all by ferris.] 
Leicester. From Notingham to Leircester c xvj. miles. 

From Notingham to Bever d a xij. long miles. 

[* Blank in MS.] 
Derby. b Sawley Ferry. c Leicester. d Belvoir. 



PART I 97 

First I passid by low medowe and sum morisch grounde Notts, 
by the space of a 3. miles, and then by other 3. miles by an 
highe soile but not hilly, and about this 3. miles end I cam 
to a praty broke or ryveret caullid Myte, a that risith above 
that place a vj. miles or more by weste, and thens goith an 
eight miles lower into Trent not far above Newark-towne. 

And cumming nere toward Mite brooke, I lefte about a 
mile on the lifte honde \Aslacton\ * b village in Notingham- 
shire, wher Thomas Cranmere, Archebisshop of Cantorbyri, 
was born, and where the heire of the Cranmers a man scant 
of xl. mark-lande by the yeres [now dwellith^\ f 

Then passing a 2. miles by metely hygh and good soyle I 

cam to a villag caullid Thens 4. good 

miles to Bever, [pa]rtely by marsch, mefdowe, and pasture, 
and corn grounde. 

From Notyngham to Bever all by champaine J grownd in 
syte.] 

The castelle of Bellevoire c standythe yn the utter part fo. 114. 
that way of Leircestershir, on the very knape of an highe Leicester- 
hille, stepe up eche way, partely by nature, partely by working shire, 
of mennes handes, as it may evidently be perceyvid. Wither 
ther were any castelle ther afore the Conquest or no, I am 
not sure, but surely I think rather no then ye. 

Toterneius was the first enhabiter there after the Con- 
quest. 

Then it cam to Albeneius. 

And from Albeney to Ros. 

Of this descent and of the foundation of the priory in the 
village at the castelle foote I have writen a quire seperately. 

The Lord Ros toke King Henry the vj. parte agayn King 
Edwarde, wherapon the Lord Roses landes [stode] as con- 
fiscate, King Edward pre[vay]ling, and Believer Castelle [was 
put] in keping to the Lord Hasftinges], the which cumming 
thither apon a tyme to peruse the ground, and to lye in the 
castel, was sodenly repellid by Mr. Harington, a man of 

[* Leland and Stow left this blank.] [t Added by Burton.] 

[t Stow spells this champion.'] 

[ Here Leland has a side-note, " Loke fol. oct. pracedenti" which 
takes us back to page 90, the account of the Ros family.] 



a Smite. b Aslocton. c Belvoir. 

H 



98 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Leicester- poure therabout, and frende to the Lord Rose. Wherapon 
the Lord Hastinges cam thither another tyme with a strong 
poure, and apon a raging wylle spoilid the castelle, defacing 
the rofes, and takyng the leades of them, wherwith they were 
al coverid. The Lord Hastinges caryed much of this leade 
to Ascheby de la Zouche, wher he much buildid. Then 
felle alle the castelle to mine, and the tymbre of the rofes 
onkeverid rottid away, and the soile betwene the waulles at 
the last grue ful of elders, and no habitation was there tyl 
that of late dayes the Erie of Rutland hath made it fairer 
then ever it was. It is a straunge sighte to se be how many 
steppes of stone the way goith up from the village to the 
castel. In the castel be 2. faire gates. And the dungeon is 
a fair rounde tour now turnid to pleasure, as a place to walk 
yn, and to se al the countery aboute, and raylid about the 
round [waull, and] a garden [plot] in the midle. 
fo. 115. There is a welle of a grete depth in the castelle, and the 
spring therof is very good. 

The Lorde Hastinges likewise spoiled Stoke-Dawbeney, a a 
goodly maner place of the Lorde Roses, . . . miles from 
Stanford, as I remembre, yn Rutheland,* and caryid part of 
it also to Asscheby de la Zouche. 

The vale of Bever, baren of wood, is large and very plentiful 
of good corne and grasse, and lyith in 3. shires, Leycester, 
Lincoln, and much in Notinghamshire. 

The Erie of Rutheland hath in exchaunge for other landes 
of the kinges Croxton-Abbay 2. miles ofj and a commaundery 
that longgid to S. Johns toward Newark, caullid the Egle, 
wher is a very praty manor place. But I gesse that it stondith 
low and foule. 

From Beavoire Castelle to Croxton b 2. miles, and from 
Croxton I roode a 6. miles farther into a litle through fare 

caullid f by good [pas]ture and corn 

groun[de, but all champaine] and litle woode. Then I rode 
a 6. mi[les farther by like] grounde, and there I enterid to 
the cawsey of Watheling-Streate , that there goith betwixt 

[* Burton has written in the margin of Leland's MS. here, North- 
amptonshire.] 
[f Blank in MS.] 

a Stoke Albany. b Croxton Keyrial. c Ermine Street. 



PART 1 99 

Ankester and Staunforde : a and thens a 3. mile to Castelle- Lincoln- 
forde-bridge b stil apon the great creste of Watheling-Streate, shire - 
by champaine ground, corn, and gras, but litle or no woode. 

Under Castelleford bridge of 3. arches of stone rennith a 
praty brooke. I can take it to be no other broke but Wasch, 
that cummith oute of Ruthelandshire, and not far beneth 
Staunford goith into Weland-ryver. 

From Castelford-bridge to Stanford a stil on the crest of 
Watheling-strete a mile. 

After that I passid out of Stanford I could not welle finde 
the creste of Watheling-Streate : but it went thens to Wedon 
in the streat, Touceter, c and, as I take it, to Stratford, 
Dunstable and S. Albanes. 

[From] Stanford to Coly-Weston d 2. [miles] and a half by Northants. 
champayn ground. 

[Fr]om Coly-Weston to Dene moste [by] chaumpaine 
ground, [corne] and gra[sse, 6. miles]. 

From Dene to Foderingey 6 most by wood thorough a fo. 116. 
parte of Rokeingham-forest a 6. miles. 

From Foderingey to Undale/ a market toun, 2. miles. 

Thens thorough Thorp-watermil to a village caullid* . . 
. . . . wher the king dynid in a meane house, a 4. or 
5. [miles], al by chaumpain, good corn, and gresse. 

Thens a ix. miles to Layton h in Huntingdonshire by like Hunts. 
grounde. 

Thens to Higham-Ferrares by like grounde an 8. miles. Northants. 

And thens by like grounde a 6. miles to * 

wher Mr. S. John dwellith, in a right pratie manor place, 
motid, wher I saw in the paroche chirch an old tumbe with 
an image in the quire waulle. Sum think that it was one 
of the Breusis. for Brewsis wer ons [ow]ners of that manor. 

From thens to Be[df]ord by m[uch] like ground an 8. Bedford- 
[miles, but nere] to Bedford ther [was sum good wood.] shire. 

S. Paules in Bedeford is the principal chirch of the town, 
and was afore the Conqueste a college of prebendaries, and 
after ontyl the foundation of Newenham-Priory, scant a mile 

[* Blanks in MS.] 



a Stamford. *> Casterton. Towcester. 

d Colly Weston. Fotheringay. * Oundle. 

9 Thorp Waterville. h Leighton Bromeswold, 



ioo LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Beds, beneth Bedford, on Use a ryver. The prebendaries had 
their howses aboute the circuite of the chirch of S. Paule: of 
the which the names of 2. prebendes remayne, and houses 
longging to them, though theyr staulles be in Lincoln. 
Roisia, wife to Paganus de Bello Campo, translatid the 
college of the chanons irregulars onto Newenham, b a college 
of chanons regular. 

Simon de Bello Campo, sonne to Paganus and Rohisia, 
confirmid and performid the acte of his mother. He lyith 
afore the high altare of S. Paules Chirch in Bedeford with 
this epitaphie graven in bras and set on a flat marble stone : 

De Bello Campo jacet hie sub marmore Simon 
Fundator de Newenham. 



Paganus de Bello had the barony [of] Bedeford geven 
onto hym after the [Conjquest of King Wylliam. 

[Roi]sia, wife to Pagane, made the priorie of Chiksand, 
and there [was] she buried in the chapitre [hou]se. 
fo. 117. Cawdewelle-Priory a litefl] without Bedeforde, and a litle 
louer then it apon Use ripa dextra, was of the foundation of 
one of the Beauchampes also. 

And the barony of Bedforde, with the castelle of Bedford, 
as the place of the inhabitation of the Bewchaumpes, re- 
maynid in the name ontylle that Falcasius de Brent had the 
castelle and much rule there in John dayes and partely in 
Henry the 3. tyme. 

And as I remember I redde in one place that this pre- 
ferremen cam to Falcasius by a mariage. 

But after that Falcasius and his brethern rebbellid again 
King Henry the 3. he toke the castel of Bedforde, and threw 
it doun, gyving the soile therof to one of the Beauchampes, 
to whom it appertaynid by inheritaunce. 

At the laste the Beauchampes landes for lak of heires 
males [came] to 3. doughter [of] one of [the] Beauchaumpes 
wh[ere of the el]dest was maryfed to the Lord Mulbray]. 

The Lorde Latimer bouth the landes of the secund sister. 
She lyvid, as sum say, Calebs. 

The thirde was maried to one Straunge. And Straunges 

a Ouse. b Newnham. c Chicksand, 



PART I ioi 

part, for lak of heyre male, cam after onto 2. doughters, Beds, 
wherof Pigote marled the one, and Pateshulle the other. 

And a pece of Pateshul's parte is syns cum to S. John, the 
best of that name in Bedfordeshire. 



Boothe the hospitales in Bedeforde town were of the 
fundation of the townes men of Bedford. 

The townes men of late dayes for bringging their fee 
ferme of Bedforde from xl//. by the yere to xx/z. gave the 
title and patronage of one of the hospitales to Sir Reignald 
Bray : and now a late by that meanes it is brought into 
meere possession of the Lord Bray. 

From Bedeford to Castelle-Mille a 2. miles, partely by fo. 118. 
pasture and corne, and partely by * . . . 

A litle by weste from this mylle, upper on the ryver, be 
tokens wher a large castelle hath beene, Risingho-Castel; but 
there apperith no maner of part of building, but it is easi to 
se wher the area of the castelle was, and the great round 
hille wher the keepe or dungeon stoode is clene hole, and at 
this tyme there grouith many rugh busshes on it ; and there 
is a mighty stronge and usid borow for greys or foxes. 

And about a mile from thens, as the millar sayed, is in a 
champain large feld toward north a diche and an hille, wher 
be likelihod was sum pile or forteress; yet, as the prior of 
Newenham told me, it was in the way betwixt Bedford and Neodomus. 
S. Neotes. 

As far as I can lerne this castel by Castelle-Mille was the 
Lorde Beauchaumpes, Baron of Bedeford ; but when it fell 
totally f . . . ine I have not yet lernid. 

I now make conjecture rather that it was Espekes, founder 
of Wardon-Abbay in Bedfordeshire, and Rosses his heires. 
It was a peace of the landes of Warden [Abbey.] 

Mr. Gostewik is lorde [now bothe] of the castelle-mylle, 
and the castelle-garth, he bought it of the king. It was 
longging to the late suppressid abbay of Warden in Bede- 
fordeshire. 

The ryver of Huse a againe the castelle brekith into 2. 

[* Blank in MS.] [f Read into rume.L. T. S.] 

a Ouse. 



102 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Beds, partes, and closing agayne a title beneth the mylle makith 
an isleland. The lesser streame servith the mil. I passid 
first by a bridge of wood over this arme ; and by and by over 
the mayne streame of Use-ryver by a timber bridg. And 
heere I lernid of the millar that there was but another bridge 

of tymbre on Use at * betwixt the mylle and 

S. Neotes. 

After that I had passid over bothe these bridges I enterid 
onto sumwhat low ground, where were very fair medowes 
and pastures, and so Willington-village distant about half a 
mile from Castelle-Mylle. 

The village self of Willington is commodiusly set in a fair 
gravely ground and fair wood in sum places about it. It 
longgid to the Beauchaumpes barons of Bedeforde [and] sins 
fo. 119. it [came in partition to the Lorde Moulbray of Axholme. 

Mr. Gostewik beyng borne in Willingtoun boute this lorde- 
ship of the Duke of Northfolk now lyving, and hath made a 
sumptuus new building of brike and tymbre d fundamentis in 
it, with a conduct of water derivid in leade pipes. 

There was, not very far from the place wher now Mr. 
Gostewike hath buildid, an old manor place, wher in tymes 
paste sum of the Moulbrays lay for a starte. Now it is clene 
doune : but the place is notabely scene wher it was. 

Mr. Gostewike hath purchacid there beside Willington a 
v. or vj. lordeshippes mo. 

From Willington to Antehille-Castelle a xij. miles, almost 
al by chaumpayn grounde, part by corne, and parte by 
pasture, and sum baren hethy and sandy ground. 

About the castelle self and the toune of Antehille is faire 
wood. 

The castelle and town of Antehille a with diverse fair lord- 
shippes th[erea]bout longgid [to the L. Fannope, a man of 
great renowne in the raigns of Henry the v. and Henry the 
syxte.] This Lorde Fannope buildid this castelle as it is now 
stonding stately on an hille, with a 4. or 5. faire towers of 
stone in the inner warde, beside the basse-courte, of such 
spoiles as it is saide that he wanne in Fraunce. 

[* Blank in MS.] 



Ampthill. 



PART I 103 

It apperith by the este wyndow in the chapelle withyn the Beds. 
castelle of Anthille that he maried yn a noble blood : as I 
remembre she was the Duches of Excestre ; it may chaunce 
that the manage of her was a great cause of the sumptuus 
building there. 

This Lorde Fannope lyith at the blake freres in London, 
as I have lernid, and his wife on the right hand of hym and 
a childe. 

How the Lorde Gray of Ruthin cam to this castelle and 
landes aboute it, I have hard these thinges folowing told for 
a verite. 

In the tyme of the civile war betwixt King Henry the [vi.] 
and King Edwarde the [iv. the]re was a [battaile] faught 
[hard without the south suburbes of Northampton.] The 
Lorde Fannope tooke totally King Henry's parte. fo- 120. 

The Lorde Gray of Ruthine did the same in countenance. 

But a litle afore the feeld he practisid with King Edward, 
other saying that he had a title to the Lorde Fannopes 
landes at Antehil and there aboute, or depraving hym with 
false accusations so wrought with King Edwarde, that he 
with al his strong band of Walschemen felle to King 
Edwardes part, apon promise that if Edward wan the feelde 
he shaul have Antehil and such landes as Fannope had 
there. 

Edwarde wan the feelde, and Gray opteinid Antehille cum 
pertinentiis : and stil encreasing in favor with King Edwarde 
was at the laste made by hym Erie of Kente. 

But wither the Lord Fannope were slayn at [this] feelde 
[or] no I am not sure. 

The market town of [Antehill] is praty and welle fafvoridly 
buildyd, and is a quarter of a mile] distant from the castelle : 
part of it standith on [a] hille, but the most and the best 
parte in a valley. 

There rennith a broket, as I remember, by the est part of 
the towne. 

From Antehill to Dunestaple a a x. miles, or more. First 
I passid partely by wooddy ground and enclosures, but after 
moste parte by champaine grounde, and aboute a 2. miles 
from Dunestaple by est I toke thorough a fair uplandisch 

a Dunstable. 



104 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Hertford- toune caullid * and thens to Mergate al 

shire. j^y chaumpaine, but for the moste parte fertile of corne, a vj. 
miles. 

Mergate a was a nunnery of late tyme, it standith on an 
hil in a faire woode hard by Watheling-Streate on the est 
side of it. Humfrey Boucher, base sunne to the late Lorde 
Berners, did much coste in translating of the priorie into a 
maner place : but he left it nothing endid. 

Ther is a litle south of the priorie a long thorough fare 
fo. 121. on Watheling-Streate meately welle buildid for low housing. 

About the midle of this town I passid half a mile by hilly 
ground as in the beginning of Chilterne, and ther I saw in a 
praty wood side S. Leonardes on the lifte hand, scant half a 
mile of toward north weste. Wher of late tyme was a priorie 
of nunnes. Master Page the knight hath it now in ex- 
chaunge for landes of his in Sutherey b about the quarters of 
Hampton-Courte. 

Master Page hath translatid the house, and now much 
lyith there. 

So forthe by Chiltern-hilles and woddes a 4. miles and a 
half to * [? Gaddesden] wher the Lorde of Darby hath a 
praty maner place of tymbre. 

And or I cam to this village I rode over a litle brooke c 
that cummith not very far of out of Chilterne-hiflles] and 
[resortyth] to Langeley wh[ere the friars] were dwelling. 

Thens by Chiltern-hilles and baren, wooddy, and feme 
ground for the moste parte, the soile waxing chalky and 
flinty, as al Chiltern ys, a 3. [miles] f to Barkhamstede. 

Wher is an old large castelle in a roote of an hille stonding 
sum what low, and environid with a mote, to the which, as I 
coulde percey ve, part of the water of the ryver there hard by 
doth resorte. 

I markid dyverse towers in the midle warde of the castelle, 
and the dungeon hille. But to my sighte it is much in 
ruine. The house of Bonehomes, caullid Asscheruge, d of 
the fundation of Edmunde, Erie of Cornewale, and owner of 
Berckhamstede-Castel, is about a mile of, and there the king 

[* Blanks in MS.] [t No blank in MS.] 



* Markyate Street. b Surrey. c Gade R. d Ashridge. 



PART I 105 

lodgid. After that I had veuyd the castel, I passid over the Herts, 
ryver wher as is a bridge of wood. This ryver cummith by 
northe-west from Penley, a place yn Chiltern a 3. miles of, 
and so renning by the est ende of Barkhamstede towne goith fo. 122. 
doun a xij. miles southwarde to the more water about the 
quarters of Richemannesworthe. 

Berkhamstede is one of the best markette townes in Hert- 
fordeshire, and hath a longe streate metely welle buildid 
from the north to the south : and another, but sumwhat 
lesser, from the west to the est, where the ryver rennith. 

The chirch is in the midle of the town. 

In the botom of the ryver of eche side be very faire 
medowes. 

Thens I passid by hilly, woddy, and much baren ground 
to Cheynes a v. miles of. Bucks. 

And or I cam very nere Cheneys a I passid over a little 
brooke, b and even in the valley by Cheineys over another, 
and [they resorte] aboute Richeman [sworth to] the moore d 
wa[ter.] 

The olde house of the Cheyneis is so translatid by my 
Lorde Russel, that hath that house on the right of his wife, 
that litle or nothing of it yn a maner remaynith ontranslatid : 
and a great deale of the house is * even newly set up made 
of brike and timber : and fair logginges be new erectid in 
the gardein. 

The house is within diverse places richely paintid with 
antique workes of white and blak. 

And there be about the house 2. parkes, as I remembre. 

The maner place stondeth at the west ende of the paroche 
chirche. 

In the paroche on the northe side of it, as in a chapelle, 
be 2. tumbes of the Chaynes [lorjdes of the manor ther, and 
[the] smaul [vil]lage bering their name. 

[Fr]om Cheyneis I passid much [go]od pasture and corne 

ground fa pratie uplandisch town in a botom fo. 123. 

v. miles of. 

And thens a v. miles stil for the most parte on a mory 

[* Leland wrote in by mistake.] [t Blank in Leland.] 



Chenies. b Chess R. c Rickmansworth. d Colne R. 



io6 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Berkshire, ground like Hundeslaue a hethe, to the which level by like- 
lihood it streachith ; and thens by sum enclosid and woddy 
grounde a 3. miles to Windelesore. b 

From Windelesore by a 3. mile most be wood and enclosid 
pastures, leving Cheortesey c a mile of on lifte hand. Where 
is a goodly bridg of timbre over the Tamise newly repaired. 

And thens a 2. miles and more in faire open and levelle 
medow ground, wher I saw over the Tamise, Ankerwike, of 
late tyme a priorie of nunnes, and aboute an half mile lower 
Middlesex. I passid over the Tamise by Stanes-bridge. d 

And thens most by champai[ne] and corne ground . . 
. . . . pasture to H[ampton Courte 6. miles. And 
about halfe a myle a this syd it is Hampton village on the 
Thamise syde.] 

a Hounslow. b Windsor. 

c Datchet seems to be the place here referred to; Chertsey (Surrey) 
is many miles from Windsor, towards Leland's right hand, and south of 
Staines. 

d Thames, Staines. 



PART II 10; 



II.* 

Quinla die Mali Anno D. 1542^ 

FROM London to New Brentford 8. miles. There is a fo. i. 
bridge apon Brent ryveret of 3. arches, and an hospital Middlesex, 
buildid with brike on the farther ende of it. 

From Brentford to Hundeslawe 2. miles. There was in 
the west ende of the toune an house of freres of the ordre of 
the tile f of the Trinite. 

There rennith a lande water thorough the hethe of Hunde- 
slaw a as a drene to the hole hethe, that is of a great cumpace, 
and I passid by a bridge of tymbre over it. 

From Hundeslaw to Longeforde b a v. miles. 

A litle beyond this village is a bridge of tymbre at the 
which the mille water of Langford breking out above yn the 
medowes doth mete with one of the 2. greate principale Columts flu. 
armes that brekith out of Colne brooke. Colunbroke, 

This arme, as one told me, brekith out of Colne or ever it 
cum by the ende of Uxbridge, and metith not very far beneth 
Langford bridge with the principal streme of Colne. 

A litle beyond Langford bridge is a bridge of wood, under 
the which the principal streame of Colne ryver rennith, and 
thens more then a mile goith into Tamise by Stanes chirch a 
litle above Stanes bridg apon the Tamise. 

Coleham the Erie of Darby's house stondith on the hither 
side of this streame about a mile above the bridge. 

From this bridge toColebrok bridge of tymbre about a mile. 

Al the ground from a mile or more a this side Langford to 

[* Leland's MS., vol. ii. ; Stow's copy, vol. iii., fol. 1-35 (old num- 
bering).] 

[t Stow heads his copy of this volume with the following : " 1542, 
Comentaria Angliae, John Layland. Of late writen by John Stowe in 
Anno 1576. Lib. I."] 

[J Title. Stow.] 

a Hounslow. & Longford. 



io8 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Middlesex. Colebrok bridge is al low pasture ground, and at rages of 
rayne by rising of the ryver muche overflowen. 

Under Colebrooke bridge of tymbre rennith the secund of 
the 2. principale armes of Cole ryver, and this to my estima- 
tion is the lesser of the 2. It breketh owt of the principale 
Bucking- streame a 2. miles above Colebroke toun yn a mooreisch 
hamshire. grounde about a mile lower then Uxbridge toun. Uxbridge 
3. miles from Colebrook toune. 

This arme rennith by it self about a mile and a half beneth 
Colebrook toun into the Tamise a litle above Ancrewike, 
wher was a priory of nunnes. 

Colebrook a toun is a 2. miles from Stanes. b 

The toune of Colebrok is set on eche side of the ryver of 
Cole, but the far greatter part of it is on the west side of the 
ryver : and there is a chapelle of brike made of late dayes. 
The paroche chirch is a mile of. 

fo. 2. From Colne brooke to a place wher I passid over Burne 
ryveret a 4. or 5. miles. 

This water risith out of morisch spring on the lifte hond 
as I roode from Stok c wher the Erie of Huntendun lyith : 
and, as I gesse, goith by Burneham and about Eiton College 
toward the Tamise. 

A 2. or 3. miles beyond the passage over Burne I cam to 
Berkshire. Maidenhed bridge of tymbre apon the Tamise. 

A litle above the bridge ripa citeriori Tamesis I saw a 
cliffy ground as hanging over the Tamise and sum busschis 
groinge on it. I conjectid that ther had beene sum site of 
an auncient building. 

There is great warfeage of timbre and fier wood on the 
west ende of the bridge, and this wood cummith out of 
Barkshir, and the great woddis of the forest of Windelesore, d 
and the great Frithe. 1 

Heere mark that as much grounde as lyith bytwixt the arme 
of Colne, that goith thoroug Colebroke toun, and the bridge 
of Maidenhed 2 is yn Bukkinghamshir; beyond is Barkeshire. 

The toun of Maidenhed stondith a praty distance from 
the Tamise side, and is meately welle buildid. 

1 Fruticea sylva, angl. Frithe. [Marginal note.] 

2 Maidenheuedy antiq. nom. South Ailington. [Marginal note.] 

a Colnbrook. b Staines. Stoke Poges. d Windsor. 



PART II 109 

The south side of the toune is yn the paroche of Bray. Berkshire. 

The north side is in the paroch of [Cookham].* 

From Maidenhedde toun a 2. miles by narow wooddy way 
to the Frithe. And so thorough the Frithe 3. miles and 
more. 

Then to [Twiford]* a praty tounelet a 2. miles. 

At the west ende of this tounlet rennith Loden a praty 
pyver, and so brekith out in armes that therby I passid over 

4. bridgis. 

Thens a mile and an half to Sunning," an uplandisch toune, 
but sette on a fair and commodius grounde. The Tamise 
rennith under it in a plesant vale. 

I markid no very great antiquite in the chirch; it is im- 
propriate onto the decanerie of Saresbyri. 

In the presbyteri is one Fitton an esquier buried. 

In the south isle be 2. or 3. Vouesses buried, kinswomen 
to Bisshop of Saresbyri. 

In the north isle be 2. of the . . . f 

There is an old chapelle at the est end of the chirch of fo. 3. 

5. Sarik, whither of late tyme resortid in pilgrimage many 
folkes for the desease of madnes. 

The Bisshop of Saresbyri hath had at Sunning afore the 
Conquest an auncient maner place, and hath be lordes there. 
And yet remainith a fair olde house there of stone, even 
by the Tamise ripe, longging to the Bisshop of Saresbyri : and 
therby is a fair parke. 

This place is in Barkeshir 3. miles above Henley. 

From Sunning to Reading 2. miles. 

There is a park cumming into Reading toun longging to 
the late monasterie there. 

There is no maner of token that ever the toun of Reading 
was waullid; yet it is a very auncient toun, and at this tyme 
the best toun of al Barkshire. There was a castelle in the 
Saxons tyme in this towne : and the name of Castelle-Streat 
yet remaynithe, lying from est to west to passe to Newbyri : 
but I could not perceive or clerely lerne wher it stoode. But 

[* Cookham and Twiford, added by Hearne, both blank in the MS.] 
[t Blank in Leland.] 

a Sonning. 



no LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Berkshire, by al lykelihod at the west-ende of the Castelle-Streat : and, 
as sum think, about the place of execution. 

It is very likely that a peace of the abbay was buildid of 
the mines of it. 

Peraventure it stoode wher thabbay was. 

S. Edwarde the Martyr's mother-yn-law for penaunce 
buildid, as I have redde, a monasterie of nunnes yn Reading. 

There is a constant fame that this nunnery was wher S. 
Maryes, a paroche chirch is now yn Reading. 

King Henry the first making an abbay at Reading of blak 
monkes suppressid this house, as I hard, giving the landes 
thereof to his abbay. But for more certente know whither 
the old nunnery stoode not yn the place wher the abbay of 
Reading stondith ? 

And whither S. Maries were not of a newer foundation ? 

On the north side of the Castelle-Streat was a late a fair 
house of Gray Freres. 

In the toune be 3. paroche chirchis. S. Giles a this side 
Kenet ryver : Sainct Maries, and S. Laurence beyond Kenet. 
fo. 4. S. Maries is as the principal paroche of the toun for 
auncientnes : and standith in the hart of it. 

S. Laurence stondith by west hard by cumming yn at the 
principal gate of thabbay. 

West north west of S. Laurence chirch was an almose 
house of poore sisters by al lykelihod of the foundation of 
sum abbate of Reading : and remaynid ontyl such tyme one 
Thorne Abbate of Reading suppressid it in King Henry the 
vij. dayes, and gave the landes of it onto the use of the 
almoner of his abbay. But Henry the vij. cumming to 
Reading, and asking what old house that was, thabbate told 
hym, and then the king wyllid hym to convert the house self 
and the landes in pios usus. Wherapon thabbate desirid that 
it might be made a grammar-schole, and so it was. 

One Wylliam Dene, a riche man and servant in thabbay 
of Reading, gave 200. markes in mony toward the avaunce- 
ment of this schole : as it apperith by the epitaphie on his 
grave in the abbay chirch of Reading. 

The ryver of Kenet cummith thorough the midle of Read- 
ing toun, but devidid principally into 2. partes, wherof the 
principal streame cummith thorough a great wood bridge in 
the south side of the toune. 



PART II in 

The arme that breketh out of Kenet is caullid communely Berkshire, 
about the quarters of the toune the Halowid brooke, and 
brekith out of the principal streame of Kenet up above the 
toune by west south west aboute the Bere, wher thabbat of 
Reading had a fair manor place of bryke, and so cumming 
doune by medowes ynto Reading toune passith thorough a 
peace of thabbay clensing the filth of it, and a litle lower 
joinith againe with the great streame : and a litle lower Kenet 
hole streame goith into Tamise ryver. So that Tamise river 
cummith within half a mile by est north est of Reading. In 
the vale of the toune of Reading, wher the 2. armes of Kenet 
renne nere togither, I markid diverse armelettes breking out 
of the 2. streames and making mediamnes, over the which fo. 5. 
be dyverse bridges of wood. And these waters be very 
commodius for diers, welle occupied there; for the toune 
chiefly stondith by clothyng. 

From Reading to Causeiham, a shortly caullid Causham, 
aboute half a mile, wher is a great mayne bridge of tymbre 
over the Tamise, wher I markid that it restid most apon 
fundation of tymbre, and yn sum places of stone. 

Toward the north end of this bridge stondith a fair old 
chapelle of stone on the right hond, pilid in the fundation 
for the rage of the streame of the Tamise. 

Ther is no bridge on the Tamise upward betwixt this and 
Walingford, distant about a 10. miles of. And byneth this 
Causham bridge to Henley five miles, and a half lower is 
first Sunning bridge of tymbre, and Grat-Marlaw-bridge. 

Bisham Priorie in Barkshir on the Tamise a 3. miles above 
Maidenhed. 

Hurley apon the Tamise, a celle to Westminstre, a mile 
above Bisham. 

Litle-Marlaw, b wher the priorie of nunnes was, a 2. miles Bucks, 
above Maidenhed, stonding in Bukinghamshir. 

Great-Merlaw, c wher the [bridge] * of timbre is over the 
Tamise, a mile above it. 

Medmenham, a celle to Woburn in Bedfordshir, a mile 
above Bissham as the Tamise goith in Bukinghamshir. 

[* Leland omitted bridge; the word is interlined in Burton's hand.] 



a Caversham. b Little Marlow. c Great Marlow. 



ii2 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Oxfordshire. Beyond Causham bridge is Causham a villag in Oxfordshir. 

Thens I rode a v. miles or more al by great wooddes. 

And thens by chaumpaine hilly ground a 4. miles to 
Ewelm, an uplandisch village. 

Ewelme was the inheritance of the Chaucers. 

Thomas Chaucer the last heire male owner of it is buried 
yn an high marble tumbe in a fair chapelle in the paroch 
fo. 6. chirch of Ewelm, on the southside of the quier with this 
epitaphie : 

Hie jacet Thomas Chaucer armiger, quondam dominus 
istius villa, 6 Patronus istius ecclesia : qui obiit 18. die 
mensis Novembr: anno D. 1434. Et Matildis uxor ejus, qua 
obiit 28. die mensis Aprilis Anno D. 1436. 

Sum say, that this Chaucer was a marchant man, and 
bout a 1000 li. landes by the yere, and that wollesakkes be 
yn Ewelm in token of marchaundise. And menne say like- 
wise, that he mindid the fundation of the hospitale of Ewelme, 
and also the hospitale by Duningtoun-castelle. But William 
Duke of Southf [oik] did build them booth, eche pore man 
ther having xiiij.d. by the weeke. 

Alice, doughter and heire to Thomas Chaucer and Matilde, 
tooke to husband William de la Pole Duke of Southfolk : 
the which for love of her and the commodite of her landes 
fell much to dwelle yn Oxfordshir and Barkshir wher his 
wifes landes lay. 

This William translatid and encreasid the manor place of 
Ewelme. 

I think that Ewelme tooke name of a great poole afore 
the maner place and elmes grouing about it. 

Ewelme paroche chirch a cumly and new peace of work 
stonding on an hille was lately made by William Duke of 
Southfolk and Alice his wife. 

William was slayn, and Alice supervivid, and after was by- 
ried yn the paroche chirch of Ewelme on the south side of the 
high altare in a riche tumbe of alabastre, with an image in 
the habite of a woves crounid lying over it, and having this 
epitaphie on it : 

Orate pro anima Serenissimce Principissa Alicia DUCISSCR 
icZ) hujus ecclesice, patroncz, & prima fundatricis hujus 

a Caversham. 



PART II 113 

elemosynarta. qua obiit 20. die mensis Maij, anno Di. 1475. Oxon. 
liter a Dominicali A. 

The pratie hospitale of [xiij] * poore men is hard joynid to 
the west ende of Ewelm paroche chirch : and much after the 
building of the vicars houses at Windesore yn a circle. 

In the midle of the area of the hospitale is a very fair welle. 

The master or provost of the almose house hath ther a 
praty lodging, every poore man hath i4d. a weke. 

I redde these thinges folowing in a table in Ewelm chirch : 
Pray for the soules of John Duk of Southfolk, and Elizabeth 
his wife. This John was sun and heire to William and 
Alice. 

John de la Pole Duk of Southfolk had by Elizabeth [Johnft fo. 7- 
Erie of Lincoln, Edmund after Duk of Southefolk, Richard, 
William : and . . . % that was at scholar yn Gunvile- 
Haul a in Cambridge, and lyith buried at Baberham. b 

The maner place of Ewelme is in the valley of the village : 
the base court of it is fair, and is buildid of brike and tymbre. 
The inner part of the house is sette with in a fair mote, and 
is buildid richely of brike and stone. The haul of it is fair 
and hath great barres of iren overthuart it instede of crosse 
beames. The parler by is exceding fair and lightsum : and 
so be al the lodginges there. 

The commune saying is that Duk John made about the 
beginning of King Henry the vij. tymes most of the goodly 
buildinges withyn the mote. 

There is a right fair parke by the manor place. 

From Ewelm to Hasely a v. miles by chaumpaine ground 
sumwhat plentiful of corne, but most layid to pasturage. 

Haseley is thus dividid into Grete-Haseley, Litle Haseley, 
Lecheford c and Ricote. d 

Great Haseley was of aunciente tyme a lordship longging 
by many descentes to the Pyperdes, whos maner place was 

[* Leland left the figure blank, apparently Stow did the same, but 
a hand of seventeenth century filled it in as above, in blacker ink than 
Stow's writing (perhaps Mr. Thynne ; see notes on next page).] 

[t A blank in Leland.] 

[t Blank in Leland.] 



Gonville Hall. b Babraham. c Latchford. * Rycote. 
I 



ii4 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Oxon. there vvher now is the ferme place by the chirch longging to 
Windesor college. 

These Piperdes were men of fair possessions, and the name 
of them as in the principal maner florishid onto Edward the 
thirde dayes, about the which tyme Piperdes maner place 
and the patronage of the benifice of Haseley was gyven to 
the college of Windesore. 

The armes of Piperd apere yn the est window of the fair 
chauncelle of Haseley chirch. 

fo. 8. Litle Haseley, wher Master Baretine* hath a right fair 
mansion place, and marvelus fair walkes topiarii opens, and 
orchardes, and pooles, holdith, as I lernid, of the maner of 
Piperdes by knight service. 

Lacheforde about the beginning of Edward the thirdes 
tyme was parte of the Piperdes landes. Then it chauncidf 
for a younger sun of Piperdes of Haseley to do so valiauntly 
in batelle agayn the Scottes that he was made knight : and 
having no lande, bycause that his elder brother was heire, 
desirid to have sum smaul portion of land ; wherapon his 
father gave hym Lacheford to hold by knight service of the 
maner of Piperdes in Great Haseley. 

The stook;}: of this yong Piperd knight remaynid in 
Lacheford onto 80. yeres ago : when the last of these 
Piperdes lefte a doughter and heire, that was maried to one 
Lenthaul, a gentilman of Herefordshir, whos sunne now 
dwellith in Lacheforde. 

Ricote longid to one Fulco de Ricote. 

After it cam to one Quatermains. 

The house of the Quatermains in Oxfordshir hath beene 
famose and of right fair possessions. Their chief house 
was at Weston by Ricote, wher Mr. Clerk now dwellith. 

[* The antiquary Francis Thynne wrote three notes in the margin ol 
Stow's copy of this leaf. Opposite Baretine he put " Sir William 
Barantyne."] 

[i Mistaken, as I canne prove by the petygre, gathered out of the old 
evidence of the Pipardes by myne owne knowledge. [Signed] Thyn:] 

[ The last of the Pipards, beinge Richard Pipard of Lecheford 
Esquire, lyved in 9. H. 5. and had issue one daughter and heyre Jane, 
maried to John Badby Esquier, who had issue his daughter and heyre 
Katherine, maried to William Lenthall of Lenthall Starkar in Hereford- 
shyre, whiche came to dwell at Lacheford, of whome came Williame 
Lenthall Esquier now lyving of reverent age in this yere 1584. Thynne.] 



PART II ti 5 

And Shirburne withyn a mile of Wathelington a market,* Oxon. 
wher is a strong pile or castelet, longid to Quatremains : sins 
Fowler : and by exchaunge now to Chaumbrelein of Oxford- 
shir. 

About King Henry the vj. dayes dyvers brethren dyed of 
the Quatremains one after another, and by a great onlykeli- 
hod al the landes descendid to one Richard, the yonggest 
of the brethern, that was a marchant of London, and after 
custumer there. 

This Richard had a servant caullid Thomas Fowler, his 
clerk, a toward felaw that after was chauncelar of the duchy 
of Lancastre. 

Richard Quatremains bare great favor to this Thomas. fo. 9. 

Richard was god-father to Thomas sunne, and namid hym 
Richard Quatermains Fowler. 

Richard Quatermains lay at Ricote : and caussid Thomas 
Fowler to ly at Westun. 

Richard Quatermains made Richard, Thomas Fowler 
sunne, heir of most part of his landes, bycause he had no 
children. 

Richard Quatermains godfather to Richard Fowler made 
a right goodly large chapelle of ease hard without the manor 
place of Ricote, and foundid ther 2. chauntre prestes to sing 
perpetually for his soule, enduing the cantuaries with good 
landes : and made a fair house for the prestes therby. 

This fundation was begon in Henry the 6. dayes : and 
endid yn Edward the 4. tyme. 

This Richard foundid also a cantuarie in Tame b paroche 
chirche a 2. miles from Ricote, wher he in a chapelle is buried 
undre a marble stone. 

This Richard foundid ther also an hospitale by Tame 
chirche endowing it by landes. 

Richard Fowler heir to Quatremains was a very onthrift, 
and sold al his landes leving his children ful smaul lyvinges. 

Syr John Heron, treasorer of the chaumbre to Henry the 

[* Leland first wrote "toward Stoken chirch," then struck through 
" toward Stoken," but left " chirch," evidently a slip of his pen, as he 
interlined the words "withyn market."] 



a Watlington. * Thame. 



n6 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Oxon. vij. and the viij. boute the reversion of the lordship of Ricote, 
and Giles his sunne possessid it a while. 

Giles Heron wise in wordes, but folisch yn deades, as Syr 
Richard Fowler was, sold Ricote to John Willyams now 
knighte. 
fo. 10. From Haseley to Miltoun & village half a mile. 

At this place, as I hard say, was many yeres syns a priorie 
of monkes : a selle, as one told me, to Abbingdon. 

The house of the priorie was by likelihod wher the farmer's 
house is now hard by the chirch yard. For ther appere 
fundations of great buildinges. 

Sum say that Mounseir de Louches house was wher the 
farmer's house is. 

In the chirch of Miltun is an highe tumbe of fre stone 
with the image of a knight and a lady, with an epitaphie in 
Frenche, declaring that Richard de Louches chivalier and 
Helene his wife ly buried there. 

The voice ther goith that Louche had the priorie land 
gyven hym. 

Louches landes cam to heires generales. 

Of later tymes Davers had this lordship of one 

Syr Regnald Bray boute it of Davers. The late Lord Bray 
sold it to Dormer Mair of London. 

Ther is a prebend land in Miltun longging to Lincoln. 
The Bisshop of Lincoln is patrone of the chirch. 

There joynith onto Great-Miltun, Litle-Miltoun, and there 
is a chapelle of ease dedicate to S. James. 

From Haseley to Chisilhampton b (vulgo Chisiltun) by 
plaine ground fruteful of corne and grasse, but baren of wood 
as al that angle of Oxfordshir is, 3. miles. 

Here is passid over 3. litle bridges of wood, wher under 
wer plaschsy pittes of water of the overflowing of Tame ryver, 
and then straite I rode over a great bridge under the which 
the hole streame of Tame rennith. 

Ther were a 5. great pillers of stone, apon the which was 
layid a timbre bridge. 

Thens to Drayton village, longging a late to Dorchestre 
Abbay. 

Thens a mile to Dorchester. 

a Great Milton. b Chiselhampton. 



PART II 117 

In the toun of Dorchestre I markid these notable thinges. Oxon. 

The abbay of chanons, wher afore the Conquest was a 
bisshopes sete. 

Remigius translatid it to Lincoln. 

Alexander Bisshop of Lincoln erected there an abbay of 
blak chanons. Yet the chirch berith the name of the pre- 
bend chirch. 

There was buried, as it is said, the bodie of S. Birine 
bisshop there. 

And there yet remainith the image of free stone that lay fo. n. 
on the tumbe of Bisshop ^Eschwine, as apperith by the in- 
scription. 

There be buried in the quier beside divers abbates a 
knight on the south side with an image crosse leggid, whos 
name is there oute of remembrance. 

There lyith at the feete of hym one Stoner sumtyme a 
juge (as it apperith by his habite) [in the raigne of K. E. 3.] 

There lyith a knight on the north side of the quier, a 
knight whom the late abbate tooke to be one of the Segraves, 
the image was of alabastre. But after the abbate told me 
that he hard of late one say that there was one Holcum a 
knight buried. 

In the body of the chauncelle afore the quier doore lay a 
gentilman caullid Ways. 

Ther ly in south isle of the quier 3. of the Draitons, 
gentilmen, one hard by another, under plaine marble stones. 
Mr. Barentine hath part of these Draitons landes. 

The[r] lyith at the hed of thes Draitons one Gilbert Segrave 
a gentilman, under a flat marble. 

The body of the abbay chirch servid a late for the paroche 
chirch. 

Syns the suppression one a great riche man, 

dwelling in the toun of Dorchestre, bought the est part of 
the chirch for 140. poundes, and gave it to augment the 
paroch chirch. 

The toun of Dorchestre was sore defacid by the Danes. 
Of old tyme it was much larger in building then it is now 
toward the south and the Tamise side. There was a 
paroche chirch a litle by south from the abbay chirch. And 
another paroch chirch more south above it. There was the 
3. paroch chirch by south weste. 



n8 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Oxon. In the closis and feeldes that lye southly on the toun that 
now standith be founde numismata Romanorum of gold, 
silver, and brasse. 

The bisshop's palace, as is * saide ther, was at the toune's 
end by north west, wher [yet] f appere fundations of old 
buildinges : and there as yet be kept the courtes. 

The ryver of Tame cummith first by the est ende of the 
toune : and then by the south side passing thoroug a very 
faire bridge of stone a litle witoute the toune. 

Gumming from Wallingford to Dorchester the toun standith 
ulter. ripa Tames. 

The bridg is of a good lenghth : and a great stone causey 
is made to cum welle onto it. There be 5. principale arches 
in the bridge, and in the causey joining to the south ende of 
it. 

fo. 12. Tame and Ise a metith aboute half a mile beneth Dorchestre 
bridg in the medowis. 

From Dorchester to the fery over the Tamise about a 
mile. 

Here the hither ripe by north is low and medow ground. 

The south ripe ys high al alonge like the long bak of an 
hille. 

Berks. From the fery to Walingford a mile by marvelus fair 
champain and fruteful ground of corne. 

The toun of Walingeforde b hath beene a very notable thing 
and welle waullid. The diche of the toun and the crest 
wheron the waulles stoode be yet manifestely perceyvid, and 
begin from the castelle going in cumpace a good mile and 
more, and so cummith to Walingford bridg a large thing of 
stone over the Tamise. 

There remayne yet the names of these streates emong 
other : Tamise-streat, Fische-streate, Bred-streat, Wood- 
streat, Goldsmithes-row. 

And by the patentes and donations of Edmunde Erie of 
Cornewaul and Lord of the Honor of Wallingeford[/V<2//m?//&] 
that ther wer 14. paroch chirchis in Walingford. And ther 
be men yet alyve that can shew the places and cemiteries 

[* Leland has it for .] [f Leland has it, Stow reads yet.] 



a Isis. b Wallingford. 



PART II 119 

wher yn the al stoode. At this tyme there be but 3. poore Berks, 
paroch chirches in the town. 

Ther was a priory of blake monkes, a celle to S. Alban, 
suppressid by Thomas Woulsey cardinale, standing hard 
withyn the west gate of Wallingford. 

The toun and the castelle was sore defacid by the Danes 
warres. Yet they meatly reflorichid in the tyme of Richard 
King of Romaines and Erie of Cornewaulle, brother to King 
Henry the 3. 

This Richard did much cost on the castelle. 

The castelle yoinith to the north gate of the toune, and 
hath 3. dikis, large and deap, and welle waterid. About ech 
of the 2. first dikis, as apon the crestes of the ground cast 
out of [them],* rennith an embatelid waulle now sore yn 
ruine, and for the most part defaced. 

Al the goodly building with the tourres and dungeon be 
withyn the 3. dike. 

There is also a collegiate chapel emong the buildinges fo. 1 3. 
withyn the 3. dike. Edmund Erie of Cornewale, sunne to 
Richard King of the Romains, was the first founder and en- 
dower of this college. 

Prince Edwarde, as one told me, the Blak, augmentid this 
college. 

There is a decane, 4. prestes, 6. clerkes and 4. choristers. 

the late decane afore Dr. London 1 that 

now is buildid a fair steple of stone at the weste ende of the 
collegiate chapelle, to making wherof he defacid, as it is said, 
withoute licens a peace of the kinges lodging, joyning on the 
est ende of the chapelle. 

1 This is the same Dr. London that was Warden of New-College^ and 
author of the scandalous report of William of Wickhanfs being a bastard^ 
which hath been followed by a late author in a certain note (not less 
scandalous) to the first vol. of " the Complete History of England " (as 
'tis stytd} of which I have taken notice in the IV th . and VII th . vol. of 
this work. You may see more of Dr. London in col. 660. of Vol. I. of 
"Athena Oxon." Hearne. 



[* The phrase written by Leland runs : " apon the crestes of the 
creastes of the ground cast out of." He appears to have made a repe- 
tition and omitted a word, as suggested above. Stow, too, strikes out 
the repetition.] 



120 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Berks. The decane hath a fair lodging of tymbre withyn the 
castelle : and to it is yoinid a 'place for the ministers of the 
chapelle. 

From Walingford to Makeney a in Barkshir a good mile. 
. Mr. Molynes hath a pratie manor place of brike ther. 
Court*. One Courte buildid this house of late dayes. 
Molynes. This Court was uncle to Molines, that now dwellith at 
Makeney. 

Molines hath not this lordship only, but a nother in Ox- 
fordshir not far from Dorchester, caullid Moungewelle, b and 
is 50. li. in value by yere, and hath fair woodes. 

The house of Molines habitation byfore the death of Court 
was yn Hamptonshir about an 8. miles from Saresbyri at a 
place caullid Sandhil, wher is a fair manor place. 

From Walingford to Sinodune about a mile and a 
half. 

This place is wonderful dikid about and stondith on a hille 

in Barkshir, hanging over the Tamise. It is yn by estimation 

half a mile. And withyn it hath beene sum toune, or, as the 

fo. 14. commune voice sayith, a castelle in the Britannes tyme, de- 

facid by lykelihod by the Danes. 

At this tyme it berith very plentifullye booth barley and 
whete, and numismata Romanorum be ther found yn plough- 



About this Sinodune beginnith the fruteful vale of White- 
Horse, and so strecchith by south west toward Farington 
quarters. 

This vale is not plentiful of woodde.* 

From Sinodune to Abbingdon c 6. miles. 

A little a this side the bridge over the Ise at Abbingdon is a 
confluence of 2. armes that brekith aboute the est ende of 
Abbingdon-Abbay out of the hole streame of the Ise, d and 
make 2. litle isles or mediamnes. And at this confluence 
self in the very mouth is a very fair bridge of 7. arches : and 
a very litle beneth this bridge booth the armes yoinid and 
renning in one botom goith ynto Ise. 

[* Leland left a long blank after this sentence.] 



Mackney. b Mongewell. c Abingdon. d Isis. 



PART II 121 

The greath bridge at Abbingdon over Ise hath a 14. arches.* Berks. 

The toun of Abbingdon afore the abbay was buildid there 
was caullid Seukesham. 

The abbay was first begon at Bagley Wood in Barkshir a 
2. miles more upper on the Ise then Abbingdon now is : but 
the foundations and the workes there prosperid not ; wher- 
apon it was translatid to Seukesham, and ther finishid most 
by the costes of King Cissa, that there after was buried ; but 
the very place and tumbe of his burial was never knowen 
syns the Danes defacid Abbingdon. 

I hard that ther was an holy heremite, kynne to King Cissa, fo. 15. 
that lyvid yn the woodes and marisches about Seukesham, 
and that the abbay for his sake and by his meanes was 
buildid there. 

Ethelwolde, Abbate of Abbingdon, and after Bisshop of 
Winchestre, yn King Edgares [days] did clerely renovate and 
augmentid this abbay, digging and caussing a gut to cum out 
of Isis by force to serve and purge thoffices of thabbay. 

The chirche and buildinges that he made ther were after 
taken doune and new made by Norman abbates in the first 
Norman kinges tymes. The est partes wherof yet be scene. 

The tower in the midle of the chirch, al the body of the 
chirch, and the towers at the west ende of it wher made by 
4. abbates immediatelie preceding the last 4. abbates of 
Abbingdon. 

The latter 2. of the 4. abbates that buildid the west part 
of the chirch were thus namid : Aschendune and Sante. 

Sante was a doctor of divinite, and was imbassador at 
Rome bothe for King Edward the fourth and Henrie the vij. 

At the west end of the area wheryn the abbay chirch of 
Abbingdon stondith is a charnel chapelle, to the which was 
gyven the profile of a chapelle at Bayworth by Bagley- Wood. 

On the south side of the area is al the abbate and con- 
ventes lodging. 

[* Stow has the following marginal note : "John of S. Helenes, so 
cawlyd bycause he dwelt in S. Helin's paroche in Abyndon, was the 
first beginner and maker of this bridge of stone. Afore his tyme it was 
a ferry. The makynge of this bridge was a great hinderens to the 
towne of Walingford, whithar the trade was of Glostarshire. This 
John of S. Helin's lyvyd about the begynyng of H. the 6." See Part o 
(Lei. vii., fol. 14).] 



122 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Berks. In old tymes many of the villages about Abbingdon had 
but chapelles of ease, and Abbingdon Abbay was their mother 
chirch, and there they buried. 

fo. 16. There is at the west ende of thabbay withowt the gate a 
chirch dedicate to S. Nicolas, and buildid by one abbate 
Nicolas for the ease of the toun encreasing with people. 

Again this on the other side withoute thabbay gate is a 
chirch dedicate to S. John, and there is an hospital having 
6. almose menne. The kinges be countid for founders of 
this hospitale. 

There is a paroch chirch of S. Helene at the south ende 
of the toun apon Isis as the ryver cummith from the abbay 
downeward. 

At this place was sumtyme a nunnery : and yn S. Ethel- 
woldes tyme that renewid thabbay of Abbingdon wer straunge 
thinges and tumbes found yn digging. 

There is now an hospital* of 6. men and 6. women at S. 
Helenes maintenid by a fraternite ther, as I hard. 

A very litle beneth S. Helenes cummith Och ryver thorough 
the vale of Whit-Horse into Isis. 

There is a mille almost at the mouth of this confluence 
caullid Ocke-mille, and nother above it. 

There is a right goodly crosse of stone with fair degres and 
imagerie in the market steede of Abbingdon. 

There is also a fair house with open pillars coverid with 
a rofe of leade for market folkes. The toun of Abbingdon 
stondith by clothing. The market is quik there. 

Remembre to speke with Mr. Bachelar in Abbingdon, and 
the prior of Abbingdon dwelling a mile from Abbingdon, for 
the book de Gestis abbatum de Abbingdune. 

fo. 17. From Abbingdon to a fair waren of conies longging to 

thabbay about a mile. 
Oxon. Thens a 4. miles to Chisilhampton Abridge. 

[* Stow has the following marginal note here : " John of S. Helin's 
gave 50. li. land the yer to the mayntenance of this hospitall and the 
bridge." See Part 9 (Lei. vii., fol. 14).] 



Chiselhampton. 



PART II 123 

Thens to Haseley 3. miles. Oxfordshire. 

From Haseley to Oxford about a 7 miles. 

Robertas de Oilleio that cam into England with Wylliarn 
Conqueror had given to hym the baronyes of Oxford and 
Sainct Waleries. 

This Robert made the castelle of Oxford, and, as I con- 
ject, other made the waulles of Oxford or repairid them. 

This Robert made the chapelle of S. George in the cas- 
telle of Oxforde, and foundid a college of prebendaries 
there. 

This Robert dyid withowt issue, and wher he was buried 
it is not very certeinly knowen. 

This Robert had one John de Einerio that was exceding 
familiar with hym, and had beene in the warres as sworen 
brother onto hym, and had promised to be part taker of 
Robertes fortunes. Wherapon he enrichid hym with posses- fo. i8. 
sions, and, as sum think, gave hym S. Waleries. 

Robert Oilley had a brother caullid Nigellus, of whom be 
no verye famose thinges written. 

Nigellus had a sunne caullid Robert that provid a very 
noble man. 

This Robert the 2. had a wife caullid Edith Forne, a wo- 
man of fame and highly estemid with King Henry the [first] 
by whose procuration Robert weddid her. 

This Robert began the priorie of blake chanons at 
Oseney a by Oxford emong the isles that Isis ryver ther 
makith. 

Sum write that this was the occasion of making of it. Edith 
usid to walk out [of] Oxford Castelle with her gentilwomen 
to solace and that often tymes, wher yn a certen place in a 
tre as often as she came a certen pies usid to gether to it, 
and ther to chattre, and as it wer to speke onto her. Edithe f 0t ig> 
much marveling at this matier, and was sumtyme sore ferid 
as by a wonder. 

Wherapon she sent for one Radulph, a chanon of S. 
Frediswides, a man of a vertuus life and her confessor, asking 
hym counsel : to whom he answerid, after that he had scene 
the fascion of the pies chattering only at her cumming, that 
she should builde sum chirch or monasterie in that place. 

a Osney. 



i2 4 ICELAND'S ITINERARY 

Oxon. Then she entreatid her husband to build a priorie, and so he 
did, making Radulp the first prior of it. 

The cumming of Edith to Oseney and Radulph waiting 
on her, and the tre with the chattering pies be paintid in 
the waulle of tharch over Edith tumbe in Oseney priorie. 

There lyith an image of Edithe of stone in thabbite of a 
wowes, holding an hart in her right bond, on the north side 
of the high altare. 

Robert Oilley the 2., founder of Oseney priorie, was buried 
in thabbay of Eignesham a a 3. miles from Oxford. 

Robert Oilley the 2. had faire issue by Edith his wife, 
emong the which Henry was his heire. 

This Henry lyith buried yn Oseney chirch, in the veri 
midle of the presbyteri, under a flatte marble stone, wher- 
apon is a flourid cross* porturid. This Henry had Henry 
the 2. And from Henry the 2. were other discentes ; but 
in processe the landes of the Oilleys were disparkelid. 

Ther is at this tyme one of the Oilleis a man of a 140. In- 
land dwelling 

This Oilley hath to wife my Ladie Williams doughter of 
Ricote. 

He is now communely caullid Doilley of this title de 
Oilleio. 

fo. 20. Ela, Countes of Warwik, a woman of a very great riches 
and nobilite, lyith buried at the hedde of the tumbe of 
Henry Oilley, undre a very fair flat marble, in the habite of 
a woues, graven yn a coper plate. 

Ela gave many rich jewelles to Oseney, but no landes. 

Ela gave sum landes to Royle b abbay by Oseney. 

Ela gave riche giftes to thabbay of Reading. 

On the north side of the presbyteri of Oseney chirch is 
buried undre an arche John Saincte John a famose man in 
an high and large tumbe of marble. 

S. John's wife lyith under a flat marble by her husbandes 
tumbe. 

Beaufort a knight lyith in the quier at the hed of Countes 
Ela. 

[* Leland and Stow both have crossid, but it seems to be an error for 
cross.'] 

a Eynsham. b Rewley. 



PART II 125 

This Bewfort and an abbate of Oseney buildid the body Oxon. 
of the chirch now standing at Oseney, and ther be porturid 
their images in the volt of it. 

There be very faire doble isles on eche side of the body 
of the chirch. 

There is buried at Oseney yn our Lady chapelle a noble 
man of the Placetes, in a faire tumbe with an image. 

One Thomas Kidlington, borne at Kidlington in Oxford- 
shir, abbate of Oseney, buildid many yeres sins the chapelle 
of our Lady on the north side of the presbyterie of Oseney 
chirch. 

There were in the beginning certen priors at Oseney : and 
then the rulers of the house were made abbates : at the 
which tyme the landes of Oseney were augmentid and parte- 
ly given with a certen peculiar jurisdiction spiritual yn Glo- 
cestreshir. 

One Mr. James Bayllie of Oxford hath a peace of a booke 
of the actes of the abbates of Oseney. 

From Oxford thorough the southgate and bridge of sun- fo. 21. 
drie arches over Isis, and along causey in ulter. ripa in 
Barkshir by a good quarter of a mile or more, and so up to Berks. 
Hinxey a hille, about a mile from Oxford. 

From this place the hilly grounde was meately wooddy 
for the space of a mile : and thens 10.* miles al by chaum- 
pain, and sum corne, but most pasture, to Farington, stand- 
ing in a stony ground in the decline of an hille. 

Sum caulle this toune Cheping-Farington b ; but there is 
other none or very smaul market now at it. 

This tounelet hath but one paroch chirche that hath a 
crosse isle. 

In the chirch yard is a very fair chapelle of the Trinite 
made by on Cheyny, buried ther in a high tumbe of marble : 
and ther is a cantuarie endowed. Cheney Lord Warden of 
the 5. Fortes now geveth it. 

The personage is a 40. li. by yere longging to a prebende 
yn Saresbyri, that young Cavelcant a Florentine now hath. 

I asked for the castelle that the favorers of Matilde Em- 

[* Stow has 20 miles, the first figure is smudged in Leland's MS. ] 



Hincksey. b Faringdon. 



126 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Berks, peres erectid at this place, and King Stephan after pullid 
doune : but they could telle me naught of it. 

I lernid of certentye that a mile out of Farington, toward 
the right way [to] Higheworth a toune v. miles from Faring- 
ton, wher is a good market for Barkshir on the Wensday, 
appereth a great diche, wher a fortresse, or rather a camp of 
warre, hath beene, as sum say, dikid by the Danes for a 
sure campe. 

From Farington onto S. John's-bridge of 3. arches of stone 
and a causey a 3. miles dim. al by low grownd, and subject 
to the overflowinges of Isis. 

As I rode over Isis I lernid that ulter. ripa was in Glo- 
cestreshir, and citerior in * Barkshir and Oxfordshir not far of. 
Glo'ster- I lernid that Northlech-broke, that cummith after to Est- 
shire. leche, enterith into Isis a litle byneth S. John's-bridg. 

This Northlech water cummith from north to south. 

Northlech b is a praty uplandisch toune viij. miles from 
S. John's-bridg by north. Estleche c is a 5. miles lower, 
both set ripa citer. as I cam. 

fo. 22. At the very ende of S. John's-bridge in ripa ulterior i on 
the right hond I saw a chapelle in a medow, and greate 
enclosures of stone waulles. 

Heere was in hominum memoria a priory of blake chanons 
of the patronage of the Duke of Clarance or York. When 
this priory was suppressid there were 3. cantuaries erectid 
in the chirch of Lechelade : and ther remaynid ontylle of 
late dayes one Undrewoode, decane of Wallingforde, founde 
meanes that 2. of these cantuaries should be at Wallingford- 
College, and the third to remaine at Lechelade. 

From S. John's-bridge to Lechelade d about half a mile, it 
is a praty olde village, and hath a pratie pyramis of stone, at 
the west ende of the chirch. 

From Lechelade to Fairford about a 4. miles al by low 
ground, in a maner in a levelle, most apt for grasse, but very 
barein of woodde. 

Fairford is a praty uplandisch toune, and much of it long- 
ith with the personage to Tewkesbyri-Abbay. 

[* Leland and Stow have andioi in, evidently a slip of the pen.] 



a Highworth. b Northleach. Eastleach. d Lechlade. 



PART II 127 

There is a fair mansion place of the Tames hard by the Glo'ster- 
chirch yarde, buildid thoroughly by John Tame and Ed- shire, 
munde Tame. The bakside wherof goith to the very bridg 
of Fairford. 

Fairford never florishid afore the cumming of the Tames 
onto it. 

John Tame began the fair new chirch of Fairforde, and 
Edmund Tame finishid it. 

Both John and Edmund ly buried in a chapelle of the 
northside of Fairford quier. 

Epitaph: Joannis Tame. 

Orate pro animabus Joannis Tame armigeri 6 Alicia uxo- 
ris ejus. qui quidem Joannes obiit 8. die mensis Maij, a. D. 
1500, 6 an , regni Regis Henrici 7. 16". Et prcedicta Alicia 
obiit 20. die mensis Decembris^ An . D. 1471. 
Epitaph : Edmundi Tame. 

Hie jacet Edmundus Tame miles^ 6 Agnes, 6 Elizabeth 
uxores ejus. qui quidem Edmundis obiit primo die Octobr. 
a. D. 1534. 6* a", regis Henr. 8. 26. 

Fairford water risith a 5. miles north north west from fo. 23. 
Fairford, and after rennith about a mile lower thorough 
Welleford a village, and about a mile lower as it were betwixt 
Welleford and S. John's-bridge goith into Isis. 

The streame of Isis lyith from S. John's-bridge thus 
upward : 

From S. John-bridge to Lechelad more then half a 
mile. 

From Lechelade to Eiton Castelle b in Whileshir, wher Wilts, 
great mines of a building in Wyleshir, as in ulteriori ripa^ 
remayne yet, a 2. miles upper on the Isis. 

From Eiton Castelle to Nunne-Eiton a mile, to Greke- 
lade, c or rather Crikelade, a 2. miles. 

Eiton the Lord Zouches castelle. 

Nunne-Eiton longgid to Godstow. 

Crekelade is on the farther ripe of Isis, and stondith in 
Wileshire. 

Loke here wher Braden water cumming out of Wyleshir 
dooth go ynto Isis. 

From Faireford to Pultun d aboute a 2. miles dim. Going Glouc. 

a Welford. b Castle Eaton. c Cricklade. d Poulton. 



128 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Glo'ster- out of Fairford I passid over the water, wher is a bridg of 4. 
shire. stone arches. 

Ther cummith a litle bek by Pulton, that after goit at a 
mille a litle above Dounamney village into Amney watei 
into the Isis.* 

Then cummith Amney-broke into Isis. Cowberle watei 
cummith into .... 

I notid a litle beyond Pulton village Pulton priorie, whei 
was a prior and 2. or 3. blake chanons with hym. 

I saw yn the waulles where the presbyterie was 3. or 4. 
arches, wher ther were tumbes of gentilmen : I think that 
there was byried sum of the Sainct-Maurs. And of surety 
on S. Maur founder of it was buried there. 

As I passid out of Pulton village I went over the bek of 
Pulton, rysing not far above. 

Pulton-bek about a mile beneth Pulton goith at a mille a 
litle above Dounamney a into Amney streame.* 

From Pulton toward Amney villag I passid over Amney 
water, and so to Amney village, leving it on the right hand. 

Amney brook risith a litle above Amney toune by north 
out of a rok : and goith a 3. miles of or more to Doune- 
amney, wher Syr Antony Hungreford hath a fair house of 
stone ripa ulter. 

Amney goith into Isis a mile beneth Dounamney again 
Nunne Eiton in Wilshir. 
fo. 24. From Pulton to Cirencestre a 4. miles. 

Cirencestre b stondith on Churne ryver. 

Churncestre callid in Latine Coriminum. 

Ther was afore the Conquest a fair and riche college of 
prebendaries in this toune ; but of what Saxon's foundation 
no man can telle. 

Henry the first made this college an abbay of chanons 
regulares, gyving them the landes of the prebendaries 
totally, and sum other thinges. Rumbaldus, chauncelar to 
King Edward the Confessor, was dene of this house, and 
buried in the body of the chirch, as it apperith by the 
epitaphy on his tumbe. 

[* This repetition occurs both in Leland and Stow.] 



a Down Ampney. b Cirencester, 



PART II 129 

The est parte of the chirch of Cirencestre-Abbay shewith Glo'ster 
to be of a very old building. The west part from the tran- shire. 
septum is but new work to speke of. King Richard the first 
gave to Cirenceste the cortes and perquisites of 7. hundredes 
therabout yn Glocestreshir. 

The landes of Cirencestre-abbay litle augmentid sins the 
tyme of the fundation by Henry the first. 

There ly 2. noble men of S. Amandes buried withyn the 
presbyterie of Cirencestre-abbay chirch. 

And there is buried the hart of Sentia, wife to Richard 
King of Remains, and Erie of Cornwalle. 

Serlo first abbate of Cirencestre. Sg 

This Serlo made his brother prior of Bradene-stoke. Se 

Ther were xxviij. or xxix. abbates of Cirencestre after Serlo. EccLfit Abbas 

Mr. Blake the last abbate buildid 2. fulling milles at Corinienris. 
Cirencestre that cost a 700. markes of mony. They be 
wonderfully necessary, by cause the toun standith alle by 
clothing. 

There hath bene 3. paroche chirchis in Cirencestre, 
wherof S. Cecilia chirch is clene doun, it was of late but a 
chapelle. S. Laurence yet stondith, but as no paroch fo. 25. 
chirch. Ther be 2. poor almose women endowid with landes. 

Ther is now but one paroche chirch in al Cirencestre: 
but that is very fair. 

The body of the chirch is al new work, to the which 
Ruthal, Bisshop of Duresme, borne and brought up in 
Cirencestre, promisid much, but preventid with deth gave 
nothing. 

One Alice Aveling, aunt to Bisshop Ruthal by the mother 
side, gave an hundreth markes to the building of the right 
goodly porche of the paroch chirch. 

And Ruthalles mother contributid, and other, to the per- 
forment of it. 

Alexander Necham, a great clerk and abbate of Ciren- 
cestre, buried in the entring of the cloister of Wiccestre, 
entering out of the chirch into the cloyster. King Henry 
the first made the hospital of S. John at Cirencestre. Ciren- 
cestre toun hath but a bailife to govern there. 

Cirencestre is in Coteswolde. 

Cirencestre hath the most celebrate market in al that 
quarters on Monday. 

K 



130 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Glo'ster- The way lyith this from Cirencestre to London : 
shire. To Fairford vj. miles. 

To Farington viij. 

To Abbingdon . . . miles. 

To Dorchestre v. miles. 

To Henley 

To London 

Tetbyri* is vij. miles from Malmesbyri, and is a praty 
market toun. 

Tetbyri liyth a 2. miles on the lift hand of from Fosse as 
men ryde to Sodbyri. 

The hed of Isis in Coteswalde risith about a mile a this 
. side Tetbyri. 

The Fosse way goith oute at Cirencestre, and so streatchith 
by a manifest great creste to Sodbyri market b . . . . miles 
of, and so to Bristow. 

Cowberkele c lyith by north west a vj. miles from Ciren- 
cestre, and there ys the hedde of Cowberkeley-streame. 

Master Bridges hath a fair house at Cowberkele. 

This streame cummith a 3. miles lower thorough Ren- 
cumbe d Park, and ther hath Sir Edmunde Tame a very fair 
house. 

fo. 26. F rom Cirencestre to Malmesbyri e viij. miles. 
Wilts. First I roode about a mile on Fosse^ then I turnid on the 
lifte hand, and cam al by champayne grounde, fruteful of 
corne and grasse, but very litle wood. 

I passid over a stone bridg, wher as Newton water, as I 
tooke it, rennith in the very botom by the town, and so 
enterid into the toune by theste gate. 

The toune of Malmesbyri stondith on the very toppe of 
a greate slaty rok, and ys wonderfully defendid by nature, 
for Newton water cummith a 2. miles from north to the 
toun : and Avon water cummith by weste of the toun from 
Lokington f village a 4. miles of, and meate aboute a bridg 
at south est part of the toun, and so goith Avon by south a 
while, and than turneth flat west toward Bristow. 

The conducte that cam to Malmesbyri Abbay was fette 
from Newton. 

* Tetbury. b Chipping Sodbury. c Cubberly. 

d Rendcomb. e Malmesbury. f Luckington. 



PART II 131 

Newton water and Avon ren so nere togither in the botom Wiltshire, 
of the west suburbe at Malmesbyri, that there within a 
burbolt-shot the toun is peninsulatid. In the toun be 4. 
gates by the names of est, west, north, and south, minus al. 

The walles in many places stond ful up : but now very 
feble. 

Nature hath dikid the toun strongely. 

It was sum tyme a castelle of greate fame, wher yn the 
toun hath syns be buildid : for in the beginning of the Saxons 
reigne, as far as I can lerne, Malmesbyri was no toun. 

This castelle was namid of the Britons Cair-Bladun. 

The Saxons first caullid it Ingelburne. * n g Saxonice, 

And after of one Maildulphus a Scotte, that taught good 
letters there and after procurid an abbay ther to be made, it 
was Maidulphesbyri, i. Maildulphi curia. 

The king of the West-Saxons and a bisshop of Winchestre 
were founders of this abbay. 

Aldelmus was then after Maildulph abbate there, and after 
Bisshop of Shirburn. 

This S. Aldelme is patrone of this place. 

The toune hath a great privileg of a fair about the fest of 
Sainct Aldelme ; at the which tyme the toune kepith a band fo. 27. 
of harnesid men to se peace kept : and this \is] one of the 
bragges of the toun, and therby they be furnishid with 
harneys. 

Ther were in thabbay chirch yard 3. chirches : thabbay 
chirch a right magnificent thing, wher were 2. steples, one 
that had a mighttie high pyramis y and felle daungerusly in 
hominum memoria, and sins was not reedified : it stode in 
the midle of the transeptum of the chirch, and was a marke 
to al the countre about; the other yet standith, a greate 
square toure, at the west ende of the chirch. 

The tounes men a late bought this chirch of the king, and 
hath made it their paroche chirch. 

The body of the olde paroch chirch, standing in the west 
end of the chirch yarde, is clene taken doun. The est ende 
is convertid in aulam civicam. 

The fair square tour in the west ende is kept for a dwell- 
ing house. 

Ther was a litle chirch joining to the south side of the 
transeptum of thabby chirch, wher sum say Joannes Scottus 



132 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Wiltshire, the great clerk was slayne about the tyme of Alfrede king of 
West-Saxons of his own disciples, thrusting and stikking * 
hym with their table pointelles. 

Wevers hath now lomes in this litle chirch, but it stondith 
and is a very old pece of work. 

Ther was an image set up yn thabbay chirch yn honor of 
this John Scotte. 

This is John Scotte that translatid Dionysius out of 
Greke into Latine. 

Malmesbyri hath a good quik market kept every Saturday. 

There is a right fair and costely peace of worke in the 
market place made al of stone and curiusly voultid for poore 
market folkes to stande dry when rayne cummith. 

Ther be 8. great pillers and 8. open arches : and the 
work is 8. square : one great piller in the midle berith up 
the voulte. The men of the toun made this peace of work 
in hominum memoria. 

The hole logginges of thabbay be now longging to one 
Stumpe, an exceding riche clothiar that boute them of the 
king. 

This Stumpes sunne hath maried Sir Edward Baynton's 
doughter. 

fo. 28. This Stumpe was the chef causer and contributer to have 
thabbay chirch made a paroch chirch. 

At this present tyme every corner of the vaste houses of 
office that belongid to thabbay be fulle of lumbes to weve 
clooth yn, and this Stumpe entendith to make a stret or 2. 
for clothier in the bak vacant ground of the abbay that is 
withyn the toune waulles. 

There be made now every yere in the toune a 3000. 
clothes. 

Sum hold opinion that ther was sum tyme a nunery wher 
the heremitage now stondith in the dike of the toune at the 
west ende of the old paroche chirch. 

Sum say there that there was another nunnery toward the 
park a litle without the toun longging to thabbate in the 
way to Chippenham. 

[* Leland wrote this word stinkking, but the stroke over the first 
i = n was probably a mistake ; he must have meant sticking (not strik- 
ing > as Stow and Hearne).] 



PART II 133 

And I have redde that there was a nunnery wher now is a Wiltshire, 
poore hospitale about the south bridge without the toun in 
the way to Chippenham. 

Going out of Malmesbyri by the south gate I turnid on 
the lifte hond and so passid over Avon by a fair bridg of 
stone having 3. arches. 

And then conscending an hillet even therby left a chapelle 
or paroch chirch hard on the lift hand, and then leaving the 
park and the late abbates maner place on the lift hond, I 
cam to a village about a mile of caullid Fosse, wher was a 
bridge and a good streame renning undre it. 

Thens to Chippenham a vj. miles. 

Riding betwixt Malmesbyri and Chippenham al the ground 
on that side of the ryver was chaumpain, fruteful of corne 
and grasse, but litle wood. 

Thus rydyng I lefte Avon streame aboute a 2. miles on 
the lifte hand. I markid 2. places betwene Malmesbyri 
and Chippenham notable. Draicote, a wher Sir Henrye Long 
hath a fair manor place, and a park about a mile from Avon 
streame. Draicot is a 5. miles from Malmesbyri, and a 2. 
miles from Chippenham. 

On the other side of the Avon river I sawe Bradenestoke fo. 29. 
priory mines on the toppe of an hille a mile and an half 
from Avon ryver. 

Bradenestoke b is about a 4. miles from Malmesbyri. 

Al the quarters of the foreste of Braden be welle wooddid 
even along from Malmesbyri to Chippenham ward. 

One told me that ther was no notable bridge on Avon be- 
twixt Malmesbyri and Chippenham. I passid over 2. bekkes 
betwixt Malmesbyri and Chippenham. 

Mr. Pye dwellith at a litle from Chippenham, but 

in Chippenham paroche. 

I left Chippenham a mile on the lifte hand, and so went 
to Alington village about a mile of, and thens 3. miles to 
Cosham, d a good uplandisch toun, wher be ruines of an old 
maner place : and therby a park wont to be yn dowage to 
the quenes of Englande. Mr. Baynton yn Quene Annes 
dayes pullid doun by licens a peace of this house sumwhat 
to help his buildinges at Bromeham. 

a Draycot. b Bradenstoke. c Allington. d Corsham. 



i 3 4 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Wiltshire. Old Mr. Bonehome told me that Coseham apperteinid to 
the erldom of Cornwalle, and that Cosham was a mansion 
place longging to it wher sumtyme they lay. 

Al the menne of this townelet were bond : so that apon 
a tyme one of the erles of Cornewalle hering them secretely 
to lament their state manumitted them for mony, and gave 
them the lordship of Cosham in copie hold to pay a chief 
rente. 

From Coseham to Haselbyri a about a 2. miles. 

I left on the lift hand on the toppe of a litle hille an here- 
mitage withyn a litle as I tumid doun to Hasilbyri. 

The manor place of Haselbyry stondith in a litle vale, and 
was a thing of a simple building afore that old Mr. Boneham 
father did build there. The Bonehomes afore that tyme 
dwellid by Lacok b upon Avon. 

There is a feld by Lacok wher men find much Romaine 
mony, it is caulid silver-feeld. 

From Haselbyri to Munkton-Farley a mile dim. wher by 
the village ther was a priorie stonding on a litle hille, sum- 
tyme having blak monkes, a prior, and a convent of 1 2. 

Monketon-Farley c emong other thynges was a late gyven 
to therle of Hertford. 

fo. 30. From Haselbyri to Monkton the countre beginnith to 
wax woddy : and so forth lyke to Bradeford d about a 2. 
miles from Munketun-Farley : and also to part into hilles 
and valeys. 

Sir Henry* Long hath a litle maner about a mile from 
Munketon-Farley at Wrexley. 

The original setting up of the house of the Longes cam, as 
I lernid of Mr. Bonehom, by this meanes : 

One Long Thomas a stoute felaw was sette up by one of 
the old Lordes Hungrefordes. And after by cause this 
Thomas was caullid Long Thomas, Long after was usurpid 
for the name of the family. 

This Long Thomas master had sum lande by Hungre- 
fordes procuration. 

Then succedid hym Robert and Henry. 

[* Leland first wrote Mr. Long, then Sir Henry above it.] 



a Hazlebury. b Laycock. c Monkton Farleigh. d Bradford. 



PART II 135 

Then cam one Thomas Long descending of younger Wiltshire, 
brother, and could skille of the law, and had the inheritances 
of the aforesaid Longes. Syr Henry and Sir Richard Long 
were sunnes to this Thomas. 

The toune self of Bradeford stondith on the dining of a 
slaty rokke, and hath a meetely good market ons a weeke. 
The toune is made al of stone and standith, as I cam to it, 
on the hither ripe of Avon. 

Ther is a chapelle on the highest place of the toune as I 
enterid. 

The fair larg paroche chirch standith bynethe the bridge 
on Avon ripe. 

The vicarage is at the west ende of the chirch. 

The personage is L. poundes by the yere, and was impro- 
priate to Shaftesbyri Abbay. 

Haulle dwellith in a pratie stone house at the este ende 
of the este ende of the toune in dextra ripa Avonce. Haule, 
alias de la Sale, a man of an 100. li. landes by the yere. 

There is a very fair house of the building of one Horton a 
riche clothier at the north est part by the chirch. 

This Horton's wife yet lyvith. 

This Horton buildid a goodly large chirch house ex lapide 
quadrato at the est end of the chirch yard without it. 

This Horton made divers fair houses of stone in Through- 
bridge toun. 

One Lucas a clothier now duellith in Horton's house in 
Bradeford. Horton left no childern. 

Al the toune of Bradeford stondith by clooth making. 

Bradeford bridge hath 9. fair arches of stone. 

Bath is a 5. miles lower apon Avon than Bradeford. Somerset. 

*These be the names of the notable stone bridges apon fo. 31. 
Avon betwixt Malmesbyri and Bradeford. 

Malmesbyri bridge. 

Christine Maleforde a bridge about a 5. miles lower. 

Caisway b bridge aboute a 2. miles lower. 

Chippenham a right fair bridge about a rnile lower. Chip- 

[* Leland's asterisk to mark off this list of the bridges over Avon. 
Stow removed it to the end of folio 34 ; i.e., p. 139, after 1. 31.] 



Christian Malford. b Kellaways. 



136 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Wiltshire, penham toun is on the farther ripe toward London, and 
dimming from London men cum to it not passing over the 
bridge. 

Rhe bridge* about a mile and an half lower. 

About a 4. miles lower is Stavertun bridge, wher is the 
confluence of Thrugh-bridge water 6 with Avon. 

Bradeford bridge a 2. miles lower. 

Bath bridge of v. fair arches a v. miles lower. 

Bristow 8 bridge a 10. miles lower. 

A 2. miles above Bristow was a commune trajectus by 
bote, wher was a chapelle of S. Anne on the same side of 
Avon that Bath stondith on, and heere was great pilgrimage 
to S. Anne. 

There is a litle streate over Bradeford bridge, and at the 
ende of that is an hospitale of the kinges of Englandes 
fundation. 

As I turnid up at this streat end toward Through-bridg ther 
was a quarre of fair stone on the right hand in a felde. 

From Bradeford to Thorough-bridge 4 about a 2. miles by 
good corne, pasture and wood. 

I enterid into the toune by a stone bridge of a 3. 
arches. 

The toune standith on a rokky hillet, and is very welle 
buildid of stone, and florishith by drapery. 

Of later tymes one James Terumber, a very rich clothier, 
buildid a notable fair house in this toune, and gave it at his 
deth with other landes to the finding of 2. cantuarie prestes 
yn Through-bridg chirch. 

This Terumber made also a litle almose house by Through- 
bridge chirch, and yn it be a 6. poore folkes having a 3. pence 
a peace by the week toward their finding. 

Horton, a clothiar of Bradeforde, buildid of late dayes 
dyvers fair houses in this toun. 

Old Bayllie buildid also of late yn this toun, he was a rich 
fa- 3 2 - clothiar. Bailies sun now drapeth yn the toun, and also a 2. 
miles out of it at a place iyn the way to Farley-castel. One 
Alexandre is now a great clothier in the toun. 

The chirch of Through-bridge is lightsum and fair. 

One Molines is parson ther, a man welle lernid. 

ft Reybridge. b R. Bliss. c Bristol. d Trowbridge. 



PART II 137 

The castelle stoode on the south side of the toune, it is Wiltshire, 
now clene doun. There was in it a 7. gret toures, wherof 
peaces of 2. yet stande. 

The river rennith hard by the castelle. 

This brooke risith about a mile and an half from Wer- 
minster bysouthest, and so cummithto Through-bridge toune, 
and thens about a mile to Saverton, an hamlet longing to 
Through-bridg, and there metith with Avon river : and at 
this confluence there is a stone bridg over Avon. 

Saverton a stondith on the same side of the brooke that Staverton 
Trough-bridge dothe. 

There is a fair standing place for market men to stond yn, 
in the hart of the toune, and this is made viij. square, and a 
piller in the midle, as there is one made in Malmesbyri far 
fairer then this. 

The erles of Sarum were lordes of Through-bridg : then 
the Duke of Lancaster, now therle of Hertford. 

From Thorough-bridg to Castelle- Far ley b about a 3. miles 
by good corne, pasture, and nere Farley self plenty of wood. 
Or I cam to the castelle I passid over Frome water, passing 
by there yn a rokky valey and botom, where the water brekith 
into armelettes and makith islettes, but sone meting agayn 
with the principale streame, wherby there be in the causey 
diverse smaul bridges. 

This water rennith hard under the botom of the castelle, 
and there driveth a mylle. The castelle is sette on a rokky 
hille. There be diverse praty towrres in the utter warde of 
the castelle. And in this utter warde ys an auncient chapelle, 
and a new chapelle annexid onto it. 

Under the arch of this chapelle lyith, but sumwhat more 
to the old chapelle warde, one of the Hungerfordes with his 
wife, having these epitaphies apon 2. schochins of plate of 
brasse : 

Hicjacet Thomas Hungerford, chevallier, dominus de Farley, \Veleiue a 
Welew, 6 Heitesbyri : qui obiit 3. die Decembris a. D. 1398, lordship join- 
cujus anim<z propitietur Deus, amen. in S to Farley. 

Hie jacet Domina Joanna Uxor ejttsdem Thomcz Hunger- fo 
ford, filia Domini Edmundi Husee Militis : qua obiit prima 
die mensis Martii a". D. 1412. 

a Staverton. b Farleigh-Hungerford. 



138 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset- These thinges that heere folow were written 

shire. in a table in the chapelle : 

Thomas Hungreford knight and Dame Joanna his wife. 

Gualterus Syr Gualter Hungreford Lord Hungreford Knight of the 

filius Thorna Garter and High Treasorer of Englande. 

et Joanna. Catarine heire to Peverel, and wife to Gualter. 

Robertus nhus ~ -, , ' , 

Gualteriiet Syr Robert Lord Hungreford. 

Catering. Margaret heire to Botreaux, wife to Robert Erie Hungreford. 

Robertus come Eleanor Molynes heire to Molines and wife to Robert. 

Leyland. 

I hard say that this erl and his wife were buried in the 
chirch of Sarum, 

The line of the late Lord Hungreford. 

Gualter Hungreford knight. 

Joanna wife to Gualter. 

Edward sun to Walter. 

Jane his wife. 

Syr Gualter Lord Hungerford. 

Susan doughter to Daners* of Daundesey by Bradstok : 

Alice the Lorde Sannes doughter : 

Elizabeth the Lorde Husee's doughter : wives to Gualter 
late lord Hungerford. 

Gualter and Edward sunnes to Gualter late Lord Hungre- 
ford. 

Ther longgid 2. chauntre prestes to this chapelle : and 
they had a praty mansion at the very est end of it. 

The gate house of the inner court of the castelle is fair, and 
ther be the armes of the Hungrefordes richely made.'yn stone. 

The haule and 3. chambers withyn the secund courte be 
stately. 

There is a commune saying that one of the Hungrefordes 
buildid this part of the castelle by the praye of the Duke of 
Orleaunce whom he had taken prisoner. 

Farley standith yn Somersetshir. 

Frome ryver there partith, and so doune to the mouth, 
Wileshir from Somersetshir. 

The mouth of it where it goith ynto Avon is about a mile 
and an half lower then Farley, and by estimation Bradeford 
is a 2. good miles upper on Avon. 

[* Danvers ; Burton (a).] 



PART II 139 

There is a park by Farley castelle. Somerset- 

There is also a litle above the castelle a village. shire. 

Frome water risith at 

Philippes-Northtoun a a pratie market toun, is about a mile fo. 34. 
from Farley castelle, and standith in Somerset. 

This toune takith the name of the dedication of the chirch 
thereyn that is to Philip and Jacob. 

There is a faire at this toun on the fest of Philip and 
Jacob.* 

From Farley I ridde a mile of by woddy ground to a 
graung great and welle buildid, that longid to Henton-priorie 
of Chartusians. This priory stondith not far of from this 
graunge on the brow of an hille abouth a quarter of a mile 
from the farther ripe of Frome, and not far from this place 
Frome goith ynto Avon. 

I rodde by the space of a mile or more by woddes and 
mountaine grounde to a place, where I saw a rude stone 
waulle hard on the right hond by a great lenghte as it had 
beene a park waulle. One sins told me that Henton b 
priory first stode there, if it be so it is the lordship of 
Hethorpe that was gyven to them for their first habitation. 

And about a mile farther I cam to a village, 6 and passid 
over a ston bridge where ranne a litle broke there they 
caullid Mitford-water. 

This brooke risith in the rootes of Mendip-hilles a 7. 
miles or more by west south west from this bridge, and goith 
about a mile lower into Avon. 

From this bridge to Bath 2. good miles al by mountayne 
ground and quarre, and litle wood in syte. 

About a mile from Bath I left the way that ledith to 
Bristow for them that use from Saresbyri to Bristow. 

Or ever I cam to the bridge of Bath that is over Avon I fo. 35. 
cam doun by a rokky hille fulle of fair springes of water : and 
on this rokky hille is sette a longe streate as a suburbe to the 
cyte of Bath ; and [/"] this streat is a chapelle of S. Mary 
Magdalen. Ther is a great gate with a stone arche at the 
entre of the bridge. 

[* Between this line and the next Leland left a half page blank.] 



Norton St. Philip. b Hinton. Combe Monkton. 



140 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset. The bridge hath v. fair stone arches. 

Bytwixt the bridge and the south gate of Bath I markid 
fair medows on eche hand, but especially on the lift hond, 
and they ly by south west on the toun. 

The cite of Bath is sette booth yn a fruteful and pleasant 
botom, the which is environid on every side with greate 
hilles, out of the which cum many springes of pure water 
that be conveyid * by dyverse ways * to serve the cite. Inso- 
much that leade beyng made ther at hand many houses yn 
the toune have pipes of leade to convey water from place to 
place. 

There be 4. gates yn the town by the names of est, west, 
north and south. 

The toune waulle within the toune is of no great highth 
to theyes : but without it is a fundaments of a reasonable 
highth. and it stondith almost alle, lakking but a peace about 
Gascoyn's-tower. 

In the walles at this tyme be no tourres saving over the 
toune gates. 

One Gascoyne an inhabitante of the toune in hominum 
memoria made a litle peace of the walle that was in decay, as 
for a fine for a faught that he had committid in the cite : 
wherof one part as at a corner risith higher then the residew 
of the walle, wherby it is communely caullid Gascoyne-tower. 

There be divers notable antiquiteesf engravid in stone 
that yet be sene yn the walles of Bathe betwixt the south 
gate and the weste gate : and agayn betwixt the west gate 
and the north gate. 

The first was an antique hed of a man made al flat and 
having great lokkes of here as I have in a coine of C. Antius. 

The secunde that I did se bytwene the south and the north 
gate was an image, as I tooke it, of Hercules : for he held 
yn eche hand a serpent. 

Then I saw the image of a foote man vibrato gladio 6 
pratenso clypeo. 

[* MS. has convey and way.} 

[t In the second edition of the "Itinerary " is printed a long note 
on these antiquities, with copies of the inscriptions and interpretations 
made by Samuel Gale, Oddy, and Thwaites, taken from Hearne's 
" Review," 1st ed., vol. ix. See also Roger Gale thereon in Hearne's 
edition of Leland's " Collectanea," 2nd ed., 1774, vol. vi., p. 276.] 



PART II 141 

Then I saw a braunch with leves foldid and wrethin into Somerset, 
circles. 

Then I saw ij. nakid imagis lying a long, the one imbracing 
the other. 

Then I saw to antique heddes with heere as rofelid yn fo. 36. 
lokkes. 

Then I saw a grey-hound as renning, and at the taile of 
hym was a stone engravid with great Romane letters, but I 
could pike no sentence out of it. 

Then I saw another inscription, but the wether hath except 
a few lettres clere defacid. 

Then I saw toward the west gate an image of a man em- 
bracid with 2. serpentes. I took, it for Laocoon. 
Betwixt the weste and the north gate. 

I saw 2. inscriptions, of the wich sum wordes were evident 
to the reader, the residew clene defacid. 

Then I saw the image of a nakid man. 

Then I saw a stone having cupidines 6 labruscas inter- 
currentes. 

Then I saw a table having at eche ende an image vivid 
and florishid above and beneth. In this table was an inscrip- 
tion of a tumbe or burial wher in I saw playnly these wordes : 
vixit annos xxx. This inscription was meately hole but very 
diffusely written, as letters for hole wordes, and 2. or 3. 
letters conveid in one. 

Then I saw a. 2 images, wherof one was of a nakid manne 
grasping a serpent in eche hand, as I tooke it : and this 
image was not far from the north gate. 

Such antiquites as were in the waulles from the north gate 
to the est, and from the est gate to the south, hath been 
defacid by the building of the monastery, and making new 
waulles. 

I much doubte wither these antique workes were sette in 
the tyme of the Romans dominion in Britayne in the waulles 
of Bath, as they stand now : or wither they were gatherid of 
old ruines ther, and sins set up in the walles reedified in 
testimonie of thantiquite of the toun. 

There be 2. springes of whote wather in the west south 
west part of the towne. Wherof the bigger is caullid the 
Crosse Bath, bycause it hath a cross erectid in the midle of 
it. This bath is much frequentid of people deseasid with 



142 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset, lepre, pokkes, scabbes, and great aches, and is temperate 
and pleasant, having a n. or 12. arches of stone in the sides 
for men to stonde under yn tyme of reyne. 

Many be holp by this bathe from scabbes and aches. 

The other bathe is a 2. hunderith foote of, and is lesse in 
fo. 37. cumpace withyn the waulle then the other, having but 7. 
arches yn the waulle. This is caullid the Hote Bathe; for 
at cumming into it men think that it wold scald the flesch 
at the first, but after that the flesch ys warmid it is more 
tolerable and pleasaunt. 

Both these bathes be in the midle of a litle* streat, and 
joine to S. John's hospitale : so that it may be thought that 
Reginalde Bisshop of Bathe made this hospitale nere these 2. 
commune bathes to socour poore people resorting to them. 

The Kinges Bathe is very faire and large standing almost 
in the midle of the towne, and at the west end of the cathe- 
drale chirch. 

The area that this bath is yn is cumpassid with an high 
stone waulle. 

The brimmes of this bath hath a litle walle incumpasing 
them, and in this waul be a 32. arches for men and women 
to stand separately yn. To this bath do gentilmen resort. 

Ther goith a sluse out of this bath, and servid in tymes 
past with water derivid out of it 2. places in Bath priorie 
usid for bathes : els voide ; for in them be no springes. 

The colour of the water of the baynes is as it were a depe 
blew se water, and rikith like a sething potte continually, 
having sumwhat a sulphureus and sumwhat onpleasant savor. 

The water that rennith from the 2. smaul bathes goit by a 
dike into Avon by west bynethe the bridge. 

The water that goith from the Kinges Bath turnith a mylle, 
and after goith into Avon above Bath-bridge. 

In al the 3. bathes a man may evidently se how the water 
burbelith up from the springes. 

Ther be withyn the walles of Bath . . . paroche chirchis, 
of the which the tourrid steple of the paroche chirch at the 
north gate semith to be auncient. 

There is a paroche chirch and a suburbe without the 
north-gate. 

[* MS. has lite.} 



PART II 143 

There is an hospital of S. John hard by the Crosse Bathe, Somerset, 
of the fundation of Reginalde Bisshop of Bathe. 

The toun hath of a long tyme syns bene continually most fo. 38. 
mayntainid by making of clothe. 

There were in hominum memoria 3. clothiers at one tyme, 
thus namid, Style, Kent and Chapman, by whom the toun 
of Bath then florishid. Syns the death of them it hath sum- 
what decayed. 

It apperith in the booke of the antiquitees of the late 
monasterie of Bath that King Osric in the year of our Lord 
676, Theodore then beyng Arche-bisshop of Cantwarbyri, 
did erect a monasterie of nunnes at Bath, and Bertane was 
the first abbatisse therof. 

It apperith by a charte that one Ethelmod, a great man, 
gave, by the leave of King ^Edelrede, in Theodore tharch- 
bisshop of Cantwarbyri's tyme, landes to one Bernguid 
abbatisse of Bath, and to one Foulcburc. 

The book of thantiquite of the abbay of Bath makith no 
great mention of any great notable doyng of Offa King of the 
Merches at Bathe. 

The prior of Bath told me, that after the nunnes tyme 
ther wer secular chanons in S. Peter's chirch at Bath; 
paraventure Offa King of Merches set them ther, for I have 
redde that Offa did a notable act at S. Peter's in Bath. Or 
els the chanons cam yn after that the Danes had racid the 
nunry there. 

Eadgar was a great doer and benefactor to S. Peter's at 
Bath, in whos tyme monkes were yn Bathe, and sins; except 
Alfarus Erl of Merch, that was a scurge of monkes, expellid 
them for a tyme. 

John a phisitian, born at Tours yn France, and made 
Bisshop of Welles, did obteine of Henry the first to sette his 
se at Bath; and so he had the abbay landes given onto hym, 
and then he made a monk prior ther, deviding the old 
possessions of the monastery with hym. 

This John pullid doun the old chirch of S. Peter at Bath, 
and erectid a new, much fairer, and was buried in the midle fo. 39. 
of the presbyteri thereof, whos image I saw lying there an 9. 
yere sins, at the which tyme al the chirch that he made lay 
to wast, and was onrofid, and wedes grew about this John 
of Tours' sepulchre. 



144 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset. This John of Tours erectid a palace at Bath in the south 
west side of the monasteri of S. Peter's at Bath ; one gret 
squar tour of it with other ruines yet appere. 

I saw at the same tyme a fair great marble tumbe ther 
of a bisshop of Bath, out of the wich they sayid that oyle 
did distille : and likely ; for his body was enbaumid plenti- 
fully. 

There were other divers bisshops buried ther. 

Oliver King Bisshop of Bath began of late dayes a right 
goodly new chirch at the west part of the old chirch of S. 
Peter, and finishid a great peace of it. The residue of it was 
syns made by the priors of Bath : and especially by Gibbes 
the last prior ther, that spent a great summe of mony on 
that fabrike. 

Oliver King let almost al the old chirch of S. Peter's in 
Bath to go to ruine. The walles yet stande. 

King Eadgar was crounid with much joy and honor at S. 
Peter's in Bath ; wherapon he bare a gret zeale to the towne, 
and gave very great frauncheses and privileges onto it. 

In knowlege wherof they pray in al their ceremonies for 
the soule of King Eadgar. 

And at Whitsunday-tyde, at the which tyme men say that 
Eadgar there was crounid, ther is a king electid at Bath every 
yere of the tounes men in the joyfulle remembraunce of King 
Edgar and the privileges gyven to the toun by hym. This 
king is festid and his adherentes by the richest menne of the 
toun. 

fo. 40. From Bath to Palton a al by hilly ground but plentiful of 
corne and grasse an eight miles. 

From Palton to Chuton b by like ground about a 2. miles. 

There is a goodly new high tourrid steple at Chuton. 

From Chuton to Welles by hilly ground but lesse fruteful 
partely in Mendepe about a 5. miles. 

The toune of Welles is sette yn the rootes of Mendepe 
hille in a stony soile and ful of springes, wherof it hath the 
name. The chefest spring is caullid Andres welles, and 
risith in a medow plot not far above the est end of the 
cathedrale chirch, first renning flat west and entering into 
Coscumb water sumwhat by south. 

Paulton. b Chewton Mendip. Wells, 



PART II 145 

The toune of Welles is large. I esteme it to lak litle of a Somerset. 
2. miles in cumpace, al for the most part buildid of stone. 
The streates have streamelettes of springes almost yn every 
one renning, and occupiyth making of cloth. Mawdelyne 
was a late a great clothiar yn Wellys, and so is now his 
sunne. 

The chifest of the toim lyith by est and west, and sum 
parte cast out with a streat by south, in the out part wherof 
was a chapelle, as sum say, of Thomas Beket. 

Ther is but one paroch chirch in Welles, but that is large, 
and standith in the west part of the toun : and is dedicate to 
Sainct Cuthberte. 

There is an hospitale of 24. poore menne and wymen at 
the north side of S. Cuthbertes chirch, there is a cantuary 
preste. The hospitale and the chapelle is buildid al in 
lenghth under one roofe from west to est. Nicolas Budwith 
Bisshop of Bath was founder of this, and brought it almost 
to the perfection, and that that lakkid was completid by one 
John Storthwayt, one of the executors of the testament of 
Bubwith. 

There was an other hospitale of S. John yn the town, 
stonding hard on the ripe by south of S. Andreas streme. 
This hospitale was foundid by and Hughe, bisshops. 

Clerk Bisshop of Bath had a late this house gyven to hym 
by the king for the lordship of Dogmeresfeld. 

There is a conduct in the market place derivid from the fo. 41. 
bisshopes conduct by the licens of Thomas Bekington Bis- 
shop sumtyme of Bath, for the which the burgeses ons a yere 
solemply visite his tumbe, and pray for hys sowle. 

There be xij. right exceding fair houses al uniforme of 
stone high and fair windoid in the north side of the market 
place, joining hard to the north west part of the bisshop's 
palace. This cumly peace of work was made by Bisshop 
Bekington, that myndid, yf he had lyvid lengger, to have 
buildid other xij. on the south side of the market steede, 
the which work if he had complishid it had bene a spectable* 
to al market places in the west cuntery. 

Wyllyam Knight, now Bisshop of Bath, buildith a crosse This work 
in the market place, a right sumptuus peace of worke: in the was made 

[* Stow copies this spectacle.} 
L 



146 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Somerset. 

by the legacie 

of Doctor 

Wolman 

Deane of 

Welles. 



fo. 42. 

-5". Andres 
broke. 



extreme circumference wherof be vij. faire pillers, and in 
another. circumference withyn them be vj. pillers and yn the 
midle of this circumference one piller ; al these shaul bere a 
volte, and over the volte shaul be domus civica. 

The area afore the bisshop's palace lyith est of the market 
stede, and hath a fair high waul toward the market stede, 
and a right goodly gate house yn it, made of late by Bisshop 
Bekingtun, as it apperith by his armes. On the south side 
of this area is the bisshop's palace dichid brodely and waterid 
about by the water of S. Andres streame let into it. This 
palace ys strongely waullid and embateld castelle lyke, and 
hath in the first front a godly gate house yn the midle, and 
at eche end of the front a round towr, and 2. other round 
towers be lykelyhod yn the southside of the palace, and then 
is ther one at every corner. The haul of the palace ys ex- 
ceding fayre. The residew of the house is large and fair. 
Many bisshops hath bene the makers of it, as it is now. 

The chanons of Welles had there houses, afore the trans- 
lation of the se to Bath, wher now the bisshop's palace is, 
John of Tours first Bisshop of Bath put them out, and they 
syns hath buildid them a xij. very faire houses, partely on 
the north side of the cimitery of the cathedrale chirch, partely 
without. Bishop Bekington buildid the gate house at the 
west ende of the cemiterie. 

The decanes place is on the northe side of the cimitery. 

Ther is at the est ende of the cimitery a volt and a gate, 
and a galery over, made by Bekington. 

From Welles to Glessenbyri a about a 5. miles from north 
to south west. 

Fyrst yn the toune over S. Andres water by S. John's, 
aboute a quarter of a mile out of Welles I passid over a 
litle broket, an arme of S. Andres water or Welles water : 
And ther as I passid over it I saw hard on the lifte hand a 
stone bridge of one arche. This arme shortly after joynith 
yn the medowes with the principal part of Welles water. 

And about half a mile beyond this bridg I passid over 
another brook caullid Coscumbe water a bigger streme then 
Welles water. 

I lernid there, that Welles water metith with Coscumbe 



a Glastonbury. 



PART II 



water on the right hond not far from the causey, and so go Somerset, 
yn one botom to the mere. 

There is a castelle on an hille in this medow about Cos- 
cumb water, cujus ruina adhuc apparent^ communely caullid 
Fenne-Castel. 

Cosecumbe broke risith a mile above Shepton, then to 
Shepton, then to Coscumb a a mile. Then to Dultingcote b 
bridge a 3. miles. Then about a mile dim. to the bridges 
yn the way betuixt Welles and Glessenbyri. 

Then a mile or more of I cam to a praty streame of water Sowey Water. 
that at the stone bridge that I passid over cam doun by the 
lifte hand : and hard above the bridge of one stone arche 
brake ynto 2. partes, and therby I passid over 2. litle stone 
bridgges. 

Then about half a mile farther I cam to a few houses, and 
so enterid into a very great playne medow of a 6. or 7. 
miles about in cumpace by estimation, and so passid about 
a mile farther by a causey onto Hartelake c bridg of one 
arche of stone. 

As much of this playne medow or more as is weste of this 
causey cis pontem de Hertlak is caullid Cranelmore. 

That part that lyith by est of it, is caullid Seggemore. d 

The water of Sowey cummith thorough this bridge of 
stone, and risith in the rootes of Mendepe-hille by est at 
Doulting village owte of a welle bering the name of S. 
Aldelm. 

A mile by est or ever this streame cum to Hartelak bridg 
ther is an arme cast out by force out of Sowey water, and a 
marsch walle made by mennys policy betwixt this arme 
forcid out and the principale streame of Sowey, and this 
waulle continuith to Hartelak bridge, and mile lower : and 
then booth go soone after into the mere. If this marsch 
waulle were not kept, and the canales of eche partes of fo. 43. 
Sowey river kept from abundance of wedes, al the plaine 
marsch ground at sodaine raynes wold be overflowen, and 
the profite of the meade lost. 

From Harkeley bridg I passid by a litle bridge over the 
arme of Sowey. 

As much of this more or medow ground that lyith beyond 

n Croscombe. b Dulcote. c Hartlake. d Sedgemoor. 



148 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Somerset. Hartelake bridge by west south west is caullid Glessenbyri- 
More. 

From Hartlake bridg I passid by a low about a quarter of 
a mile : and then I conscendid by a litle and a litle to hilly 
ground a hole miles ryding, and so enterid into Glessenbyri. 

The chief streate and longgest of the towne of Glessen- 
byri a lyith by est and weste, and at the market crosse in 
the west ende there is a streate by flat south and almost 
northe. 

There is a market kept in Glessenbyry every weke on the 
Wensday. 

Ther be 2. paroche chirchis yn Glessenbyri, S. John 
Baptiste on the north side of the principal streat of the toune. 
This is a vary fair and lightsum chirch : and the est part of 
it is very elegant and isled. 

The body of the chirch hath . . . arches on eche side. 
The quier hath 3. arches on eche side. 

The quadrate tour for belles at the west end of the 
chirch is very high and fair. 

Ther lyith on the north side of the quier one Richard At- 
well that died circa annum D. 1472. This Atwelle did 
much cost in this chirch, and gave fair housing that he had 
buildid in the toune onto it. In Latten called adfontem* 

Johanna wife to Atwelle lyith buried in a lyke marble 
tumbe on the south side of the quier. 

Ther lyith one Camel a gentilman in a fair tumbe in the 
south part of the transept of the chirch. 

fo. 44. Briwetun river cummith from Briwetun b x. miles of to the 
west part of the toun of Glessenbyri, and so rennith to the 
mere a 2. miles lower. 

Or ever this river cum to Glessenbyri by a mile it cummith 
Pens peri- to a bridge of stone of a 4. arches communely caullid Pont- 
culosus. perlus, wher men fable that Arture cast in his swerd. 

The river brekithat this bridge ynto 2. partes, wherof the 
principalle goith to Glessenbyri. 

The other goith thoroug low morisch grounde, and metith 

[* The words In to fontem are added by another, but contemporary 
hand. Stow omits much o fthis leaf.] 



a Glastonbury. 



b Brue R., Bruton. 



PART II 



149 



again with the principal streame or ever that it goith into Somerset, 
the mere. 

The mere is as at high waters in winter a 4. miles in cum- Ferramer. 
pace, and when it is lest a 2. miles and an half, and most 
communely 3. miles. 

This lak or mere is a good mile yn lenght : and at the 
ende of it toward west it cummith again in alveum, and going 
about a mile it brekith ynto 2. armes, whereof the one goith 
to Highe-bridge, the other to Rookes-bridge, and so the 
armes goith a sundre to the by crekes. 

From Wellys by south to Doultingcote bridge of stone, 
under the whiche Coscumbe water rennith about a mile al 
by very ille rokky way. 

Thens I passid about a mile more by lyke ground, and 
this far I saw sum store of elme wood. 

Thens up onto playne open downes by a stony soile a 3. 
good miles, and then a myle by low pasture ground onto 
Everchrich- village, a wher Clerk last Bisshop of Bathe had a 
maner place, in whos tyme it was, as a ruinus thing, clene in 
a maner taken doun. 

Thens to Golafre bridge of stone, under the wich rennith 
a broke rising a 3. miles of by north est, and about a mile 
lower goith ynto Briwe-ryver. The very place of the fo. 45. 
confluentia is a 2. miles byneth Bruton. 

Milton b village a litle above Golafre bridge, wherof the 
water at Golafre-bridge of sum is caullid Mylton-water. 
There is about this bridge and Milton meately plenty of 
wood. 

From Milton to Briwetun about a mile dim. 

Briwetun c as I cam from north west into it by south lyith 
al a this side Brywe ryver. There is a streat yn it from 
north to south, and another far fairer then that from est to 
west. 

The toun is now much occupied with making of clothe. 

The paroche chirch and thabbay by it stande beyond the 
ryver, hard over the est bridge in Bruton. This bridge is of 
3. archys of stone. 

Ther is in the market place of the toun a new crosse of 
6. arches, and a piller yn the midle for market folkes to 



a Evercreech. 



b Milton Clevedon. 



Bruton. 



150 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset, stande yn, begon and brought up to fornix by Ely laste 
abbate of Brutun. The abbay ther was afore the Conqueste 
a place of monkes foundid by Algarus, Erie of Cornewal. 
Moion set chanons there sins the Conquest, and divers of the 
Moions were buried tnere. One Wylliam Gilbert of late tyme 
beyng prior of Brutun went to Rome, and there procurid first 
that the name of the priory of Brutun might be chaungid 
ynto an abbay. This Gilbert beyng abbate did great cost 
in the abbay Bruton in building, almoste reedifiying it. 

The toun of Briweton to the marquet crosse standith yn 
Selwod. 

And so doth the abbay on the other ripe of the ryver. 

The ryver of Briwe risith in Selwod at a place caullid 
Briweham a 3. miles by * from Brutun. 

About this quarter wher Briwe risith, that is to say withyn 
a 2. or 3. miles ther about, risith Stour and Wilugh. 

The Mere, a market toun, is about an eight milys from 
Briwetun. 

Goyng out of the toun of Briwetun I passid over a stone 
bridge of 3. arches at the west south west end of the toun, 
and ther cam a broket from north-est ynto Briwe. 

There is, as I hard, a bridge of stone on Briwe a 5. miles 
lower then Briwetun caullid Lideforde, and a 2. miles lower 
Ponteperilus. 

Castelle Cary a 2. miles from Briwetun. 

fo. 46. I rode from the bridg up a stony hille to a very fair and 
fruteful champain, and so passid forth a v. miles by litle 
woode; at the 4. miles ende of this way I passid over a 
broke by a stone bridge, and so cam strayt to North-Cadbyri b 
a village, and about a mile farther to South-Cadbyri, c and 
ther a litle beyond be great crestes of hylles. 

This water of Cadbyri risith from 2. heddes. First or I 
cam to Cadbyri by half a mile or ther about I passid over a 

broket that risith in Mr. Fitzjames park at out of 

a ponde, and goith into or metith with Cadbyri water about 
half a mile lower then the bridge that was passid over to 
Cadbyry. 

[* Leland had written north, but crossed it through and left a blank.] 



a Castle Gary. b North Cadbury. c South Cadbury. 



. PART II 151 

The other risith a 3. milys above North-Cadbyri by north Somerset, 
est. Cadbyri water goith from North-Cadbyri to a bridge 
a mile west from South-Cadbyri, having then with hym 
in one botom the other streame, and about a v. miles lower 
withyn a quarter of a mile to Ilchestre it metith with Ivel 
ryver. 

At the very south ende of the chirch of South-Cadbyri Cath bellum 
standith Camallate, sumtyme a famose toun or castelle, apon 
a very torre or hille, wunderfully enstrengtheid of nature, to 
the which be 2. enteringes up by very stepe way : one by 
north est, and another by south west. 

The very roote of the hille wheron this forteres stode is 
more then a mile in cumpace. 

In the upper parte of the coppe of the hille be 4. diches 
or trenches, and a balky waulle of yerth betwixt every one of 
them. In the very toppe of the hille above al the trenchis 
is magna area or campus of a 20. acres or more by estimation, 
wher yn dy verse places men may se fundations and rudera 
of walles. There was much dusky blew stone that people 
of the villages therby hath caryid away. 

This top withyn the upper waulle is xx. acres of ground 
and more, and hath bene often plowid and borne very good 
come. 

Much gold, sylver and coper of the Romaine coynes hath 
be found ther yn plouing : and lykewise in the feldes in the 
rootes of this hille, with many other antique thinges, and 
especial by este. Ther was found in hominum memoria a 
horse shoe of sylver at Camallate. fo. 47. 

The people can telle nothing ther but that they have hard 
say that Arture much resortid to Camalat. 

The old Lord Hungreford was owner of this Camallat. 
Now Hastinges the Erie of Huntendune by his mother. 

Diverse villages there about bere the name of Camalat by 
an addition, as Quene-Camallat, a and other. 

The hylle and the diches kepe well now viij. shepe. 

Al the ground by south west, and west of Camalat lyith 
in a vale, so that one or 2. wayes it may be sene far of. 

From Camallat to Shirburne b a 3. miles al by champayne Dorsetshire, 
but fruteful ground. 

a Queen's Camel. b Sherborne. 



152 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



clarus fans. 



Dorset. Mr. Gilbert a gentilman hath a poore mansion place by 

south est of the very rottes of Camallat. 

Shirburn The toun of Shirburne stondith partly on the brow of an 
caullidin hille, partely in a botom. I esteme it to lak litle 1 of a 2. 
evidences m ^ es * n cumpace, it stondith partely by making of Clothe, 
but most by al maner of craftes : and for a dry toun or 
other, saving Pole a that is a litle think, I take it to be the 
best toun at this present tyme yn Dorsetshir. 

The Bisshops of Sarum sete was a long tyme at Shirburne. 

Syns monkes were set ther for chanons. 

The body of the abbay chirch dedicate to our Lady servid 
ontille a hunderith yeres syns for the chife paroche chirch of 
the town. 

This was the cause of the abolition of the paroch chirch 
there. The monkes and the tounes-men felle at variaunce, 
bycause the tounes-men tooke privilege to use the sacrament 
of baptime in the chapelle of Al-Halowes. Wherapon one 
Walter Gallor, a stoute bocher, dwelling yn Shirburn, defacid 
clene the fonte-stone, and after the variaunce growing to a 
playne sedition, and the townes-menne by the mene of an 
Erie of Huntendune, lying yn those quarters, and taking the 
townes-mennes part, and the Bisshop of Saresbyri the monkes 
part, a preste of Al-Hawlois shot a shaft with fier into the 
toppe of that part of S. Marye chirch that devidid the est 
part that the monkes usid from the townes-men usid : and 
this partition chauncing at that tyme to be thakkid yn, the 
rofe was sette a fier, and consequently al the hole chirch, the 
lede and belles meltid, was defacid. 

Then Bradeford abbate of Shirburn persecutid this injurie : 
and the tounes-menne were forcid to contribute to the re- 
edifiyng of this chirch. 

But after thys tyme Al-Halowes chirch and not S. Maryes 
was usid for the paroche chirch. 

Al the est parte of S. Mary chirch was reedified yn Abbate 
Bradefordes tyme, saving a chapelle of our Lady an old 



fo. 48. 



1 The compass of Sherborne is nere four miles, and the procession 
grownd about 13. miles. The town is above a mile long every way. 
Hearne, from a learned friend 's notes. 



a Poole. 



PART II 153 

peace of work that the fier came not to, by reason that it was Dorset, 
of an older building. 

There were of auncient tyme buried 2. kinges, sunnes to 
Ethelwolphe King of West-Saxons, yn a place behynd the 
high altare of S. Marie chirch ; but ther now be no tumbes 
nor no writing of them scene. 

A noble man caullid Philip Fitz Payne was buryed and 
his wife with hym under an arch on the north side of the 
presbyterie. This tumbe was of late defacid. 

Peter Ramesunne next abbate 'saving one to Bradeford 
buildid a fundamentis al the west part of S. Marie chirch.* 

The porche of the south side of the body of S. Mary chirch 
ys an antique peace of work, and was not defacid with fier, 
bycause it stoode with a far lower rofe then the body of the 
chirch did. 

The cloyster of thabbay on the north side of the chirch 
was buildid by one Abbate Frithe. This abbate was not very 
long afore Bradefordes tyme. 

Myer the last abbate of Shirburn saving one made the fair 
castel over the conduct in the cloister and the spoutes of it. 

The hedde of this water is in a peace of the toune, and is 
caullid New Welle. 

The chapitre house is ancient, and yn the volte of it be 
payntid the images of bisshops that had their sete at Shirburn. 

One S. John a noble man lyith yn the chapitre house. fo. 49. 

Ramesunne abbate sette a chapelle caullid our Lady of 
Bow hard to the southe side of the old Lady Chapelle. 

Ther is an old arch of a gate at the est south est ende of 
S. Mary chirch, as a token that of old tyme the close of 
chanons or monkes was enwallid about. 

Ther was of old tyme a paroche chirch titulo S. Emeren- 
tiana now faullen clene downe. It stode in the north side 
of the toun wher now is a close. 

[* "John Samme, abbate of Shirburne in Dorset, did build the este 
parte of thabbay chirch at Shirburn ; and Peter Ramessun, abbate 
there, buildid the west part of the same chirch not very many yeres syns. 

" The prior of Shirburn lying yn the toun can bring me to the old 
librarie yn Shirburne. " 

These two paragraphs are on the first leaf of vol. ii. of Leland's MS.; 
he struck out most of the first line, adding, "This is false." Hearne 
prints them out of place, at the beginning of his vol. ii.] 



154 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Dorset. There was a chapelle of S. Michael yn the toun now clene 
doun. 

Ther was a chapelle of Thomas Bekket on the grene in 
Shirburn, it stondith but incelebratid. 

There was an heremitage of S. John by the mylle, now 
down. 

Ther was an hospital begon by devotion of good people 
yn Shirburn an . 4. Henrici 6. and the king is taken for 
founder of it. It stondith yet. 

Ther is a chapelle in S. Marye chirch yard, one Dogget a 
chanon of Saresbyri made it of late dayes. 

The Bisshop of Saresbyri is lord of the town of Shirburne. 

Shirburn stondith on the northside of the broke that cum- 
mith by it. 

The castelle of Shirburne is in the est end of the toun apon 
a rokky hillet, it hath by west north west, and by est south 
est, morisch grounde. 

Rogerus le Poure, Bisshop of Saresbyri in Henry the first 
tyme, buildid this castelle, 1 and cast a great dike without it, 
and made a false mure without the dike. 

Ther be 4. great toures yn the castelle waulle, wherof one 
is the gate house; every of them hath 3. lodgginges yn highth. 
The great lodgging is yn the midle of the castelle court, very 
strong and ful of voultes. There be few peaces of work yn 
England of thantiquite of this that standith so hole and so 
welle couchid. 

One Bisshop Langeton made of late tyme a new peace of 
work and lodging of stone at the west end of the haul, other 
memorable peace of work was none set up ther syns the first 
building. 

There is a chapelle in a litle close without the castelle by 
este. 

There lyith at the ende of the castelle a mere that sum- 

1 But there had been a castle long before this time at Shirburne, as 1 
gather from a very old book of charters made by divers kings and other 
illustrious personages to Shirburne Abbey. I suppose therefore that 
Roger Poure built his castle on the same ground, on which the former 
castle had been erected, and perhaps there were at that time abundance of 
ruins remaining of the old castle, -which might be made use of upon this 
occasion. Hearne. [Vol. ii, pp. 50-59. He gives extracts from the 
Sherborne Cartulary, and notes on its handwriting and binding.] 



PART II 155 

tyme hath beene very much larger then it is now, as chokid Dorset, 
up with flagges and wedes. There cummith a broke ynto fo. 50. 
this mere. 

This broke risith of v. springes caullid the vij. sisters in an 
hille side a 2. miles or more by est from the mere at a place l 
communely caullid Horethorn, a and thens sone gathering to 
one botom maketh a broke that cummith into the mere, and 
after cumming to a straite botom agayne goith to Shirburn 
milles. Wher about the lower mylle a broke of much like 
quantite cummith into it by the south ripe of it. 

This broke risith a 3. miles of from the confluence by flat 
est at a place 2 caullid Puscandelle, b and rennith ynto the 
west even by the botom without the park bytwixt Shirburn 
water and it. 

Shirburn water thens goith a 3. or more milys to Clifton, 
wher Master Horsey dwellith, and sumwhat lower goith ynto 
Ivele c ryver. 

Above this confluence on the same ripe upper on Ivel 
cummith Westcoker water yn, that risith by weste a 3. miles Cocherusfiu. 
from the place that he enterith yn ynto Ivel. 

From Shirburn bakward to South-Cadbyri 3. good miles. Somerset. 

A litle beyond this Cadbyri I turnid flat west by a litle 
chapelle, and a mile thens, a good mile of, I passid over a 
stone bridge sumwhat above augmentid with the broke that 
risith out of Mr. Fitzjames ponde, and thens a 4. good miles 
of al by low ground yn sighte to Ilchestre. 



1 This is a mistake. For these 7. springs rise directly north from the 
place in the side of a hill called Milbourn Down belonging to Milbourn 
Port, and this brook supplys 3. mills before it falls into the river in the 
east part of the town. Hearne^from a certain learned antiquary . 

2 This is another mistake. For there is no spring of any manner of 
value, no more than any other little common spring that rises there or at 
any other place. But at Milbourn Week, 2. miles from Shirborne, there's 
a spring rises that throws up continually so great a quantity of water 
that it supplys a mill a little distance from it, and ifs calVd Bradly 
Spring. This stream supplys two mills at Milbourn Port. From thence 
it runs through Milbourn Moor to a mill at Goat Hill, and so down 
along by the park wall through the R*. Honourable the Lord Digby's 
gardens , and Dinny Bridge to an overshott mill where the Seven Sisters 
and Bradly Spring joy n together. Hearne^from the learned antiquary. 



a Charleton Horethorn. 



b Purse Caundle. 



Yeo R. 



156 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset. Al this way the pastures and feeldes be much enclosid 
with hegge rowes of elmes. 

Or I cam to Ilchester by estimation of a mile Cadbyri 
water and Ivelcestre water confluebant* 

Sum think that at Coscumb is one of the farthest heddes 
of Ivel ryver a 2. miles by .... above Ivel village. 

The streme of cummith by Ivel village, and 

then a 3. miles lower cummith to Ivel toun village*: and 
here, as I hard, the streame brekith into 2. partes and sone 
yoynith agayn, and so even straite to Limington, b and ther I 
saw divortium aqua made longe syns and cut by hand to 
serve a mille in Limington, and thens the hole streame goith 
scant a mile of to Ivelcestre. 

fo. 51. I enterid by south west into Ilchester over a great stone 
bridge of vij. arches, yn the midle wherof were ij. litle 
houses of stone, one of the right hond, wher the commune 
gaol is for prisoners yn Somersetshir. The other house on 
the lift hond, the lesser of booth semid to me to have bene 
a chapelle. The toune of Ilchester hath beene a very large 
thyng, and one of the auncientest townes yn al that quarter. 
At this tyme it is yn wonderful decay, as a thing in a maner 
rasid with men of warre. 

Ther hath beene in hominum memoria 4. paroche chirchis 
yn the toune, wherof one yet is occupied. The tokens of 
other 2. yet stond, and the 4. is clene yn ruine. - 

Ther is a fre chapelle in the toune, the bakside wherof 
cummith to the ryver side even hard bynethe the bridge, 
and ther joynith a right praty mansion house to this 
chapelle. I have hard say that many yeres syns ther was a 
nunry wher this chapelle ys. 

Ther was also a late a house of freres yn this toune. 

The greatest token of auncient building that I saw yn al 
the toune ys a stone gate archid and voltid, and a chapelle 
or chirch of S. Michael, as I remembre, over it. 

The river of Ivel d rennith from Ivelcestre to Lamport 6 a 
4. miles lower. 

Thens to Michelboro, wher is a bridge of tymber over 

[* Leland set the course of the Yeo between this asterisk and that on 
p. I57-] 

a Yeovilton. b Limington. Ilchester. 

d River Yeo. Langport. 



PART II 157 

Ivel, and the water ebbith and flowith a .... above this Somerset, 
bridge. 

fThens to Ilminstre a Take better hede. for Ilmestre, 

as I syns lernid, ys withyn a mile of Whitlakington, b where 
Master Spek dwellith, and is not Ivel water,* 

fAnd so to Bridgwater 

If a man might go for the fennes the next way from 
Ivelchestre to Bridgwater it were not x. miles betwixt, where 
now it is xij. 

From Ivelcestre to Limington village about a mile. One fo. 52. 
Juuerney was owner of this toune and lordship, he lyith 
richely buried yn a fair chapelle on the north side of the 
paroche chirch of Limington. 

Ther lyith at the feete of Juuerney a woman vaylid in a 
low tumbe with an image of stone. 

Ther lyith also in the south arche of the same chapelle a 
gentilman and his wife, I think also of the Juuerneys. 

There is a cantuarie prest in the chapelle. 

Juuerney dwellid, as sum think, in the farme at the north 
est side of the church. 

Juuerneys landes cam by heires generate to the Bonevilles 
of Devonshire. 

There was but one of the Bonevilles that was a baron : 
and that was Syr Wyllyam Boneville, whos sonne maried an 
heire generale of the Lord Harington, and Cecily his heire 
general was maried to Thomas the Lord Marquise of 
Dorsete. 

This Lord Boneville had many bastardes, wherof he set 
up one in the west partes, gyving him a 100. marks of land 
by the yere, and this familye yet remainith there. 

From Limington to Montegue by good pasture and corne 
ground enclosid and meately welle woddid a 4. miles. 

The toune of Montegue hath a poore market, and is 
buildid of stone as communely al townes theraboute be. I 
redde in the booke of the antiquites of Glessenbyri that this 
toun was caullid yn the Saxons time Logaresburch. Sum 

[t Leland having set down the heads of these two paragraphs, added in 
the words " take " to "water" afterwards. The space after " Bridge- 
water " is vacant.] 



a Ilminster. b Whitelackington. c Montacute. 



158 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset, thynk that ther was a great castel and forteresse at this toune 
yn the Saxons tyme. Sum say that the Counte of Moretone 
buildid a castelle there sone after the Conquest : but that a 
castelle hath bene there, and that the Counte of Moreton 
lay yn it, it is without doute. This county chaungid the olde 
name and caullid it Montegue, bycause it stode on a sharpe 
point of an hille, and syns that name hath prevaylid. This 
Counte of Moreton began a priory of blake monkes a 3. or 
4. in numbre under the rootes of Montegue hille, enduing 
it with 3. fair lordeshippes, Montegue and Titenhul joyning 
to it. The 3. was Criche a 10. miles from Montegue west 
fo. 53. south west. The Counte of Moreton toke part with Robert 
Curthose agayn King Henry the first, and after was toke, put 
in prisone, and his landes attaintid : at the which tyme the 
3. lordshipes gyven to Montegue priory were taken away, 
and then were the monkes compellid to begge for a certein 
season. At the laste King Henry the first had pyte of them, 
and offerid them their owne landes again and more, so that 
the wold leave that place and go to Lamporte, wher at that 
tyme he entendid to have made a notable monasterie. But 
the monkes entretid hym that they might kepe theyr old 
house : and apon that he restorid them their 3. lordshipes, 
translating his mynde of building an abbay from Lamporte 
to Readyng. Then cam one Reginaldus Cancellarius, so 
namid by likelihod of his office, a man of great fame about 
King Henry the first, and he felle to relligion, and was prior 
of Montegue, and enlargid it with buildinges and possessions. 
And thus the priory encreasing, and the hole lordship of 
Montegue beyng yn the monkes possession, the notable 
castelle partely felle to ruine, and partely was taken doune 
to make the priory. So that many yeres syns no building of 
it remaynid, only a chapelle was sette apon the very toppe 
of the dungeon, and that yet stondith ther. 

From Montegue to Stoke under Hamden a about a mile. 
I saw at Stoke in a botom hard by the village very notable 
ruines of a great manor place or castelle, and yn this maner 
place remaynith a very auncient chapelle, wheryn be diverse 
tumbes of noble menne and wimen. 

In the south west side of the chapelle be 5. images on 

a Stoke-under-Hambdon. 



PART II 159 

tumbes, on hard joynid to another, 3. of menne harneshid fo. 54. 
and shildid, and 2. of women. Ther hath bene inscription Somerset, 
on eche of them, but now so sore defacid that they cannot 
be redde. 

I saw a shelde or 2. al verry of blew and white. 

Ther be in this part of the chapelle also 2. tumbes with- 
out images. 

There is in the northside of the body of the chapelle a 
tumbe in the waulle without image or writing, and a tumbe 
with a goodly image of a man of armes in the north side of 
the quyer of the chapelle, with a sheld, as I remembre, al 
verrey, and even afore the quier doore but without it lyith 
a very grete flatte marble stone with an image in brasse 
flattely graven, and this writing yn French about it : 

Icy gist le noble et vaillant Chivaler Maheu de Gurney 
iadys seneschal de Landes et capitain du Chastel Daques pro 
nostre seignor le roy en la duche de Guyene, que en sa vie fu 
a la batail de Beuamazin, et ala a apres a la siege Dalgezire 
sur le Sarazines, et auxi a les baitailles de Le scluse, de Cressy, 
de Yngenesse, de Peiteres^ de Nazara, Dozrey, et a plusours 
aultres batailles et asseges en les quex il gaina noblement 

graund los et honour per le space de iiij. et xvj. ans, et morust 
le xxvj. jour de Septembre Ian nostre seignor Jesu Christ 
mccccvj. que de salme dieux eit mercy, amen. 

Ther was beside this grave another in the westerende of 
the body of the chapelle having a gret flat stone without 
inscription. 

I markid yn the wyndowes 3. sortes of armes, one al verry 
blew and white, another with iij. stripes gules down right in 
a feld of gold. The 3. was crosselettes of golde, many 
intermist in one yn a feld, as I remembre, gules. 

Ther is a provost longging to this collegiate chapelle 
now yn decay, wher sumtyme was good service, and now but 
a messe said a 3. tymes yn the weeke. 

The provost hath a large house yn the village of Stoke 
therby. 

The notable quarre of stone ys even therby at Hamden, fo. 55. 
out of the which hath beene taken many a day stones for a 
the goodly buildinges therabout in al quarters. 

From Stoke to Crokehorn, a mene market toun southwest 



160 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset, from Montegue, a 5. miles, and 4. from Stoke by hilly 
ground. 

Crokehorn a is sette under the rootes of an hille. Ther 
I saw nothing very notable. Yet there ys a praty crosse 
environid with smaul pillers, and a praty toune house yn the 
market place. 

The chirch stondith on the hylle, and by it is a grammar 
schole endowid with landes for an annual stipende. 

Haselberge b is about a mile from Crokehorn, at this 
place lyvid the holy heremite and prophete Wulfrik yn King 
Henry the i. dayes. The Erie of Darby ys now owner of 
that lordship. 

From Crokehorn by hilly ground but plentiful of corne, 
grasse, and elme wood, wherwith most part of al Somerset- 
shire ys yn hegge rowys enclosid, scant a 2. miles to George 
Henton village, so caullid bycause the paroch chyrch there 
is dedicate to S. George. 

Heere hath Sir Hugh Poulet a right goodly maner place 
of fre stone, with 2. goodly high tourres embatelid in the 
ynner court. 

Ther hath beene of auncient tyme a maner place at this 
Henton. But al that there now is notable is of the building 
of Syr Amise Poulet, father to Syr Hugh now lyving. 

This Syr Hugh hath of late made a parke not far from his 
house at Henton in the side of an hylle. 

From Henton to Kingeston d village a 2. miles dim. by 
hylly and enclosid ground, and thens passing about a mile 
farther I lefte White-Lakington half a mile of on the right 
hond, wher Mr. Speke hath his principale house, and a parke : 
and about a mile of on the lifte honde I left another maner 

place of his caullid 

fo. 56. Thens to Cury-Malet e a 3. miles, wher is a parke longging 
to Chambernoun of Devonshire. 

I left this parke a litle on the lift hond, and sone after cam 
over a great brook, f that risith west south west, and rennith 
est north est into Ivel a 2. miles above Michelborow, by 
estimation. 

Here I cam from the hilly ground to the low and marschy 
ground of Somerseteshir. 

a Crewkerne. b Haselborough. c Hinton St. George, 

d Kingston. e Curry Mallett. f Isle R. 



PART II 161 

Thens to North-Cury a stille by low ground about a 2. miles Somerset, 
or more. The chirch of Welles hath fair landes here. 

And hereabout is Stoke Gregory, b wher the chirch of Welles 
hath possessions. 

Thens about a mile to the ripe of Thone c ryver, by the 
which I passid by the space of half a mile, and there I went 
over Thone by a wood bridge. 

Athelney lyith half a mile lower on Thon, and ther is a 
bridge of wood to entre to thabbay, and beneth that almost 
at the very confluence of Thone and Ivel h is another wood 
bridge over Thone. 

Thonetoun alias Tawntoun d is a 5. miles by south west 
from Athelney. 

Thonetoun is about a vij. miles from Bridge- Walter. 

Ther is a great bridge on Thone at Basford a mile lower 
then Thonetoun. 

From this bridge by Athelney I rode by low marsch ground 
a 2. miles to Pedertun Park. 

Here at Pederton 6 the soyle westward and south west 
rysith agayn and ys not fenny. 

There ys a great numbre of dere longging to this park, ye 
hath it almost no other enclosure but dikes to let the catelle 
of the commune to cum yn. 

The dere trippe over these dikes and feede al about the 
fennes, and resort to the park agayn. There is a praty lodge 
motid yn the parke. 

There cummyth a praty broke thorough the park, and half 
a mile beneth the park it goith ynto Ivel. 

This brooke is caullid Peder, and risith west south west 
yn the hylles aboute a 2. myles of. First it cummith by 
North-Pedreton, f a praty uplandisch toun, wher is a fair 
chirch, the personage wherof was impropriate to Mynchin- 
bucland. 

Then it touchith on South-Pederton, g yn the which paroch 
the parke standith, and so to the ryver of Ivel. h 

From the lodge in Pederton Parke to Northpedertun a fo. 57. 
mile. 

From Northpedertun to Bridgewater 2. miles. The way 

a North Curry. b Stoke St. Gregory. c Tone. 

d Taunton. e Petherton. f North Petherton. 

8 South Petherton. h Parret R., really. 

M 



i62 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset, or I cam ynto Bridgwater was causid with stone more then 
half a myle.* 

Entering into Bridgwater I passid by a chapelle of S. Sal- 
vior standing on the ripe of the haven. 

Then I enterid into a suburbe, and so over a bridg, under 
the which rennith a brook, that risith a 4. miles of by west 
at Bromefelde. a 

The south gate of the towne joinith hard onto this bridge. 

The towne of Bridgwater b is not wallid, nor hath not beene 
by any lykelyhod that I saw. Yet there be 4. gates yn the 
towne namid as they be sette by est, west, north, and south. 
The waulles of the stone houses of the toune be yn steede of 
the towne waulles. I rode from the south gate yn a praty 
streate a while, and then I turnid by est and cam to the 
market place. 

The fairest streate and principale showe of the toune ys 
from the west gate to the easte gate. 

The ryver of Ivel c there joynith with the salt creeke, and 
arme of the se rennith crosse thorough this strete from south 
fo. 58. to north ; and to passe over this arme there is a right auncient 
stronge and high bridge of stone of 3. arches begon of 
William Bruer, the first lord of that towne, yn King Richard 
the first and King John's dayes. 

One Triveth, a gentilman, as I there lernid, of Devonshir 
or Cornewalle, finishid this bridge : and the Trivetes, beyng 
the armes that Triveth gave, appere there in a sheld yn the 
coping of the chekes of the bridge. 

That part of the towne that stondith on the west side of 
the bridge and haven is thre tymes as bygge as that that 
stondith on the est side. 

The castelle, sumtyme a right fair and strong peace of 
worke, but now al goyng to mere ruine, standith harde 
bynethe the bridge of the west side of the haven. Wylliam 
Bruer the first buildid this castelle. 

These thinges I markid yn the weste parte of the towne : 

One large paroch chirch. 

A goodly howse wher sumtyme a college was of gray freres. 

[* Nearly a page left blank here.] 



Broomfield. b Bridgewater. c Parret R. 



PART II 163 

Wylliam Bruer, sunne to Willyam Bruer the first, buildid Somerset, 
this house. 

One of the Lordes Botreaux and his wife were especial 
benefactors to this house. Thereapon his hert and his wifes 
body were buryed there. 

The accustumer of Bridgwater hath translatid this place to 
a right goodly and pleasaunt dwelling house. 

There is an hospitale yn this parte of the towne of the 
building and fundation of menne yn the towne; but it is 
endowed with litle or no lande. 

The chapelle of S. Salviour at the south side withoute the 
town was buildid in hominum memoria by a merchaunt of 
Bridgewater cawllid William Poel or Pole. 

In the est parte of the town is onely the house or late 
college of S. John a thing notable : and this house standith 
partely withoute the est gate. 

This college had prestes that had the apparelle of secular 
prestes with a crosse on there breste : and [to] this house fo. 59. 
was adjoynid an hospitale for poore folkes. 

Wyllyam Bruer the first foundid this place, and gave onto 
it faire possessions. 

Wylliam Bruer the firste was buried at Dunkeswelle, an 
abbay of white monkes of his fundation yn Devonshire. 

Willyam Bruer the first wife was buried at Motesfonte, a 
priorie of her husbandes fundation. 

There hath faullen yn ruine and sore decay above 200. 
houses yn the toun of Bridgwater in tyme of rememberaunce. 

From Bridgewater to Canington a 2. miles. 

As I cam ynto Canington, 8 a praty uplandisch towne, I 
passid over a bygge brooke that risith not far of by west yn 
the hilles, and passinge by Caningtun rennith into the haven 
of Bridgewater a 2. miles and more by estimation lower then 
Bridgwater. 

The paroche chirch of Canington is very fair and welle 
adornyd. 

There was a priory of nunnes, whos chirch was hard ad- 
nexid to the est of the paroch chirch. Rogeres of the court 
hath this priorie, and also Minchyn Bukland gyven onto hym. 

From Caningtun to Stowey 3. good miles. 

a Cannington. 



1 64 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset. Stowey a poore village stondith yn a botom, emong hilles. 
Heere ys a goodly maner place of the Lorde Audeley's stand- 
ing exceding pleasauntly for goodly pastures, and having by 
it a parke of redde deere and another of falow, and a faire 
fo. 60. brooke serving al the offices of the maner place. 

The Lord Audeley, that rebellid yn Henry the vij. tyme, 
began great foundations of stone work to the enlarging of 
his house, the which yet be scene half onperfect. 

The ryver of Stowey risith yn the hilles therby by west, 
and renning along thorough Stowey village goith after to 
the se. 

The se is about a 4. miles from Stowe. 

From Stowey to S. Audres a * a 5. miles. I left this village 
a litle on the right, it stondith about a mile from the se. 

In this paroche I saw a fair park and manor place of the 
Lutterelles, caullid Quantok-hedde, b bycause it standith at 
the hedde of Quantok-hilles toward the se. 

These hilles renne in crestes from Quantok-hedde toward 
Tauntoun, as from north to south est. 

I passid over 2. notable brokes bytwixt Stowe and S. Audres 
that ran from the montaynes to the se. 

From S. Audres to Wilington c a 2. miles. 

I passid over a great brooke or I cam to Wilington, rising 
from south and renning by north to the se. 

A quarter of a mile from Wellington or more I cam to 
Orchard,* wher Mr. John Wyndeham dwellith. 

This maner place was erectid by a younger brother of the 
Sydenhams. And of this name ther hath beene 4. owners 
of Orchard that was purchasid by the first of the 4. 

The secunde Sidnham maried with the heire general of 
one Gamon, or rather Gambon, a man of 200. markes of 
lande in Devonshire and Cornewal. 

This Gambon gave in a felde of sylver thre legges sables. 

Sidenham the 2. buildid moste part or almost al the good 
building of Orcharde. 

The 3. dyed, leving a sunne and 2. doughters. 

The sunne or he cam to xxij. yeres of age dyed. 

[* Ethelreda is written over Audres by Leland.] 
a Audries. b Quantoxhead. c Williton. d Orchard Wyndham. 



PART II 165 

The 2. doughters were thus marled : one to John Wyndham, Somerset, 
a younger brother of Wyndham of Felbridge yn Northfolk. 
The other was maried to 

The eldest house of the Sidenhams is at Brimtoun by fo. 61. 
Montegue. 

And this Sidenham of Brimton, a a man of good yeres, lyith 
now at a litle maner place of his withyn a mile of Orchard 
caullid Combe. 

There lyith also at Netlecumbe, b withyn a mile of Orchard 
or litle more, another Sidenham cumming oute of the house 
of Brimton. This Sidenham may spende a 50. [/*'.] land by 
the yere. 

I markid * yn the glasse wyndowes at Master Wyndeham's 
John Wyndham and Thomas, knighttes, armes. The one of 
them maried Howard the Duke of Northfolkes doughter : the 
other the doughter of the Lord Scrope of Boltun. 

Orchard is yn the paroche of S. Decun, c alias Decumane, a 
mile or more from the se side, and a 2. miles from the 
chapelle of our Lady of Clyfe. 

From Orchard to Clif d chapel a 3. miles or more. 

Or I cam to this chapel almost by a mile I passid over a 
broke that cummith from Clif-abbay. At this place I left 
Clife-abbay scant a quarter of a mile of by south on the lift 
hond, and hard by on the right hond by north I saw a fair 
stone bridge of one arche. 

Clif-chapelle, wher offering was to our Lady, is set apon 
no very high ground, but rokky, it is well buildid : and on 
the south side of it is a goodly ynne al of stone, a late usid 
for pilgrimes. 

The se is about half a mile from Clife-chapelle. 

From Clif-chapelle to Dunster a 2. miles. 

I passid over a brooke that cummith thorough Dunestor 
park. 

Marsch wood park bytwixt our Lady of Clyve and 
Dunestor. 

Dunster toun stondith in a botom. The paroch chirch is 
set in ground sumwhat rising. 

[* / markid has been crossed through since Leland and Stow's time.] 



a Brimpton. b Nettlecomb. c St. Decumans. d Cleeve. 



i66 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Somerset. There is a very celebrate market at Dunstorre ons a wekes. 

There is a fair privilegid to be at Dunster every Whitsun- 
Mone-day. 

The toun of Dunestorre a makith cloth. 

fo. 62. The glory of this toun rose by the Moions that were after 
Erles of Somersete. 

The Moions \&Ajura regalia at Dunster. 

The Moions buildid the right goodly and stronge castelle 
of Dunestorre. 

The dungeon of the castelle of Dunestorre hath beene 
fulle of goodly building. But now there is but only a 
chapelle in good case. 

Syr Hugh Luterelle did of late dayes repaire this chapelle. 

The fairest part of the castelle welle maintenid is yn the 
north est of the court of it. 

Syr Hugh Luterelle in the tyme of Dame Margarete his 
wife, sister to the olde Lord Dalbeney, made a fair tourre 
by north cummyng into the castelle. 

Sir Hugh had another wife caullid Guinllean, doughter to 
York of Devonshir. 

Syr Andrew Luterelle, sunne to Sir Hugh, build of new a 
pece of the castel waul by est. 

There be great hilles on every side of the castelle hille 
except toward north est. 

There longgith many privileges and knightes services to 
be doone to this castelle. 

Ther is a praty park joyning to thest part of the castelle. 

The late priory of blake monkes stoode yn the rootes of 
the north west side of the castelle, and was a celle to Bathe. 

The hole chirch of the late priory servith now for the paroche 
chirch. Afore tymes the monkes had the est parte closid up 
to their use. 

In the north part of this was buried undre an arche by the 
high altare one of the Luterelles, or, as I rather thynke, of 
the Moions, for he hath a garland about his helmet : and 
so were lordes of old tymes usid to be buried. 

There ly ij. images on the south side of the chauncelle of 
one of the Moions and his wife : and therby lay an image of 
one of the Everardes gentilmen first there set up by the 

a Dunster. 



PART II 167 

Moions, yn token wherof they had a parte of the castelle to Somerset, 
defende by service; the image lyith now bytwixt ij. arches 
or boteres in the chirch yarde. 

The maner place of the Everardes was and yet ys at Aller 
in Carnetun * paroche, a mile from Dunster castelle. 

Carntoun a is shortely spoken for Carantokes towne, wher fo. 63. 
yet is a chapel of this sainct that sumtyme was the paroch 
chirche. 

Ther lyith one Elizabeth, wife to one of the Luterelles, 
afore the high altare under a playne stone. 

There cummith a praty brooke by west from the hilles 
therby, and so rennith 

From Dunestore to Minheved a 2. miles. 

Minheved b hath ons a weeke a praty market. 

The fairest part of the toun standith in the botom of an 
hille. The residew rennith stepe up a long the hille, yn the 
toppe wherof is a fair paroche chirche. 

The toune is exceding ful of Irisch menne. 

The peere lyith at the north est point of the hille. 

There was a fair park by Minheved, but Sir Andrew 
Lutterelle of late tyme destroyd it. 

From Minheved to Aber Thawan yn Glamorgan the nerest 
traject there into Wales a 18. miles. 

From Minheved up along the Severne shore to Stoke 
Gurcy c a xvij. miles, where is a goode village. 

Thens to the Sterte d a 3. miles, and there is the mouth of 
Bridgewater haven. 

From Minheved doune on the Severn shore to a place 
caullid Hores-toun e a 3 miles. There beginnith the rode 
that is communely caullid Porlogh Bay, f a meatly good rode 
for shippes, and so goith to Comban, g peraventure shortely 
spoken for Columbane, a 3. miles of; and thus far I was 
adcertenid that Somersetshir went or farther. 

From Comebane to the Sterte most parte of the shore is 
hilly ground, and nere the shore is no store of wood : that 
that is ys al in hegge rowes of enclosures. 

[* Leland wrote Cran above Carne at this place.] 



a Carhampton. b Minehead. Stoke Courcy. 

d Stert Point. e Hurlstone. f Porlock Bay. 

Culbone. 



1 68 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Somerset. 



fo. 64. 



The large 
forest of 
Exmore. 



This water 
risith by 
north iveste. 



There is great plenty of benes in this quarter and inward 
to the landes. 

And of these beenes ther is yn a maner a staple at 
Bridgwater when corne is dere in the parties beyond the se. 

There is also yn this quarter great plenty of whete and 
catelle. 

From Dunestorre to Exford village a 7. miles. 

Of these 7. miles 3. or 4. of the first were al hylly and 
rokky, ful of brokes in every hilles botom and meatly woddid. 

These brookes by my estimation ranne toward the Severne 
se. 

The residew of the way to Exford was partely on a moore 
and sumwhat baren of corne, and partely hylly, having many 
brookes gathering to the hither ripe of Ex ryver. 

There is a litle tymbre bridge at Exforde over Ex brooke, 
ther being a smaul water. 

Ex risith yn Exmore at a place caullid Excrosse a 3. miles 
of by north weste, and so goith toward Tyvertun a a xij. miles 
lower, and thens to Excestre b a x. miles. 

From Exford to Simonsbath bridge a 4. miles, al by forest, 
baren, and morisch ground, wher ys store and breading of 
yong catelle, but litle or no corne or habitation. 

There rennith at this place caullid Simonsbath a ryver c be- 
twixt to great morisch hilles in a depe botom, and ther is a 
bridge of woodde over this water. 

The water in somer most communely rennith flat apon 
stones easy to be passid over, but when raynes cum and 
stormes of wyntre it ragith and ys depe. 

Alwayes this streame ys a great deale bygger water then 
Ex is at Exford, yet it resortith into Ex ryver. 

The boundes of Somerseteshire go beyond this streame 
one way by north west a 2. miles or more to a place caullid 
the Spanne, and the Tourres, for ther be hillokkes of yerth 
cast up of auncient tyme for markes and limites betwixt 
Somersetshir and Devonshire ; and here about is the limes 
and boundes of Exmore forest. 

From Simonsbath bridge I rode up an high morisch hylle, 
and so passing by 2. myles in lyke ground, the soyle began 
to be sumwhat fruteful, and the hilles to be ful of enclosures, 



a Tiverton. 



Exeter. 



Barle R. 



PART II 169 

ontylle I cam a 3. miles farther to a poore village caullid fo. 65. 
Brayforde, a wher rennith a broke b by likelihod resorting to Devonshire. 
Simonsbath water and Ex. 

From Braiford to Berstaple an 8. miles by hilly ground, 
having much enclosures for pasture and corne. 

The toune of Berdenestaple b hath be waullid, and the 
waulle was in cumpace by estimatpon] half a myle. It is 
now almost clene faullen. The names of the 4. gates by est, 
west, north and south, yet remain, and manifest tokens of 
them. 

I think that the olde name of. the toune was in the 
Britanne tunge Abertaw, bycause it stode toward the mouth 
of Taw ryver. Berdenes shortely or curruptely spoking, 
as I thinke, for Abernesse. Staple is an addition for a 
market. 

The suburbes be now more then the toun. 

The houses be of stone, as al houses in good townes there 
aboute be. 

There be manifest mines of a great castelle at the north 
west side of the towne a litle beneth the toun bridge, and a 
peace of the dungeon yet standith. One Johelus de Totenes, 
films Aluredi, was the first that I can reade of that lay yn this 
castelle. 

There is but one paroche chirch in the town. 

There hath beene 4. chapelles yn the toun, of the which 
one was at the est end of the bridge dedicate to Thomas 
Beket, now profanid. 

The other 3. yet stande ; one of Alhalowes, at the north 
gate. Another of S. Nicolas, at the west gate, as I re- 
membre. 

One Holman, vicar of the paroche chirch in Berstaple, 
made a fair chapelle, and foundid a cantuarie in it in the 
paroche chirch yard in Berstaple. 

The priorie of Blake Monkes at the northe ende of the 
towne was founded by Johelus de Totenes, that was lorde of 
the toun and castelle of Berstaple. 

A fair at the nativite of our Lady at Berstaple. 

One Tracy was after lorde of the castelle and toune of 
Berstaple, and taken as founder of the priorie. 

a Brayford. b Bray R. c Barnstaple. 



170 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



fo. 66. 



Devonshire. Sum say that one of the Tracys made the right great 
and sumptuus bridge of stone having 16 high arches at 
Berstaple. 

There be landes gyven to the maintenaunce of this bridge. 

One Philippus de Columbariis was after lord of Berstaple : 
and this Philip died circa annum dni. 1344 or 47, he and 
his wife lay booth buried in the priory of Berstaple. 

There lay summe of the barons of Stane yn Ireland buryed 
in Berstaple priory. 

Then was one William Mertun a knight lord of Berstaple. 

The Duke of Excester was of late dayes lord of Berstaple. 

The Countes of Richemont, grand dame to Henry the 8, 
was lady of Berstaple. 

Henry late Duke of Richemont and Somersete was lord 
of Berstaple. 

There is a mair in Berstaple, and the burgeses take King 
Ethelstan as chief of privileges to the toun. 

Plimtoun a is devidid from the north suburbe and the priory 
only by a grete causey of stone, having an archid bridge at 
eche ende of it. 

This bridge was made long sins by a merchaunt of London 
caullid Stawford, long sins, by this occasion : 

He chauncid to be at Berstaple to by cloth, and saw a 
woman ryding to cum over by the low salte marsch from 
nwnaGraco piy m t u n towarde Berstaple, and the tyde cam so sore yn by 
a gutte, that brekith yn there from the haven shore to the 
marsch, that she could not passe : and crying for help, no 
man durst cum to her, and so she was drownid. 

Then Stawford toke the prior of Berstaple a certen summe 
of money to begyn this causey, chekid on eche side, and the 
bridgges, and after payid for the performing of it. 

There cummith a praty broke b from the hilles at Berstaple 
by est and rennith along by the priorye waulle, and so goith 
thorowgh the bridge at the ende of the causey, and strayte 
dryvith a mile and so ynto the haven. 

Picartes and other smaul vessels cum up by a gut out of 
the haven to the other bridge on the causey at Piymtun 
townes ende. 

Piymtun is but one fair long streate. and is mainteynid by 
clothe making. 

a Pilton. b ?The YeoR. 



Plimmodu- 



originem 
trahit. 



PART II 171 

The west north west side of the toun for the more part Devonshire, 
longid to the priory of Berstaple. 

The est side of the toune longid to thabbay of Clif for 
the more part. King Athelstan gave fair landes in and by 
Plymtun to thabbay of Malmesbyri. 

Malmesbyri had also the personage of Plymtun impro- 
priatid. 

The Bisshop of Excestre hath an auncient maner place a fo. 67. 
mile above Berstaple-bridg caullid Tawton on the est part 
of the haven. Bishop Veysy of late made this house sum- 
what lesse then it was but more handsum. 

The Erie of Bathe hath a right goodly maner and place at 
Tawstoke a on the west side of the haven a mile above Ber- 
staple bridge. 

The king gave of late to the Erie of Hampton a great 
lordship caullid Fremingtun; it lyith from byneth Berstaple 
bridge on the west side of the haven to the nesse. 

The ryver of Tau risith in Exmore by est south est from 
Berstaple. 

The ryver of Taw is no very mayne streame at the ebbe 
as it apperith at Berstaple. 

From Berstaple to the very haven mouth a v. miles : and 
the very mouth of it is no large thing, and a litle without is 
a barre. 

There rennith a shore on the west side of the haven ; a 3. 
miles byneth Berstaple to this nesse or point metith the 
ryver of Turege b and Taw togither, making a brode water, 
and go to the Severn se. 

From this nesse up to Bedeford* 6 bridge apon Turege a 
4. miles, wher is a praty quik streat of smithes and other 
occupiers for ship crafte cis pontem. 

The bridge at Bedeforde apon Turege is a very notable 
worke, and hath xxiiij. arches of stone, and is fairly waullid 
on eche side. But the arches be not so high as the arches 
of Berstaple bridge be. 

A poore preste began this bridge : and, as it is saide, he 
was animatid so to do by a vision. 

[* Leland first wrote Budeford, afterwards correcting it to Bedeford.] 
a Tawstock. b Torridge. c Bideford. 



172 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire. Then al the cuntery about sette their handes onto the 
performing of it : and sins landes hath be gyven to the 
maintenaunce of it. 

Ther standith a fair chapelle of our Lady trans pontem at 
the very ende of it, and there is a fraternite in the toun for 
perservation of this bridge : and one waitith continually to 
kepe the bridg clene from al ordure. 

The greatest part of the toune is ultra pontem^ and ther is 
a fair paroch chirch. 

Ther is no wekely market at a sette day at Bedeforde. 

There is a good village ulteriori ripa a 2. miles byneth 
Bedeford caullid Apledour, a and thens about a mile is the 
haven mouth. 

Mr. Cophin dwellith a 3. miles by north west from Bede- 
ford. 

fo. 68. Hertland b is x. miles from Bedeford much by morische 
ground but very good for broode of catelle. 

Hertey point lyith north north est 3. miles nerer to the 
mouth of Taw then Hertlande. 

From Berstaple to Bedeforde bridge a 7. miles or 8. 

From Berstaple to Newtoun d a poore village by stony and 
hille and sum enclosid ground a 3. miles. 

And thens to Alscote 6 by much like ground a 3. miles. 

Master Bedlaw dwellith at Alscote. I left his house hard 
by on the lift hand. And thens I cam to Toringtun a 2. 
miles of. 

Torington f is a great large toune, and stondith on the brow 
of an hille, and hath a 3. fair streates yn it, and a good 
market every weke, and ons a yere apon S. Michael's day 
the best fayr in al those quarters. 

In the toun is but one paroch chirch. Dr. Chaumbre is 
persone therof. 

The most parte lyvith there by making of cloth. 

There is a mair, and the toun is privilegid with libertees. 

The ryver of Torege rennith under the rootes of the hille, 
on the which the town stondith on, and apon Turege at 
Torington be 2. bridgges of stone, one caullid the south brid 
of 3. arches of stone, and another half a mile lower caullid 

a Appledore. b Hartland. c Hartland. 

d Newton Tracey. e Alverdiscot. f Torrington. 



PART II 173 

the west bridge, the which is the greater of the 2; and by Devonshire. 

this weste bridge the way lyith to Hertland that is xij. miles 

of. 

A litle above the south bridge stoode a fair castelle apon 
the brow of the hille hangging over Torege ripe, of the which 
at this present tyme nothing remainith stonding but a neglect 
chapelle. 

I lernid there that one Sir Wyllyam of Torington was lord 
of this castel and the town : for whom and for his sunne they 
pray for in the paroche chirch. 

The king of late tyme gave the lordship of Torington onto 
Fitzwilliams Erie of Hamptun. 

Litle-Tarington is on an hille beyond Turege water a mile 
by south south weste, and therby dwellith one Mr. Monk a 
gentilman. 

There is an hamlet longging to Tarington toun not a mile 
by est from Tarington caullid S. Gilys, a wher George Rolles 
hath buildid a right fair house of bryke. 

Fristok b priory is aboute a mile from Tarington. 

From Tarington over the south bridg to Depeford by hilly fo. 69. 
and much enclosid ground and sum wood an 8. miles of. 

The ryver of Turege risith in a morisch ground a 3. miles 
by north est from Herteland almost by the principale hedde 
of Tamar : and first rennith south south est by a few miles. 

The first notable bridge on Turege is Kissingtun c bridg. 

Thens half a mile to Pulford bridg. 
; Thens a 2. miles to Woddeford bridg. 

Thens a 2. miles to Depeford d bridge of 3. arches. 

Thens to the south bridge of Torington. Or ever Turege 
cummith ful to Torington he turnith from the south to north 
west. 

Thens to the west bridge of Torington. 

Thens to Bedeford e bridge about a 4. miles. 

And a 2. miles lower is the confluence of Turege and Taw, 
and so strait into Severn by the haven mouth. 

From Depeford to Lanstoun e a xij. miles by hilly and much Fanum 
morisch grounde baren of woodde. >tepham. 

Or ever I cam to Lanstoun by a mile I passid over a bridge Cornwall. 

a St. Giles's. b Frithelstock. c Kismeldon. 

d Deepford ?nr. Bradford. e Bideford. f Launceston. 



174 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall, of stone having 3. arches, and a smaul, caullid New Bridge, 
thorough the which the ryver of Tamar rennith, that almost 
from the hed of it to the mouth devidith Devonshir and 
Cornewaule. 

This New Bridge was of the making of the abbates of 
Tavestok and mainteinyd by them : for Tavestoke abbay 
had fair possessions thereaboute. 

The ryver of Tamar risith a 3. miles by north est from 
Hertelande, and thens cummith to Tamertun, a a village on 
the est ripe yn Devonshire ; and ther is a bridg over Tamar 
of stone : and from this bridg to Padestow b xx. miles. 

Yalme c bridge of stone 2. miles lower. 

New Bridg 2. miles lower. 

Polstun bridge 2. miles lower. 

Greistoun d bridge a 2. miles or more lower. 

Tavestoke 6 about a 4. miles from Greston bridg; and 
Grestoun bridg being about a 3. miles from Launston is the 
way from Launston to Tavestok. 

Hawte f bridg. 

Another bridg caullid New Bridg. 

Caulstok g bridg next the se begon by Sir Perse Eggecumbe. 

Lideford bridge is not on Tamar. 

fo. 70. After that I had enterid a litle into the suburbe of Laun- 
stoun I passid over a brooke caullid Aterey 11 that rennith yn 
the botom of the stepe hil that Launstoun stondith on. 

This water, as I there lernid, risith a x. miles of by west 
north west toward Bodmyne, and passing by Launstoun 
goith in Tamar by est, as I did gather, a litle above Pulstun 
bridg. 

After that I had passid over Aterey I went up by the hille 
thorough the long suburbe ontylle I cam to the toun waul 
and gate : and so passid thorough the toun conscending the 
hille ontylle I cam to the very toppe of it, wher the market 
place and the paroche chirch of S. Stephane lately reedified 

The large and auncient castelle of Launstun stondith on 
the knappe of the hille by south a litle from the paroche 
chirch. Much of this castel yet stondith : and the moles 

a Tamerton. b Padstow. c Yeolm. d Greystone. 

e Tavistock. f Horse. * Calstock. h Otterey R. 



PART II 



175 



that the kepe stonde[//fc on] is large and of a terrible higth, Cornwall, 
and the arx of it, having 3. severale wardes, is the strongest, 
but not the biggist, that ever I saw in any auncient worke in 
Englande. 

Ther is a litle pirle of water that servith the high parte of 
Lanstoun. 

The priorie of Launstoun stondith in the west south west fo. 7ib. 
parte * of the suburbe of the toun under the rote of the hille 
by a fair wood side, and thorowgh this wood rennith a pirle 
of water cumming out of an hil therby and servith al the offices 
of the place. 

In the chirch I markid 2. notable tumbes, one of prior 
Horton and another of prior Stephane. 

One also told me there that one Mabilia a countes was 
buried ther in the chapitre house. 

One William Warwist, Bisshop of Excestre, erectid this 
priorie, and was after buried at Plymtoun a priory that he also 
erectid. 

Warwist for erection of Launston priorie suppressid a col- 
legiate chirch of S. Stephan having prebendaries, and gave 
the best part of the landes of it to Launstoun priory, and toke 
the residew hymself. 

There yet standith a chirch of S. Stephan about half a mile 
from Launstoun on a hille wher the collegiate chirch was. 

Gawen Carow hath the custody of the priory. 

There is a chapelle by west north west a litle without fo. 72. 
Launstowne dedicate to S. Catarine, it is now prophanid. 

From Launston to Botreaux castelle, vulgo Boscastel, b first 
a 2. miles by enclosid ground having sumwoodde and good 
come. 

Thens an 8. miles by morisch and hilly ground and great 
scarsite of wod, insomuch that al the countery therabout 
brennith firres and hethe. 

And thens a 2. miles to Boscastel by enclosid ground 
metely fruteful of come but exceding baren of wood, to the 
which the bleke northen se is not ther of nature favorable. 

[* Leland first wrote west parte, then corrected it by adding south 
west part. There are two blank leaves, fo. 70 verso and 71 recto (ap- 
parently by mistake).] 



a Plympton. 



Boscastle. 



176 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall. The toun of Boscastelle lyith apon the brow of a rokky 
hille by south est, and so goith doun by lenght to the northe 
toward the se, but not even ful hard to it. 

It is a very filthy toun and il kept. 

There is a chirch in it, as I remembre, of S. Simpherian. 

The Lorde Botreaux was lord of this toun, a man of an 
old Cornish linage, and had a maner place, a thing as far as 
I could [heare*] of smaul reputation, as it is now, far on- 
worthe the name of a castel. The people ther caulle it the 
Courte. 

Ther cummith down a litle broke a from south est out of the 
hilles therby, and so renning by the west side of the towne 
goith into Severn se betwixt 2. hylles, and ther maketh a pore 
havenet, but of no certaine salvegarde. 

One of the Hungrefordes maried with [one] of the heires 
generate of Botreaux : and so Boscastel cam to Hungreford. 

Then cam Boscastelle by an heir generale of the Hungre- 
fordes onto the Lord Hastinges. 

Hastinges Erie of Huntendune and the late Lord Hungre- 
ford had a lordship of the Botreaux in partition caullid Parke, b 
and ther is a manor place or castelet. It is a vj. miles from 
Botreaux by south. 

Ther is no very notable toun or building from Botreaux 

by est north est a long apon the shore upper on Severn to 

Hertland point but Strettoun, c and that is xij. miles from 

fo. 73. Botreaux, and ther is a praty market. It stondith about a 

mile from the se. 

There is a place nere to Stretton caullid Ebbingford, but 
now communely EfFord, wher John Arundale of Trerise was 
borne, and hath a fair maner place : in the which Syr John 
Chaumon now dwellith, that maried the mother yet lyving of 
John Arundale of Trerise. 

Olde Treviliane a man of pratie land but cumming of a 
youngger brother of the chife house of that name, dwellith 
toward Stretton at a place caullid 

Hertland point is a x. miles upper on Severn from Strettoun. 

From Botreaux to Tredewy d village on the shore about a 

[* Leland slipped a word here, Gale supplies heare. ] 



Valency R. b ? Parkwalls. c Stratton. d ? Trevalga. 



PART II 177 

myle : and ther cummith downe a broke rising in the gret Cornwall, 
rokky hilles therby. 

From Tredewi to Bossinny on the shore about a mile. 

This Bossenny hath beene a bygge thing for a fischar town, 
and hath great privileges grauntid onto it. A man may se 
there the ruines of a gret numbre of houses. 

Here also cummith down a broke, and this brook and 
Tredewy water resort to the se at one mouth bytwixt ij. hilles; 
wherof that that is on the est side -lyith out lyke an arme, or 
cape, and makith the fascion of an havenet, or pere, whither 
shippelettes sumtime resorte for socour. 

A frere of late dayes toke apon hym to make an haven at 
this place, but he litle prevailid theryn. 

There ly 2. blake rokkes as islettes at the west north west 
point or side of this creeke ; the one, saving a gut of water, 
joyning to the other. And yn these brede guiles be al 
lykelihod. 

From Bossinny to Dindagel* a castel on the shore a mile. 

This castelle hath bene a mervelus strong and notable for- 
teres, and almost situ loci inexpugnable, especially for the 
dungeon that is on a great an[d] high terrible cragge environid 
with the se, but having a draw bridge from the residew of 
the castelle onto it. 

There is yet a chapel standing withyn this dungeon of S. 
Ulette alias Uliane. Shepe now fede within the dungeun. 

The residew of the buildinges of the castel be sore wether 
beten and yn ruine, but it hath beene a large thinge. 

This castel stondith in the paroche of Trevenny. b and the 
paroch therof is of S. Symphorian ther caullid Simiferian. 

Passing a mile from the chirch of S. Symphorian by hilly fo. 74. 
and hethy ground I cam over a brooke that ran from south 
est north to Severn se, and about half a myle beyound the 
mouth of this brook lay a great blak rok c lyke an islet yn the 
se not far from the shore. 

Porthissek c a fisschar village lyith about a 3. miles from 
the mouth of thafore sayd brook lower by west on Severn 
shore. 

[* Leland first wrote Tintagel, then corrected it as above.] 



a Tintagel. b Trevena. c The Gull Rock. d Port Isaac. 

N 



178 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall. There resortith a broke to Porthissek : and there is a pere 
and sum socour for fisschar botes. 

Porthguin a a fisschar village lyith a 2. miles lower on the 
shore, and there is the issue of a broke and a pere. 

And a 3. miles lower is the mouth of Padestow haven. 

From Dindagelle to S. Esse b village a 4. miles. 

Meately good ground about S. Esses selfe. 

From S. Esse to Trelille village 2. miles. 

From Trelille to * wher Master Carniovies alias 

Carnsey hath a praty house, fair ground, and praty wood 
about it. 

Thens 3. miles by good corne grounde but no wood to 
Wadebridge. 

Wher as now Wadebridge is ther was a fery a 80. yeres 
syns, and menne sumtyme passing over by horse stoode often 
in great jeopardie. 

Then one Lovebone, vicar of Wadebridge, movid with 
pitie began the bridge, and with great paine and studie, 
good people putting their helpf therto, finishid it with xvij. 
fair and great uniforme arches of stone. 

One told me that the fundation of certein of tharches was 
first sette on so quik sandy ground that Lovebone almost 
despairid to performe the bridg ontyl such tyme as he layed 
pakkes of wolle for fundation. 

The ryver of Alawne c rennith thorough Wadebridge evi- 
dentely seen at lower. 

The first memorable bridge on Alane is caullid Helham d 
bridge . . . miles lower then Camilforde, but Alane is almost 
a mile from Camilford toun. 

Dunmere 6 bridge of 3. arches a 2. miles lower. Here 
doth Alaune ryver ren within a mile of Bodmyn. 

Wadebrid a 3. miles lower by land and 4. by water. This 
is the lowest bridg on Alane. c 
fo. 75. Ther cummith a broke f from S. Esse 5. myles from 

[* Leland's blank.] [t MS. has "their help " twice.] 



a Portquin. 

b Identified by Mr. Robert Brown as St. Teath (Essays, p. 90). 
Leland perhaps confused the name with St. Issey, near which is also 
aTrelill, S.W. of Wadebridge. 

c Alan or Allen. Now the Camel r. d Helland. 

e Dunmeer. f Now the Allen r. 



PART II 179 

Wadebridge, and a litle above Wadebridge goith into Alane Cornwall, 
by the est side of the haven. Laynefiu. 

This broke risith a 2. miles above S. Esse by est north 
est. 

There cummith a brooke from Mr. Carnsey's house and 
goith into Alane by the est side of the haven a 3. miles 
lower then Wadebridge, and here is a creeke at the mouth 
of this brooke that ebbith and flowith up into the land. 

In the way passing from Dunmere bridge toward Bodmyn 
there rennith a praty broket thoroug a bridge of one stone 
arche a very litle way beyond Dunmer bridge : and a litle 
lower goith into Alane bynethe Dunmer bridge by the west 
ripe of Alane. 

This litle broke servith the milles and rennith by the est 
ende of the town of Bodmyn. a 

There cummith a brooke into Alaune about a 2. miles 
byneth Dunmere bridg on the west ripe. 

This brooke risith by south est : and at S. Laurence scant 
a mile owt of Bodmyn I passid over a bridge on this water 
in the way to Michale. 

From Wade Bridge to Padestow b a good quik fischar toun 
but onclenly kepte, a 4. miles. 

This toun is auncient bering the name of Lodenek in 
Cornische, and yn Englisch after the trew and old writinges 
Adelstow. La fine Athelstani locus. 

And the toune there takith King Adelstane for the chief 
gever of privileges onto it. 

The paroch chirch of Padestow is of S 

There use many Britons with smaul shippes to resorte to 
Padestow with commoditees of their countery and to by 
fische. 

The toun of Padestow is ful of Irisch men. 

Padestow is set on the weste side of the haven. 

Padestow toun is a ... miles from the very haven 
mouth. 

From the mouth of Padestow haven to S. Carantokes a fo. 76. 
. . . miles.* 

[* Leland has half a page blank here.] 



a Bodmin. b Padstow. 



i8o LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall. From Wadebridge to Dunmere a a 3. miles, and thens a 
mile to Bodmyn. 

Bodmyn hath a market on every Saturday lyke a fair for 
the confluence of people. 

The showe and the principale of the toun of Bodmyn is 
from west to est along in one streate. 

There is a chapel of S at the west ende of the 

toune. 

The paroch chirch standith at the est end of the town 
and is a fair large thyng. 

There is a cantuarie chapel at the thest ende of it. 

The late priory of Blake Chanons stoode at the est ende of 
the paroch chirch yard of Bodmyne. S. Petrocus was 
patrone of this and sumtyme dwellyd ther. 

There hath bene monkes, then nunnys, then seculare 
prestes, then monkes agayn, and last canons regular in S. 
Petrokes chirch yn Bodmyne. 

Willyam Warlewist Bisshop of Excestre erectid the last 
fundation of this priory : and had to hymself part of thaun- 
cient landes of Bodmyn monasterie. 

I saw no tumbes in the priory very notable, but Thomas 
Vivianes late prior ther and suffragane by the tile* of the 
bisshoprike of Megarense. 

The shrine and tumbe of S. Petrok yet stondith in thest 
part of the chirche. 

There was a good place of Gray Freres in the south side 
of Bodmyn town. 

fo- 77- One John of London a marchaunt was the beginner of 
this house. Edmund Erie of Cornewaul augmentid it. 

There lay buried in the gray freres Sir Hugh, and Sir 
Thomas Peverelle knightes, and benefactors to the house. 

There is another chapel in Bodmyn beside that in the 
west end of the toune, and an almose house, but not endowid 
with landes. 

The toune of Bodmyn takith King Edelstane for the chief 
erector and gyver of privileges onto it. 

From Bodmyn to S. Columbes b 8. miles.f 

[* Burton writes title. Stow omits these two sentences altogether.] 
[f Half a page blank in MS.] 



a Dunmeer. b S. Columb Major. 



PART II 181 

From Bodmyn to S. Laurence, wher is a pore hospital or Cornwall, 
lazar house beyond the bridge, about a mile. 

Thens a 5. miles by hilly and mory ground, and so ther 
left an hille caullid Castelle Endinas scant a mile of on the 
right hond. 

Thens to Michal, a a poore thorougfare, a 4. miles, by hilly 
and much morisch and no wood. 

Thens to Alaine b paroche a 6. miles. The ground about 
Alein berith good corne and grasse. 

Thens a mile to Guernek. c 

There is very good corne and pasture about Guernek. 

Guernek a late was one of the maner places of Bovilles 
alias Beville. This name cam out of Base Normandy, and 
long continuid ther ontylle of late tyme it felle onto 2. 
doughters of Boville, wherof the one was maryed onto 
Arundale of Trerise now lyving. 

The other to Graneville : and so they devide almost 300. 
markes of lande. fo. 78. 

a Mitchell or S. Michael. b S. Allen. c Gwarnick. 



NOTE 

PART III, although it continues the journey through Cornwall, does 
not strictly continue the narrative from the last page of Part II (181), 
but rather from the last line of p. 179. Pages 180, 181, contain notes 
which Leland amplifies into the narrative found on the first three pages 
of Part III. 

On the other hand, the narrative of journeys in Part III stops at the 
end of Hampshire (fo. 83), though it may include the fuller accounts of 
Glastonbury and Wells on fos. 86-88; the later pages are filled with 
notes which must have served as foundation for previous portions of the 
narrative in Part II of this volume, or are supplementary to informa- 
tion formerly given about the places therein named. These relate to 
the counties Somerset, pp. 137-149 (III, fos. 84-89), Dorset and 
Somerset, pp. 152-159 (III, fos. 90, 91), Devonshire, pp. 168-173 
(III, fos. 92, 93), and Cornwall, pp. 174-179 (III, fos. 94, 95). The 
notes are printed in a narrower form than the full text in order to dis- 
tinguish them more readily. 



PART III.* 
[THE ITINERARYOF JOHN LEILAND. 

THAT FAMOUS ANTIQUARY. 

Begunne about 1538. 30. H. 8].f 

FROM Wadebridge I rode a mile, and ther I passid over a Cornwall, 
brooke. fo. lm 

This broke a risith a 2. miles by est north est above St. 
Esse, and so cumming by S. Esse, rennith a 5. miles to this 
bridge, and so goith above Wadebridge into the streame of 
Alane. b 

There cummith a broke from Carnseys house, and goith 
into Alane by est ripe a myle above Padestow. 

This brooke is caullid the Laine.J 

From this bridge to Dunmere Bridge of 3. arches a 2. 
miles, under the which Alane rennith. 

A very litle beyond ys a bridge of one arche, under the 
which the broke that cummith from Bodmyn risith, and a 
litle beneth Dunmere Bridge goith ynto Alane. 

There is a nother broke cum [ing] from south west, that 
goith a 2. [miles] byneth this confluence into Al[ane] on 
the same side above W[ade Bridge. 

From Dunmere Bridge to Bodmyn a mile. 

The toune of Bodmyn lyith almost [in] lenghth by west 
and est. 

[There is a chapelle at the west end of the towne, at 

[* Leland's MS. vol. iii; Stow's copy, vol. iii, fos. 84-122.] 

[t This title is repeated here by Wm. Burton (see Part I, p. l), who 

signs his name to it.] 

[J The broke Layn into Alane near Bodmyn town. Marginal note in 

another hand. Now the Allen r.] 



Allen r. b Now the Camel r. 



1 84 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall, the est ende is the paroche churche with a Carnarie chapell 
in the churche yard.*] 

The priory stode at the est south est part of the paroch 
chirch yard. 

Ther lay buryed before the high altare in a high tumbe 
of a very darkesche gray marble one Thomas Viviane Prior 
of Bodmyn, and Suffragane Megarensis Episcopatus. He 
dyed not long sins. 

Ther was a place of Gray Freres by south on the market 
place of Bodmyn. One John of London a marchaunt 
began it. 

Edmunde Erie of Cornewaulle after was a great benefactor 
to it. 

There lay Sir Hugh Peverelle and Sir Thomas Peverelle, 
benefactors to the house. 

A ryver and a bridge. This ryver cummith from south 
est and goith into Alane a 2. miles above Padestow by the 
west ripe: and it ebbith and flowith up from Alane up into 
the [creke of this ryver]. 
fo. 2. From Bodmyn to S. Columbes an 8. miles. 

From Bodmyn to S. Laurence, wher a poor hospital or 
lazar house is, about a mile. One of the Peverelles gave a 
litle annuite onto this house. Here I passid over a stone 
bridge, and under it renneth a praty broke that cummith 
out of the hylles from south este, and goit into Alane a 
2. miles above Padestow by the weste ripe, and by the 
meanes of the se and creke it ebbith and flowith up into 
the creke of this ryver. 

From S. Laurence I passid by m[orisch] ground al baren 
of woodde a vj. [miles], leving about this vj. miles ende S. 
Col[umbes] about a 2. miles of on the right h[ond]. 

And ther about I lefte Castelle [En]dinas on the same 
hand, a good m[ile] of. But I saw no building on it, b[ut] 
an hille bering that name. 

Thens to [Mich]el a litle thoroughffare] a 2. [or 3. miles 
by] morisch gr[ound all baren of wood]. 

[* This passage was decaying in Burton's day, and is now entirely 
gone. From the words remaining even till B. Willis' time, it is seen 
that Stow reversed the first words, his version reading, "At the west 
end ther is a chapell." The above is nearly Stow's copy, but he omits 
Burton's " Carnarie," perhaps =cantuarte; see before, p. 180.] 



PART III 185 

Th[ens a 5. miles to a litle village and paroche churche Cornwall, 
cawlen Alein. And hereabout very good corne. And so 
a mile to Gwarnek, Mastar Arundels house]. 

This Arundale gyvith no part of the armes of great Arun- 
dale of Lanhiran by S. Columbes. 

But he told me that he thought that he cam of the Arun- 
dales in Base Normandy that were lordes of Culy Castelle, 
that now is descendid to one Mounseir de la Fontaine a 
French man by heire generale. 

This Arundale ys caullid Arundale of Trerise by a differ- 
ence from Arundale of Lanheron. 

Trerise is a lordship of his a 3. or 4. miles from Alein 
Chirch. 

Arundale of Trerise * had to his first wife one of the 2. 
doughters and heire of Boville alias a Beville, and Grane- 
ville had the other, and they had betwixt them litle lak of 
400. markes of landes by the yere in partition. 

The house that John Arundale of Trerise dwellith yn was 
Bovilles : and this Boville gave the ox in gules in his armes. 

There ys yet one of the name of the Bfeviles, a man] of 
a C. li. land, [purchased by the] grandfather of ... [Bevile 
now living.] This Beville hath . . . [ed] . . . [brother of 
John] Arundale of Trerise. 

Humfre Arundale a man of mene landes brother to old 
Arundale of Lanheron. 

Humfre Arundale a man of mene landes nephew to 
Arundale. 

Syr John Arundale sun and heir to Arundale of Lan- 
heron. 

Syr Thomas Arundale brother to Syr John. 

. . . Arundal brother to Syr John and Thomas hath land 
of his fathers . . . e. 

Arundale of . . . yn [F]almuth Haven cam out of the 
[hou]se of Lanheron. . . . [C]rihais wher Trevag[nio]n 
now dwellith was once the Arundalles. 

Armes in Castel Cairdin. fo. 3. 

Sir Wiliam Godolchan and Strowdes doughter his wif of 
Pernham in Dorsetshire. 

[* Leland wrote 3 rise, then inserted Tre above it.] 



i86 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall. Sr. Wiliam Godolchan and Margaret Glynne his first 
wife. Margaret was one of the 3. heires of Glyn of More- 
vale by low water toward S. Germans. Vivian of Trelaw- 
aren had another. Richard Kendale of Worngy had the 3. 

(Vivian's * grant-father was a man of mene land. 

Vivian's father was a galant courtier set forth by Somer- 
set Lord Herebert. 

Vivian now being heir hath sum more land then his father 
had, and yet he hath scant an hunderith marke by yere. 

This Vivian hath an uncle a lawier a man of mene 
landes. 

The heir of the eldest house of the Vivians is now Lord 
of Tredine Castelle at the southe west point of Cornewal. 
There was found in hominum memoria digging for the fox 
a brasse [pot] full of Romfan] mony.) 

William Godolchan the sunne and Blanc [h] Langdon 
his wife. 

Langdon dwellith at Kenerel by S. Germanes. 

S. Albine his stok cam out of Britaine. 

Ther is another house of the S. Albines in Somerset- 
shire. 

Graineville. 

Milatun dwellith at Pergroinswik. 

Fortescue of Phile. 

Fortescue of Preston. 

Fortescue of Sprillestun. V al in Devonshire. 

Fortescue of Wymestun. 

Robert Fortescue of WoodJ 

Fulford a Knight at Fulford in Devonshire. 

Campernulphus alias Chambe[rnoun] Dns olim de Tre- 
wardreth \etfundator prioratus\ monachorum^ [qui post do- 
mint erant ejusdem monaster. manerii. Campernulphus mint 
Dns de Modbyri in com. Devonian. He was lord of Bere, 
toward Excestre.] 

{Carow of Mohuns Oterey. 
Carow of Hacham by Torbay. 
Carow of Antony in Cornewaulle 
by Aisch. 

[* These notes on the Vivian family and its possessions are in the 
margin of the MS. page.] 



PART III 187 

( Vivian. Cornwall. 

al 3. in Menek. < Reskimer. 

( Erisi at Erisi in Menek. 

Cowlin at Treueglis. 

Cavel maried Sir William Godolcan sister. 

Petite was a man of very fair landes in Cornewaulle : and 
emong other thinges he was lord of the Isle of Pryven that 
now descendith to Kiligrew. 

Bewpray: id est de Bello prato. 

Archedecon. 

Tresinny at Penrine, a man of 40. mark landes, most part 
of it lyith about Padestow. 

Ex vita Sanctae Breacae. fo. 4. 

Barricus socius Patritii, ut legitur in vita S. Wymeri. 

S. Breaca nata in partibus Lagoniae 6 Ultoniae. 

Campus Breacae in Hibernia, in quo Brigida ora- 
torium construxit, et postea Monasterium in quo fuit 
et S. Breaca. 

Breaca venit in Cornubiam comitata multis Sanctis, 
inter quos fuerunt Sinninus Abbas, qui Romae cum 
Patritio fuit, Maruanus Monachus, Germmocus rex 
Elwen, Crewenna, Helena. 

Tecla * appulit sub Revyer cum suis, quorum partem 
occidit Tewder. 

Breaca venit ad Pencair. 

Breaca venit ad Trenewith. 

Breaca aedificavit eccL i?i Trenewith \ei\ Talmeneth, ut 
legitur in vita S, Elwini. 

Leyland. 

Pencair an hille in Pembro paroch, vulgo S. [Banka]. 

Revier Castellum Theodori in orientali parte ostii Hayle 
fluvii nunc, ut quidam putant, absorptum a sabulo. It was on 
the North Se. 

Trenewith a litle from the paroch [chirch] of Pembro, 
wher the paroch chirch [was] or ever it was set at Pembro. 

Talmeneth a mansi[on place in Pembro]. 

[* Leland first wrote Breaca, then corrected it to Tecla.} 



i88 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Castrum 
Conani. 



Cornwall. Cairdine an old mansion of the Cowlines, wher now Wil- 
liam Godalcan dwellith. 

Came Godalcan on the top of an hille, wher is a diche, 
and there was a pile and principal habitation of the Godol- 
cans. The diche yet apperith, and many stones of late time 
hath beene fetchid thens; it is a 3. miles from S. Michael's 
Mont by est north est. 

Cair Kenin, alias Gonyn et Conin, stoode in the hille of 
Pencair. There yet apperith 2. diches. 

Sum say that Conan had a sun caullid Tristrame. 

S. Germocus a a chirch 3. miles from S. Michael's Mont 
by est south est, and a mile from the se. his tumb is yet 
scene ther. 

S. Germok there buried. 

S. Germoke's chair in the chirch yard. 

S. Germoke's welle a litle without the chirch yard. 

Garsike, alias Pengarsike, nere the shore a 3. miles by est 
from S. Michaeles Mont. 

One Henry Force was lord of it. 

One of the Worthes wives gave [a late] this land with a 
doughter of [hers] to one of the Milatuns of Devonshir. 

[Milatum] hath Milatun yn Devonshire ; [Milatun] hath 
part of Mewis land [in Devonshire] by one of the heires 
gen[erale of Mewis of ... Mewes.] [ Urth, a daughter and 
heire of the Godalcans, married to Henry Force. Young 
Milatun hath Sir . . . Godalcaris daughter to his wife.']* 

Markesin b a great long toun burnid 3. aut 4. anno 
Henr. 8. a Gallis. 

The paroch chirch of Markine a mile of. A pere by the 
Mount. Markine b and the Mount be both in S. Hilaries 
paroche. 

Comes Moritoniae et Cornubiae made a celle of monkes 
in S. Michel Mont. 

This celle was ons gyven to a college in Cambridge. 

Syns given to Syon. 

A fair spring in the Mont. 

[* The words in italics were written in the margin by Leland, but 
are now destroyed ; Stow did not copy them, but Burton did so. ] 



fo. 5 . 



a Germoe. 



b Marazion. 



PART III 189 

Ludewin, alias Ludevaulles, wher, as sum suppose, was a Cornwall, 
castel a mile by west from Markesin, it longid to the Lord 
Brooke. 

Pensandes a 2. miles of by west; ther is a litle peere. 

Newlin a mile lower on the shore ; there is a peere. 

Newlin is an hamlet to Mousehole. 

Mousehole a mile lower. There is a pere. 

Mousehole in Cornish port enis, portits insulae. 

A bay from Newlin to Mousehole caullid Guaverslak. b 

A litle beyond Mousehole an islet and a chapel of S. 
Clementes in it. 

There hath bene much land [, building, and wood] de- 
vourid of the sea betwixt [Pen]sandes and Mousehole. 

There was found of late yeres syns spere heddes, axis for 
warre, and swerdes of coper wrappid up in lynid scant 
perishid, nere the Mount in S. Hilaries paroch in tynne 
workes. 

Ther is an old legend of S. Michael [that spekethe of] a 
tounelet in this part [now defaced and] lying under the 
water. 

King Ethelstan founder of S. Burien's College and giver 
of the privileges and sanctuarie to it. S. Buriana an holy 
woman of Irelond sumtyme dwellid in this place, and there 
made an oratory. 

King Ethelstane goyng hens, as it is said, onto Sylley 
and returning made ex voto a college wher the oratorie 
was. 

Tredine Castel ruines at the south west point of Penwith. 
Manifesta adhuc exstant vestigia. 

I hard say that one Myendu was lord of it. 

Myendu, blak mouth or chimne. 

Revier Castel almost at the est part of the mouth of Hayle 
ryver on the North Se, now, as sum think, drounid with sand. 
This was Theodore's Castelle. 

Combe Castelle, ubi tamen loci vestigia : and Pencombe a 
litle foreland about a mile upper then Kenor on Severn. 

Basset hath a right goodly lordship caullid Treheddy by 
this Cumb. 

Ther cummith a [goo]d brooke down by Combe. 

a Penzance. b Gwavas Lake. 



190 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall. Cayl Castelle a mile by est from river in S. Filakes a 
paroche. 

Nikenor* a 2. miles from Ryvier, b sumtyme a great toun, 
now gone. 2. paroche chirchis yet scene a good deale several 
on from the other, sumtyme yn the towne, but it is now 
communely taken to be in S. Guivian's c paroch, and ther 
cummith a broket to the sea. 

Carnbray on an hil a castelet or pile [of] Bassets a mile [to] 
west of Refvier] toun. Ther [was] sumtyme [a pa]rk now 
[defa]cid. 
fo. 6. SCYLLEY. 

There be countid a 140. islettes of Scylley that beregresse 
exceding good pasture for catail. 

S. Mary Isle is a 5. miles or more in cumpace, in it is a 
poore toun and a meately strong pile : but the roves of the 
buildinges in it be sore defacid and woren. 

The ground of this isle berith exceding good corn ; inso- 
much that if a man do but cast corn wher hogges have rotid 
it wyl cum up. 

Inisca\v d longid to Tavestoke, and ther was a poore celle 
of monkes of Tavestoke. Sum caulle this Trescaw, it is the 
biggest of the islettes, in cumpace a 6. miles or more. 

S. Martines Isle. 

S. Agnes Isle so caullid of a chapel theryn. 

The Isle of S. Agnes was desolatid by this chaunce in re- 
centi hominum memoria. The hole numbre almost of v. 
housoldes that were yn this isle cam to a mariage or a fest 
into S. Mary Isle, and goinge homewarde were al drownid. 

Ratte Islande. 

Saynct Lides Isle, wher yn tymes past at her sepulchre 
was gret superstition. 

There appere tokens in diverse [of] the islettes of habita- 
tions [now] clene doun. 

Guiles and puffinnes be t[aken in] diverse of these islettes. 

And plenty of conyes be in diverse of these islettes. 

[* Stowe adds " or Kenor towne." Leland himself has a note in the 
margin, " Cenor, and of sum caullid Kenor (? town) ubi pauca (vel) nulla 
vestigia." The margin is injured.] 



Phillacks. b Ryvier. c Gwithian. d Trescow. 



PART III 191 

Diverse of [these] islettes berith wyld garlyk. Cornwall. 

Few men be glad to inhabite these islettes, for al the 
plenty, for robbers by the sea that take their catail of force. 
These robbers be French men and Spaniardes. 

One Davers a gentilman of Wilshir, whos chief house is at 
Daundesey : a and Whitington, a gentilman of Glocestreshire, 
be owners of Scylley ; but they have scant 40. markes by yere 
of rentes and commodites of it. 

Scylley is a kenning, that is to say about an xx. miles from 
the very westeste pointe of Cornewaulle. 

Petites principal house was at Ardeueranian in Faulmouth 
Haven by the peninsula caullid Ardeuerameur. 

Petites landes be now descendid to Arundale of Trerise, 
Granville knight, and Killigrew. 

Thomas Levelis about S. Burianes. 

Kiwartun at Newlin by Mousehole. 

John Godolcan at Mousehole. 

Cauelle in S. Cua paroch at Trearach. 

Carnsew at Bokelley in S. Cua paroch. 

Nicolle in S. Tedy paroch by Bokelly. 

Trecarelle at Trecarelle by L[aun]ston. 

From Mr. Godalcan to Pembro wher the paroch chirch is* fo. 7. 
to Mr. Godolcan. 

The personage impropriate to Heyles in Glocestreshir. 

The South Se is about a mile from Pembro. 

From Mr. Godalcan to Lanante a 4. miles. 

No greater tynne workes yn al Cornwal then be on Sir 
Wylliam Godalcan's ground. 

Heyle Haven shoken with sand of tynne workes. 

Heile Ryver cummith of 4. principale heddes or brokes. 
One risith by south, and other by south west, another by 
south est, the 4. by north est. 

Passage at ebbe over a great strond : and then over Heyle 
River. 

Mr. Mohun hath a fair lordship by S. Erthe's caullyd . . . 

Trewinard a gentilman dwelling at Trewinard yn S. Erth 
paroch. 

[* There is no blank, but the word " belongs " seems to be omitted.] 



Dauntsey. 



192 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall. S. Erth a good mile above Lanant. a 

S. Erth bridge a good mile from Lannante of 3. archis a 
litle bynethe the paroche that stondith on the est side of the 
haven. 

This bridge was made a 200. yeres syns and hath a 3. 
arches, afore ther was a fery. 

Ther cam to this place ons, the haven beyng onbarrid 
and syns chokid with tynne workes, good talle shippes. 

There was a castel caullid Carnhangibes, as apperith, or 
maner place now clene doun, not far from the bridg. 

Dinham, as sum say, was lord of this place, and to the 
court therof be longging many knightes and gentilmens 
services. 

The toune of Lannant is praty, t[he church] therof is of 
S. Vnine. 

S. Jes a 2. miles or more from Lannant. The place that 
the chief of the toun hath and partely dooth stonde yn is a 
very peninsula, and is extendid into the se of Severn as a 
cape. 

This peninsula to cumpace it by the rote lakkith litle of 
a mile. 

Most part of the houses in the peninsula be sore oppressid 
or overcoverid with sandes that the stormy windes and rages 
castith up there. 

This calamite hath continued ther litle above 20. yeres. 

The best part of the toun now standith in the south part 
of the peninsula up toward another hille for defence from 
the sandes. 

There is a blok house and a fair pere in the est side of the 
peninsula, but the pere is sore chokid with sande. 

The paroch chirch is of Ja, a noble man's doughter of Ire- 
land and disciple of S. Barricus. 

Ja and Elwine with many other cam into Cornewaul and 
landid at Pendinas. 

This Pendinas b is the peninsula and stony rok wher now 
the toun of S. Jes stondith. 

fo. 8. One Dinan a great lord in Cornewaul made a chirch at 
Pendinas at the request of Ja, as it is written yn S. Jes 
legende. 

a Uny Lelant. b Pendeen. 



PART III 193 

Ther is now at the very point of Pendinas a chapel of Cornwall. 
S. Nicolas, and a pharos for lighte for shippes sailing by 
night in those quarters. 

The town of S. Jes is servid with fresch water of brokettes 
that rise in the hilles therby. 

The late Lord Brooke was lord of S. Jes, now Blunt Lord 
Monjoy and young Poulet. 

S. Piranes a in the sandes is an xviij. miles from S. Jes 
upward on Severne. 

And S. Carantokes b is a 2. mile's above that on the shore. 

Els litle or no notable thing on the shore for so farre. 

The shore from S. Jes is sore plagued to S. Carantokes 
with sandes. 

There dwellith a gentilman of a 50. markes land by yere 
caullid Glynne yn S. Jes. 

From Mr. Godalcan's to Trewedenek c about a 4. miles, 
wher Thomas Godalcan [yonger] sun to Sir Willyam build- 
ith a praty house, and hath made an exceding fair blo[cke] 
house [and] mille in the rokky valley therby. 

Alle the brookes that cummith from the hilles thereabout 
gather [toward] this botom and go into Lo Poole d a 2. 
[miles lower]. 

Lo Poole is a 2. miles in lenght, and betwixt it and the 
mayn se is but a barre of sand. And ons in 3. or 4. yeres 
what by the wait of the fresch water and rage of the se it 
brekith out, and then the fresch and salt water metyng mak- 
ith a wonderful noise. But sone after the mouth is barrid 
again with sande. At other tymes the superfluite of the 
water of Lo Poole drenith out thorough the sandy barre into 
the se. 

If this barre might be alway kept open it wold be a goodly 
haven up to Hailestoun. 6 

The commune fisch of this pole is trout and ele. 

Hailstoun, alias Hellas, stondith on an hil, a good market 
toun having a mair and privileges, and coinage twis a yere 
for tynne * blokkes. 

[* Leland repeats "for tynne."] 



a S. Piran. b Crantock. c ? Trewennack. 

d Loo Pool. e Helston. 



194 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Cornwall. There hath bene a castelle. 

One paroch chirch at the north west ende of the towne. 

An hospital of S. John yet stonding at the west south 
Kylligrin. west end of the town, of the fundation of one Kylligrin.* 

The fresch water that goith to Lo Poole cummith down 
on the west side of the toun, but not even hard by it. 

Wike a mille water cummith within about half a mile [by 
the east side of Hailstoun]. 

fo. 9. From Hailstoun to Mogun b bridge about a 2. miles dim. 
Thorough this bridge rennith at ebbe a litle brooke that 
risith a ... miles upper by weste. 

It ebbith and flowith aboute a mile above this bridge. 

I saw on the lifte hand a litle beside this bridge the prin- 
cipal arme of Hailford Haven c caullid Wike, the wich flow- 
ith about a 3. miles upland by north to Wike mille, and this 
arme is beten with 2. litle fresch brokes bering the name of 
Wyke. 

A flite shot beyond this bridge I came to a causey of 
Gaire bridge, stone, in the midle wherof was a bridge having but one arche. 
It flowith above this bridge : and at the ebbe there resortith 
a broke thorowgh this bridge that cummith doun from south 
weste. A litle beneth these bridges both thes brokes in one 
ren into Wik water. 

These bridges be a 4. miles or more from the mouth of 
Heilford haven. 

About a 2. miles beneth this confluence rennith up on 
the est side of the haven a creeke of salt water caullid 
Poulpere (Poul WhevereP 1 about half a mile lower, having a 
brooke resorting to it) and hemmith in a p[eace] of Mr. 
Reskymer's parke at Merdon, e so that with this creke and 
the main [se] f water of the haven apon a 3. partes the 
parke is strenkthyd. 

There is on the same side half a [mile lower anojther 
creke callid Cheilow [alias Calm . . ansak.] f 

[* Stow writes this Killigrew.~\ 

[t The word se is now gone, nor does Stow give it, but Willis 
Brown and Hearne both saw and copied it.] 



a Gweek r. 

d Polwheveral. 



b Mawgun. 
6 Merthen. 



c Helford r. 
f Calamansack. 



PART III 



195 



The be 4. crekes on the south* side of the haven thus Cornwall, 
namid : (eche of thes crekes hath a broket resorting to them). 
Pen Kestel the first from the mouth, 4. miles beneth the bridges, 
whither shipes do resorte, and here is a trajectus from the 
one side of the haven to the other. This is a mile from the 
haven mouth, and here the shippes communely do ly. 

Caullons half a mile upward. 

Then Mogun a 2. miles higher, wher the bridge is with the Mogun bridge. 
broken stone. S. Mogun's chirch up apon Mogun creeke. 

Gaire, wher the bridg is with the causey and one arch : so Gaire bridge. 
that this brekith as a creek out of Mogun. S. Mawnoun a 
chirch at the very point of the haven on the side toward Fal- 
muth, a se marke. 

Gelling b Creeke agayne S. Mawnoun's on the other side, 
hard without the haven mouth. Gilling Creke brekith at the 
hed into 2. crekes. 

The patronage of S. Antonies longid to Trewardreth. 

[St.] Antonie's chirch [or c]hapel beside at ... sand. 
St.] Antonies standith in the point of the land of Gilling 
Creke, and the mouth of [Hajilford Haven. c 

S. Keverin's d 2. miles from Gilling Creek and not a mile 
from the se. 

S. Keverin's longgid to Bewle Abbay in Hampshir [a 
sancjtuarie privi[le]gid at S. Keverin's. 

S. Piranes, alias Keuerine, wher the sanctuarie was, . . . 
mile from S. Antonies: and not a mile from the main se. 

Mr. Reskimer hath a maner caullid by his own name a 
mile from Moreden. 

There hath beene a fair house, but it felle to ruine in tyme 
of mynde. 

Mr. Reskimer berith in his armes a wolphe. 

One of the Reskimers gave land to S. Keverines, for sus- 
tentation of certein poore folkes. 

From Gaire Bridg to Tremain, wher Mr. Reskimeur now 
dwellith a good mile. 

[* Leland first wrote west, then corrected it to south in his usual 
manner by writing the one word above the other, which Stow and 
others have copied as south-west. ,] 



Mawnan. 



b Gillan. 



Helford r. 



d S. Keverne. 



i 9 6 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall. This litle house longgid to Tremain, and in tyme of mynde 
cam by heire general to one Tretherde. 

This Trederth hath beside landes and a praty maner place 
at ... 

John Riskimer's mother was Tretherth's [daughter.] 

[There is in] Devonshir one of the Tremains, [a man of 
faire landes .] 

fo. 10. From Tremayn over Heilford Haven to Morden a wher 
Mr. Reskimer hath a ruinus maner place and a fair park 
welle woddid, wherof 3. partes is with the principal streme 
of the haven, and a creke caullid Poole Penreth, hemmid yn. 

Morden in Constentine paroch. 

Then I rode half a mile and more of, from Morden over 
the fresch water that riseth no far distance of yn the hilles 
and goit strait into Poulpenrith Creeke. 

About half a mile farther I rode over an arme of the 
broke that cummith doun to Poulwitheral b Creeke, and sone 
after I rode over the greater arme of the same broke, the 
salt arme lying in the botom hard under it. 

Then I rode a 4. miles by morery and rokky ground. 

And then within the space of half a mile I cam to S. 
Budocus chirch. This Budocus c was an Irisch man and cam 
into Cornewalle and ther dwellid. 

A litle from the chirch there enterid betwixt ij. hilles on 
the shore a shorte creke lyke an havenet, but it was barrid. 

And a quarter of a mile farther I cam to Arwennak Mr. 
Keligrewis place, stonding on the brimme or shore within 
Fale[muth] Haven. 

This place hath beene of continuaunce the auncient house 
of the Killigrewes. 

There was an other house of the Keligrewis descending 
out of this : and it was in the toun of Penrine. Now both 
these houses be joynid yn one. 

Falenmth The very point of the haven mouth being an hille wheron 

Haven. the king hath buildid a castel is caullid Pendinant d and 

longgith to Mr. Keligrewe. It is a mile in cumpace by the 

cumpace * and is almost environid with the se, and where it 

[* Stow omits by the cumpace , which seem redundant.] 



a Merthen. b Polwheveral. c Budock. d Pendennis. 



PART III 197 

is not the ground is so low, and the cut to be made so litle Cornwall, 
that it were insulatid. 

There lyith a litle cape or foreland within the haven a 
mile dim. almost again Mr. Kiligrewis house caullid Pen- 
fusis. a 

Bytwixt this cape and Mr. Keligrew's house one great 
arme of the haven rennith up to Penrine toun. 

Penrine b 3. good miles from the very entery of Falemuth 
Haven and 2. miles from Penfusis. 

There dwellith an auncient gentilman caullid Trefusis at 
this point of Penfusis. 

From S. Mawnon to Pendinas by water a 4. miles. The fo. 11. 
king hath set his castel on Pendinas at one of the pointes 
of Falemuth Haven. 

Pendinas almost an isle. 

Levine Prisklo, alias Levine Pole, c betwixt S. Budocus and 
Pendinas; it were a good haven but for the barre of sande. 

The first creke or arme that castith outh on the north 
west side of Falemuth goith up Perin, d and at the ende it 
brekith into 2. [arjmes, the lesse to the college of Glasenith, 
unus viridis nidus^ or Wag Mier * at Perin, the other to S. 
Gluvias the paroch chirch of Penrine therby. 

Owt of eche side of Penrine Creke br[eaketh] out an arme 
or ever it cum to Penrfin.] 

Stakes and foundation of stone sette yn the creeke at 
Penrine afore the toun a litle lower then wrier it brekith into 
armes. A gap in the midle of the stakes and a chain. 

Good wood about the south and west syde of Penryn. 

One Water Goodf Bisshop of Excestre made yn a more 
caullid Glesnith in the botom of a park of his at Penrine a 
collegiate chirch with a provost, xij. prebendaries, and 
other ministers. This college is stronly wallid and incastel- 
atid, having 3. strong towers and gunnes at the but of the 
creke. 

Betwixt the point of land of Trefusfes and the] point of 

[* I.e. a quagmire or marsh. L. T. S.] 

[t Burton crossed through Good in Leland's MS., and wrote Brouns- 
comb over it, correcting the error. There was no Bp. Good of Exeter. ] 



a Trefusis Point. b Penryn. c ? Swan Pool. d Penryn r. 



198 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall. Restronget Wood is Milor [Creek,] and ther is S. Milor's 
chirch, and be[yond the] chirch is a good rode for shippes. 

Milor Creke goith up a mile. 

Good wood in Restronget. 

The next creek beyond the point in Stronget Wood is 

caullid Restronfget,] and going ij. miles into the land and 

brekith into 2. armes, and St. [Pe . . .] chirch standith in 

e^ the land betwixt; and on the arme is a stone caullid [Carr] 

Bridg in the way thens to Truru. 

Betwixt Restrongith Creke [and the] Creeke of Truru be 
two crfeekes that ar caullid Feoke, and ther is S. Scaf . . . 
cawlyd S. Cay.] & 

Trure Creeke is next, and goith up a 2. miles creking up 
from the principal streme. 

This creke brekith withyn half a mile of Truru and castith 
yn a creke westward by Newham wood. 

This creke of Truru afore the very toun is devidid into 2. 
partes, and eche of them hath a brook cumming doun, and 
a bridge, and the toun of Truru bytwixt them booth. The 
White Freres House was on the west arme b yn Kenwyn 
streate. 

Kenwen Streat is severid from Truru with this arme : and 
Clementes Streat by est is seperate on the est side from 
Truru with the other arme. 

One paroche chirch in Truru self. 

Kenwen and Clementes Streates hath several chirchis, 
and bere the name of the sainctes of the paroch chirchis. 

Coynage of tynne at Midsomer and Michelmas at Truru. 

Truru is a borow toun and privilegid. 

Ther is a castelle a quarter of a mile by west out of Truru 
longging to the Erie of Corn wale now clene doun. The site 
therof is now usid for a shoting and playing place. Out of 
the body of Tru[ro] Creke on the est side brekith a crek 
estwarde a mile from Truru : and goith up a [mile diml\ to 
Tresilian Bridge [of stone. Ther is a paroche of S. Michell]. 
fo. 12. At the entery and mouth of this creeke is a rode for 
shippes caullid Maples Rode, [here] faught a late xviij. sail 
of marchant Spaniardes, and 4. shippes of warre of Depe. 
The Spaniardes chac'd hither the French men. 

a Old Kea. b Kenwyn r. 



PART III 



199 



A mile and an half above the mouth of Truru Creke caullid Cornwall. 
Lan Moran a Creke [of] the chirch of S. Moran. This creke 
goith into the land a quarter of a mile from the maine streme 
of the haven. 

The mayne streame goith up 2. miles above Moran Creke, 
ebbing and flowing, and a quarter of a mile [above] is the 
toune of Tregony, vulgo Treg[ny;] here is a bridge of stone 
aliquot {arcuum}^ apon Fala River. b 

Fala River risith a mile or more of Rochehille, and goith 
by Gr[anpond]borow, wher is a bridge of stone [over] it. Pons grand; 
Graunpond a 4. miles from [Rac . ..] and 2. litle mile from 
Tregony. Mr. Tregyon hath a maner place richely begon 
and amply but not en[ded] caullid Wuluedon, alias Goldoun. 
Fala Ryver betwixt Graunpond and Tregony. 

From Tregony to passe doune by the body of the haven 
of Falamuth to the mouth of Lanyhorne Creeke or pille on 
the south est side of the haven is a 2 miles. 

This creke goith up half a mile from the principale streame 
of the haven. 

At the hed of this creeke standith the Castelle of Lany- 
horne sumtyme a castel of a 7.* tourres, now decaying for 
lak of coverture. It longgid as principal house to the arche- 
decons. 

This landes descendid by heires general to the best Cor- 
betes of Shorpshir,f and to Vaulx of Northamptonshir. 

Vaulx part syns bought by Tregyon of Cornewaul. 

From Lanyhorne Pille is a place or point of land of 40. 
acres or therabout as a peninsula, and is caullid Ardeuera- 
ueur, c and is a mile from Lanyhorn Creke; and the water 
or creke that cummith or rennith into the south south est 
part is but a litle thyng, as of an half mile up into the land. 
The creke that hemmith this peninsula yn on the west south 
west side is the greatter. [ The mayn land betwixt Crameur 
Creke and this . . .] 

From the mouth of the west creke of this peninsula to S. 

[* Leland first wrote an 8, then corrected the figure to 7.] 
[t I.e., Shropshire.] 



Lamorran. 



b Fal r. 



c Ardevora. 



200 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall. Juste Creeke a 4. miles [or more. In this creke is S. Justes, 

paroche church to S. Mawns.] u * 

fo. 13. From S. Juste Pille or Creke to S. Ma[nditus] Creeke is 
a mile dim. 

The point of the land betwixt S. Just Cr. and S. Maws is 
of sum caullid Pendifnas.] on this point stondith as yn the 
entery of S. Maws Creek, wher is a castelle or forteres late 
begon by the king. 

This creke of S. Maws goith up a 2. myles by est north 
est into the land, and so far it ebbith and flowith, and ther 
is a mylle dryven with a fresch brook that resortith to the 
creke. 

Scant a quarter of a mile from the castel on the same side 
upper into the land is [a] praty village or fischar toun with a 
p[ere] cawllid S. Maws, and there is [a chajpelle of hym and 
his chaire of stone a [litle withjout, and his welle. 

They caulle this sainct there S. Mandite, he was a bisshop 
in Britain and paintid as a schole-master. 

Half a mile from the hedde of this downward to the haven 
is a creke [in man]ner of a poole with a round marke made 
in th[e] charte on the which is a mille grinding] with the 
tyde. 

A myle beneth that on the south side enterythe a creke 
half a mile, and this is [barrid only] by a smaul sand banke 
from the [main se a mile benethe this and almost agayn 
S. Maw, a creke or poole goynge vp a litle in . . , at the but 
of this is a myle] f and a celle of S. Antonie longging to 
Plympton Priory: and here of late dayes lay 2. chanons of 
Plymptoun Priory. 

All the crekes of Fala welle woddid. 

From S. Antonies point at the mayn se to Penare Point b 
a 3. miles dim. 

Gref Islet c lyith scant half a mile est of Penare wherin 
breadeth guiles and other se foulles. 

This Gref lyith north from the Forne, a point or foreland 

[* The bottom of fo. 12 is torn and cut, so that a marginal addition 
and the last line are here supplied from Burton and Stow.] 
[t ? mille.] 

* S. Mawes. * Nare Head. Gull Rock. 



PART III 201 

in Britain, bytwene the wich is the entery of the sieve of the Cornwall, 
occean. 

And betwixt Forne and Grefe is a v. kennynges, and here 
is breviss. trajectus by estimation from Cornewaulle into 
Britaine continentes. 

About a myle by west of Penare is a force nere the shore 
in the paroche of S. Geron's. a It is single dikyd, and within 
a but shot of the north side of the same apperith an hole of 
a vault broken up by a plough yn tylling. This vault had 
an issue from the castelle to the se. [A mile] dim. from this 
[force] is another in the side of an hille. 

And a litle by north of the castelle a 4. or 5. borowes or 
cast hilles. 

... are a quarter . . . from the lordship of ... thy, 
sumtyme[the Archd]ekens now [Corbett]es and Trefgions.] * 

Dudeman Foreland or Point is about a v. miles from Grefe. 

No wood on the very cost from S. Antonies Point to 
Dudeman. b Inward yn the land [some] woodde. . . . 

This Chapelle Land or Point is in the park of Bodrugam. fo. 14. 
And yn this park was the house of Sir Henry Bodrugam, a 
man of auncient stok atteyntid for takyng part with King 
Richard the 3. agayn Henry the 7. and after flying into Ire- 
land Syr Richard Eggecomb, father to Sir Pers Eggecombe, 
had Bodrigan and other parcelles of Bodrigan's landes. 

And Trevagnon had part of Bodrigan's landes, as Reston- 
get and Newham, both in Falamuth Haven. 

From Chapel Land to Pentowen c a sandy bay, wither to 
fischar bootes repair for a socour, a 2. myles. 

Here issuith out a praty ryver that cum[mith] from S. 
Austelles about a 2. miles dim. [of.] And there is a bridge 
of stone of the name of the town. 

This ryver rennith under the west side of [the] hille that 
t[he poore tour] t of St. Austelles stondith on. 

[* The margin in which this sentence is written is much injured 
here. Of the sentence below it only a few words could be read even in 
Hearne's days, viz. : . . . itle sandy . . . lid Portllu . . . es, from 
. . . here . . . Stow gives no help here, as he omitted these side 
portions and several lines. The bottom line is also cut off.] 

[t Stow has these words, but the space in the MS. would only allow 
four.] 

a Gerrans. b Dodman Point. c Pentewan. 



202 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall. At S. Austelles is nothing notable but the paroch chirch. 

From Pentowen to the Blake Hedd a[bout] a mile. 

There is a fair quarre of whit fre stone on the shore 
[rokkes] betwixt Pentowen and Blak-Hed, [where]of sum be 
usid in the inward partes of S. [Mawre] Forteresse. The 
residew of [more tone] * and slate. And Pendinas Castelle a 
[is all of more] stone except the [fillinge]. 

And in the cliffes betwen the Blak-Hed and Tywartraith 
Bay is a certeyn cave, wheryn apperith thinges lyke images 
giltid. And also in the same cliffes be vaynis of metalles, as 
coper and other. 

There is a mile from the entery of Tywartraith Bay up yn 
the land, at the but ende of it a paroch chirch of S. Blase, 
and ther is a new bridge of stone of the sainctes name over 
a broke that ther cummith into the bay. 

Tywardreth, a praty toun but no market, lyith a quarter 
of a mile from the est side of the bay. 

Ther is a paroch chirch, and ther was a Priory of Blak 
Monkes, celle sumtyme to a house in Normandy. 

Sum say Campernulphus was founder of this Priory. Sum 
say that Cardinham was founder. Arundale of Lanhern was 
of late taken for foundder. 

I saw a tumbe in the west part of the chirch of the Priori 
with this inscription: 

Haec est Tumba Robert!//// Wilihelmi. 

This Robert Fitz Williams was a man of fair landes tern- 
pore Edwardi 3. reg. Ang. 

From Tywardreth Toun to Fawey b Toun a ij. miles. 

The point of land on the est side of Tyward[raith Bay] is 
caullid Penarth-Point. c 

fo. 15. From Penarth to the haven mouth of Fawey is about a 2. 
miles. 

Ther is at the west point of the haven of Fawey mouth a 

[* Probably stone. Stow was doubtful, the word was at the edge of 
the page.] 



a Pendennis castle. b Fowey. c ? Gribbin Head. 



PART III 203 

blok house devisid by Thomas Treury and made partely by Cornwall, 
his cost, partely by the town of Fawey. 

A litle higher on this point of the hille is a chapel of 
S. Catarine. 

And hard under the roote of this hille a litle withyn the 
haven mouth is a litle bay or creke bering the name of 
Catarine. 

About a quarter of a mile upper on this the west side of 
Fawey Haven is a square toure .of stone for defence of the 
[haven]* made about King Edward the 4. tym, and litle above 
this tower on the same side is Fawey town lying [alonge the] 
shore and buildid on the side of a grfeat] slatty rokkid hille. 

In the midle of the toun apon the shfore] self is a house 
buildid quadrantlyin [the] haven which shodowith the shippes 
in the haven above it from 3. partes [of the] haven mouth 
and defendith them from stormes. 

The name of the toun of Fawey is in Cornisch Couwhath.f 
It is set on the north side of the haven, and is set hangging 
on a maine rokky hille, and is in length about a quarter of a 
mile. 

The towne longgid to one Caridinham, a man of great 
fame; and he gave it to Tywartraith Priorie, of the which 
sum say that Cardinham was founder, sum say Campernulph 
of Bere. 

But at this gift Fawey was but a smaul fischar toun. 

The paroch chirch of Fawey is of S. Fimbarrus, and was 
impropriate to the priorie of Tywartraith. 

The glorie of Fawey rose by the warres in King Edward 
the first and the thirde and Henry the v. day, partely by 
feates of warre, partely by pyracie, and so waxing riche 
felle al to marchaundice: so that the town was hauntid 
with shippes of diverse nations, and their shippes went to al 
nations. 

The shippes of Fawey sayling by Rhie and Winchelsey 
about Edward the 3. tyme wold vale no bonet beyng re- 
quirid, wherapon Rhy and Winchelsey men and they faught, 
wher Fawey men had victorie, and therapon bare their armes 

[* Leland omitted this word.] 

[t Stow and Burton read Conwhath. Leland however made his u 
and n clearly distinct. ] 



204 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall, mixt with the armes of Rhy and Winchelsey : and then rose 

[the name of the Gallaunts of Fawey.J 

fo. 1 6. The French-men diverse tymes assailid this town, and last 
most notably about Henry the vj. tyme: when the wife of 
Thomas Treury the 2. with her men repellid the French 
out of her house in her housebandes absence. Wherapon 
Thomas Treury buildid a right fair and stronge embatelid 
towr in his house: and embateling al the waulles of the 
house in a maner made it a castelle: and onto this day it is 
the glorie of the town building in Faweye. 

In Edwarde the 4. day 2. stronge towers made a litle 
beneth the toun, one on eche side of the haven, and a 
chayne to be drawen over. 

When warre in Edward the 4. dayes seasid bytwene the 
French men [and Eng]lisch, the men of Fawey, usid [to pray], 
kept their shippes and assailid the French-men in the sea 
agayn King Edwardes commaundement; wherapon the 
capitaines of the ship[pes of] Fawey were taken and sent 
[to Lon]don, and Dertemouth men commaun[ded] to fetche 
their shippes away; at which tyme Dertmouth men toke them 
in Fawy, and toke a[way,] as it is said, the great [chein that 
was made to be drawen over the haven from towr to towre. 
Thomas Treury now livinge and the towne made a blocke- 
house on S. Catarine's Hille botom. 

From Fowey town end by north in the haven is Chagha 
Mille Pille a litle uppeward on the same side. 

A good mile above Chagha Mille Pille is on this west side 
Bodmyn Pille having for wares then to be caried to Bodmyn. 

A quarter of mile from Bodmyn Crek mouth up into the 
haven on the same side is Gullant a a fischar tounlet. 

From Gullant to Lantian Pille or Crek about half a mile : 
it goith up but a litle into the land. 

Barret a man of mene landes dwellith bytwixt Gullant and 
Lantient Pille. 

Lantiant lordship longid to the Erie of Saresbyri. 

From Lantiant Pille to Bloughan Pille or Creke nere a 
mile, it crekith up but a litle. 

[Carteis a] gentilfman almost] of an [100. mark] land 
dwell[ith bytwixt Blow]ghan and [Penk]nek by [Lost]withiel. 

a Golant. 



PART III 205 

From Bloughan to Lostwithiel scant a mile on the prin- Cornwall, 
cipal streame of Fawey River. It hath ebbid and flowen 
above Lostwithiel, but now it flowith not ful to the toun. In 
Lostwithiel is the Shir Haul of Cornewaul. 
Therby is also the Coynege Haul for tynne. 
The towne is privilegid for a borow : and there is wekely 
a market on Thursday. 

Richardus Rex Ro. comes Cornubiae privilegid this toun. 

[The paroche is of S. Barpholome.* There comithe a 
broket from west throghethe syde of Lostwithel; and goithe 
est into Fawey River devydinge Penkhek] from Lostwithiel. fo. 17. 

Penknek is yn Lanleversey paroch. a 

The park of Restormel is hard by the north side of the 
town of Lostwithiel. 

Tynne workes in this park. 

Good woode in this parke. 

Ther is a castel on an hil in this park wher sumtymes 
the Erles of Cornewal lay. The base court is sore defacid. 
The fair large dungeon yet stondith. A chapel cast out of 
it, a newer work then it, and now onrofid. A chapel of the 
Trinite in the park not far from the castelle. 

The castel of Cardinham a 4. miles or more by north 
from Lostwithiel. 

To this castelle longith many knightes services : Arundale 
of Lanhern, the Lord Souch, Compton and . . . partith 
Cairdinhams landes. 

The ryver of Fawey risith in Fawey More about a 2. 
miles from Camilf [ord] by south in a very wagmore in the 
s[ide] of an hil. 

Thens to Draynesbridge of flat more stones. 

Thens to Clobha Bridg drounid [with] sand ij. miles and 
more. 

Thens to Lergen Bridge of 2. or [3.] arches a mile lower. 

Thens to Newbridg of stone archfid] a 2. miles. 

[Thence to Resprin bridge of stone arched, alias Laprin, 
about 2 myles.] 

A litle above Lostwithiel Bridge of stone the ryver of 

[* Brown Willis has Bartholomew.'} 



a Lanlivery. 



206 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall. Fawey brekith into 2. armes. Wherof at this day the lesse 
goith to the ston bridg, the bigger to a wodde bridge even 
again and but a litle way of from the stone bridg, and after 
a praty way lower the armes cum agayn to one botom. 

The great part of Fawey Water is by policie turnid from 
the stone bridg for choking of it and for to put the sande 
of from the botom of the toun. The stone bridge in tyme 
of memorie of men lyving was of arches very depe to the 
sight, the sande is now cum to within a 4. or 5. fote of the 
very hedde of them. The sande that cummith from tynne 
workes is a great cause of this : and yn tyme to cum shaul 
be a sore decay [to] the hole haven [of] Fawey. [Bajrges 
yet cum [with] marchanties [with]in half a [mile] of Lost- 
withiel. 

From Lostwithiel doun along Fawey Ryver to S. Winnous a 
an abbate chirch a good myle. 

By the wich chirch of old tyme enhabitid a gentilman 
Joannes de S. Winnoco. 

After the Lordes Hastinges wer owners of it : and then 
sold to Guiliam Loures gret grauntfather now lyving. 

This Lower hath to wife one of the 2. doughters of Thomas 
Treury. 

By this chirch is a warfe to make shippes on. Much good 
wood at S. Ginokes a and on the other side of the haven 
agayn it. 

From S. Guinows a chirch to the point of S. Winows 
Wood half a mile. 

Here goith yn a salt crek half a mile on the est side of 
the haven, and at the hed of it is a bridge caullid Lerine b 
Bridge, and the creeke berith also the name of Lerine. 

At the north side of this Lerine Creke almost at the hedd 
is T[r]enthey, Laurence Courtineis house. It longgid ons 
to Stonnard, sins to Cayle : and now last to [the Courteneis 
of the house of Devonshir descendinge.] 

fo. 1 8. From Lerine Creke to S. Carac Pille or Creeke about half 
a mile lower on the said est side of the haven, it goith a 
mile dim. up into the land. 

In midle of this creke on the north side was a litle celle 
of Sainct Cyret and Julette longging to Montegue Priory. 

a S. Winnow. b Lerryn. 



PART III 207 

From the mouth of S. Carak Pille to Poul-Morlande a Cornwall. 
Pille about a mile, it goith scant a quarter of a mile up into 
the lande: and at the hedde goith into ij. armes. 

From the mouth of Poulmorland to Bodenek b village half 
a mile, wher the passage is to Fawey, and from . . . 

Mr. Mohun hath a maner place caullid the Haul on an 
hil above this village. 

From Bodenek to Pelene Point a quarter of a mile, and 
here enterith a pille or c[reek] half a mile up into the 
land. 

At the hed of this pille is a chapel [of St.] Wilow, and by 
it is a place caullid [Lamejlin late longging to Lamelin, now 
to [Trejlauny by heir general. 

Trelauny's house is at Meneheneth by [Liscard]. 

On the south side of this creke is the paroch chirch 
caullid Lanteglise c juxta Fawey being the paroch chirch of 
Bodenek and Poulruan. 

From the mouth of this creke to [Poul]ruan, a good 
fischar toun, [a quarter of a mile. Hereby on the hill is a 
chapell of S. Salvator.] 

And at this Poulruan toun is a tower of force marching 
again the tower on Fawey side. 

Ther was ons, as it [is] said, a chaine to go over the 
haven from tower to toure. 

The haven mouth of Fawey is a 2. bow shottes of. 

The very point of land at the est side of the mouth of this 
haven is caullid Pontus Crosse, d vulgo Paunch Crosse. 

From Lostwithiel to Casteldour now clene doun 3. good 
miles by plentiful ground of corn and gresse. 

Casteldour longgid to the Erie of Saresbyri. 

A mile of is a broken crosse thus inscribid : Conomor et 
filius cum Domina Clusilla. 

From Pontus Crosse to Poulpirrhe 6 about a vj. miles, wher 
is a litle fischar toun and a peere, with a very litle creke and 
a brooke. 

There is a crikket betwixt Poulpirrhe and Low. 

From Poulpirrhe to Low f Creeke dry at half ebbe a 2. 
miles. 

a Penpoll. b Bodinnick. c Lanteglos. 

d Pont. Polperro. f Looe. 



2o8 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall. On eche side of the entery of this creke is a toun, the 
one caullid Estlow, the other Westlow. a Estlow is a praty 
market toun. 

There is a great bridge of a 12. arches over Low Creke to 
go from the one toun of Low to the other. 

Good wood about Low Creke. 

Ther is a maner place caullid Trelaun about this Low 
Creke, sumtyme Bonvilles, now the Marquise of Dorsetes. 

Salmon taken yn this creke. 

Kendale and Code, gentilmen, dwelle in Morel paroch 
on the est side of this creke. 

From Low Creeke to Seton b Bridge of stone of a 2. archis 
and Setoun Ryver a 3. miles. 

[From Seton to Ramehed c about a 9. miles.] 
fo. 19. From Fawey over the haven to Bodenek a fischar toun, 
wherby Mr. Mohun hath a manor place. 

Thens a v. miles by very plesaunt inclosid ground prately 
wooddid plentiful of corn and grasse. 

Then a 3. miles by mory and hethy ground. 

Then 2. miles by hilly and woddy ground to Liscard. 

About half a mile or I cam to Liskard I passid in a wood 
by a chapel of owr Lady caullid our Lady in the Park, wher 
was wont to be gret pilgrimage. 

This chapelle of ease longgith to Liskard, and so doth 2. 
or 3. more. 

Liskard stondith on rokky hilles, and is the best market 
toun at this day in Corn waul saving Bodmyn. 

In this toun the market is kept [on] Monday. 

The paroch chirch is of S. Martine, [ston]dith on an hil, 
and is a fair large thing. 

The personage is impropriate to ... 

There was a castel on an hille in the toun side by north 
from S. Martin. It is now al in ruine. Fragments and peaces 
of waulles yet stond. The site of it is magnificent and [look- 
eth] over al the toun. 

This castelle was the erles of [Cornwall ; it is now usyd 
somtym for a pound for catell.] 

The towne knowlegith fredom and privileges by the gift 
of Richard King of Romanes and Erie of Cornewaul. 

a East Looe, West Looe. b Seaton. c Rame Head. 



PART III 209 

Ther is a goodly conduct in the midle of the town very Cornwall, 
plentiful of water to serve the town. 

From Liskard to Fawey 10. 

From Liskard to Launstoun 12. miles. 

From Liskard to Lostwithiel 10. 

From Liskard to Bodmyn 10. 

From Liskard to Low Market 7. 

From Liskard to S. Germaines a 6. miles. 

From Liskard to Plymmouth a 12. miles. 

Gumming out of Liskarde about half a mile I left Cortyder, 
a goodly lordship, and an old maner place on the right hond; 
it is a hunderith pounde by the yere. 

This is now fawllen onto heir general in partition. 

Cotyder a and [the] lordship of [Treg]elly now caullid 
Minheneth b lordship longgid, as Mr. [Trel]awny told me, 
[to] one Heling or Eling, an [od]er cam after . . . e therof 
na . . . Cotyder . . . had male . . . Cotyder [nojw Beket 
\hath\ Cotyder self. Corington [and] another [of them 
had} * ... 

From Liskard to Minheneth 2. miles, wher is a fair large 
old chirch. The [personage of it is impropriate to~\ . . . 

The maner of Minheneth was sumtime caullid Tregelly, 
wherof the name and sum ruines yet remaine. 

Trelawney now lyving is the 4. of that name that hath be 
Lord of Minheneth. 

There was one Sir John Trelawney an auncient gentilman 
father to the first Trelawney of Minheneth. But be likelihod 
he had an elder sun, for Trelawney now living hath none of 
the landes: but it is descendid to heires generales. 

From Mynhenet to the ruines of Bodulcan's place a 2. fo. 20. 
miles. 

Half a mile of a great brooke after the course of a 4. miles 
resorting to Liner c and S. Germane's Creeke a this side S. 
Germane's. 

[* These fragments are all that remain of a sentence written in the 
margin. The lower edge of many leaves, and many of the lower corners 
in this volume are torn and damaged. ] 



Cartuther. b Menheniot. c Lynher r. 

P 



210 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall Another broket a quarter of a mile beyond that resortith 
to the other. 

Thens to Natter Bridge of 2. or 3. archis 4. miles, it stond- 
ith on Liner Ryver. 

This ryver, as far as I could lerne, risith by north est up 
towardes the quarters of Launstoun. 

The soile betwixt Minheneth and N[atter] Bridg very good, 
and enclosid, and metely wel woddyd. 

From Natter a Bridge to S. Germane'[s ajbout a 2. mile. 

The town of S. Germane's is on the [hither] side of Liner 
as I cam to this bridg. 

S. Germane's is but a poore fischar [town]. The glory of 
it stoode by the priory. S. Germane's stondith about a 3. 
miles in Liner Creeke from the mayne st[rond] of Tamar 
Haven. 

From Liner Bridge to Asche b aboute a 4. miles by much 
like ground. 

Asche is a praty quik market toun and is set from the 
toppe of a rokky hille as by west to the roote of the same 
and very shore of Tamar Haven by este. 

The tounes men use boothe marchandise and fischar. 

There is a chapel of ease in A[s]che. 

The paroche chirch is caullid S. Stephan's, about half a 
mile of by south, the personage wherof is impropriate to 
Windesore College. 

By S. Stephanes and in S. Stephanes paroch is the greaunt 
and auncient castelle of Tremertoun c apon a rokky hille: 
wherof great peaces yet stond and especially the dungeon. 
The ruines now serve for a prison. 

Great libertees long to this castelle. 

The Valetortes, men of great possession, wer owners, and, 
as far as I can gather, builders of this castel, and owners 
and lordes of the toun of Aische. 

Morwel the Abbat of Tavestok House about a mile from 
Morleham. t 

Tamar a litle from Morwelle. 

From Tavestok to Greston Bridge a 6. miles: and then 
3. miles to Launston. 

Tamar 2. miles and more from Tavestok. 

a Notter. b Saltash. c Trematon. 



PART III 211 

Calstok Bridge or New Bridge two miles from Milbrok Cornwall, 
the first creek. 

S. John the next. 

Liner the 3. 

The 4. a litle above Asche. 

The 5. without fail is the maine streme of Tamar. 

From Reddon the land lying south west on S. Nicolas 
Isle to Cair Grene wher Tamar turnith west a 6. miles, 
Tamar going a mile west for the most part after goith north. 

These crekes I notid on the west -side of Tamar: fo. 21. 

Fyrst I markid in sight above Aschetoun a 2. miles or 
more the principal arme of Tamar Haven going up into the 
land about a 10. miles from that place to Caulstoke Bridge, 
wither to it almost ebbith and flowith. 

And shippes cum up within a mile of this bridg to a place 
caullid Morleham. a 

And this place is but 3. miles from Tavestoke. 

Tavestoke is countid to be but x. miles from Asche to go 
the next way. 

Betwixt the 2. miles from Asch to the mayne arme of 
Tamar in sight I markid descending in the haven 3. crekes 
breking out into the land, wherof the first lyith by north west 
creking up into the land. 

The secund lyith west north west. 

The 3. plaine west, and this crekid [in] to the land scant 
half a mile. 

Scant a mile lower lyith Li[ner] Creke goyng up onto S. 
Germane's. 

The toune of Asch stondith bytwen these 2. crekes. 

Then brekith a litle creke out caullid [S.] John's or 
Antony. 

And at the mouth about S. Nicolas brekith in a creek 
goyng up to Milbrok 2. miles up in land from the mayn 
haven. 

This Milburne * is a riche fischar toun. 

Penle b a fore land lyith 3. miles lower from this creeke 

[* Burton corrected this to Milbrok on Leland's MS.] 



Morwelham. b Penlee. 



212 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Cornwall, into the [land]. And the promontorie of Ramehed a [mile 
lower.] 

Devonshire. Creekes from the mouth of Plym and Tamar 

upon the est side of the haven : 

The Mylle Bay. 

The Stone House Creke. 

Kaine Place Creke, wher is a maner place of Mr. Wises. 

The creek . . . having a mille at the hed; it is in lenght 
a 2. miles. 

Vulgo Butside. A 4. mile upper a creke going up to Mr. Budokes side, 
wher is his manor place, and S. Budok a chirch. Ther dwell- 
ith by this creke also Copsto of Warley a man of xx. C. 
marke of land, as it is saide. 

Then is the uppermost wher Tave Water b cummith onto 
Tamar. And on the est side of this creek is Bukland. And 
on the west side is Bere wher the Lord Brokes house and 
park was. 

Bere is a mile from the crek mouth. 

Bukland is a 2. miles from the creke mouthe. 
fo. 22. The towne of Plymmouth is about a 3. miles from the 
passage of Asche. 

The trajectus self at Asch half a mile. 

The ground betwixt the passage and Plymmouth hath 
good corn but litle wod. 

The toun of Plymmouth is very large, and at this tyme is 
devidid into 4. wardes : the old Towne Ward, Venarwarde, 
Lowewarde, Vintrewarde alonge by the gulf : and ther is a 
capitaine yn eche of these wardes, and undre eche capitaine 
3. conestables. 

This town about King Henry the 2. tyme was a mene 
thing as an inhabitation for fischars. and after encreasid by 
a litle and a litle. 

The oldest part of the toun stoode by north and west 
sumwhat, and this part is sore decayed, and now cum to the 
leste of the 4. 

The name of Plymmouth toun and the privilege to have a 
mair was yn King Henry the 6. dayes the xvj. yer [of his] 



S. Budeaux. 



Tavy r. 



PART III 213 

reign first grauntid by [act]* of parlament. The prior of Devonshire 
Plympton was afore chife ruler in Plymmouth and kept 
courtes there. 

The toun was caullid afore by the old name Sutton, and 
was devidid into Valetort, that was in the north part of [the] Dm de 
toun, now the leste parte of it. This was lo[ngging] to one Voile torta. 
Valetorte. 

The midle and hert of the town [was] cawllid Sutton 
Prior. 

The est part was caullid Suttouri [Rad], and in this part 
was the White Freres, [and the Gray Friers, with the . . . 
of the towne.] 

In Sutton Prior standith the paroch [chirch of S. Uthu.] 
One Painter, that of late dyed a rich marchaunt, made a 
goodly house toward the haven, wher Catarine [Princes 
Dowegar lay at her commynge out of Spayne.] 

Ther is but one paroch chirche yn Plymmouthe, the per- 
sonage wherof was impropriate to Plymton priorie. 

One Thomas Yogge, a marchant of Plymmouth, paid of 
late yeres for making of the steple of Plymmouth chirch. 
The toun paid for the stuffe. 

This Thomas Yogge made a fair house of more stone in 
the toune toward the haven. 

This Thomas made a goodly house of more stone on the 
north side of the chirch yard of Plymmouth paroche chirche. 

This Thomas build a fair chapel on the northe side of 
Plymmouth chirch. 

Ther is an hospitale house on the north side of the 
chirch. 

The chirch and much of the ground wheron Suttoun, now 
caullid Plymmouth, was buildid was longging to one of the 
prebendes titulo S. Petri et Pauli of Plymtoun a collegiate 
chirch, alias Capella libera dnl Regis before the Conquest. 

Ther is a righte goodly walke on an hille without the 
[tojun by south caulpid] the How, and [a fa]ir chapel of 
S. [Cata]rine on it. 

Al such as hath by continuance sins the tyme of Henry 
the secund buildid houses in Suttoun Priory, now the great- 

[* Brown Willis and Hearne; the MS. was not so far decayed in 
their days. Stow omits the word.] 



2i 4 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire, est part of Plymmouth, toke licens of the priorie of Plym- 
toun as of their chief lord. 

The mouth of the gulph wherin the shippes of Plym- 
mouth lyith is waullid on eche side and chainid over in 
tyme of necessite. On the south west side of this mouth is 
a blok house: and on a rokky hille hard by it is a stronge 
castel quadrate having a eche corner a great rounde tower. 
It semith to be no very old peace of worke. 

Hard to this castelle waul Veysy now [bysshope of Ex- 
cester] began a peace of an highe and stronge waull.* 

[P]erse Egge [combe ha]d a manor by Ramehed. 

[Per]se Egge[combe hath a g]oodly house [in Cornwajlle 
on Ta[mer at the mouth of Plimmouth Haven\. 
fo. 23. From Plymmouth by good enclosid ground but hilly to 
the place wher I crossid over Plym ryver at the ebbe, about 
a 3. miles. 

The ryver of Plym risith at . . . , a vj. miles by north 
north est from this place. 

There be 2. bridges on Plym that be notably spoken of, 
Bykley a and Plym. 

Passing over Plym I left the ryver on the left [hand] : and 
by estimation it ebbid and flowied about a mile above this 
place. 

About the place wher I passid over Plym is the conflu- 
ence to be scene at ebbe of Torey brooke and Plym. 

I markid after yn the haven of Plym but 2. notable 
crekes, one on the west side of the haven entering into the 
land about a mile or more from the haven mouth: and a 
nother bigger then it on the est side of the haven caullid 
Schilleston about a 2. miles from the mouth of Plym haven. 

There is a goodly rode for great shippes betwixt the 
haven mouth and this creeke. 

After that I passid over Plym ryver I rode about half a 
mile along by Torey broke, whos color is alway redde by the 
sand that it rennith on and caryeth from the tynne workes 
with it: and so to Plymtoun Marie, b so caullid bycause the 
chirch there is dedicate onto our Lady. 

[* The bottom of this leaf has been cut.] 



Bickleigh. b Ridgeway, Plympton St. Mary. 



PART III 215 

The glory of this towne stoode by the priorie of Blake Devonshire. 
Chanons there buildid and richely endowid with landes. 

The original beginning of this priorie was after this 
fascion : 

One William Warwist, Bisshop of Excester, displeasid 
with the chanons or prebendaries of a fre chapelle of the 
fundation of the Saxon kinges, because they wold not leve 
theyr concubines, found meanes to dissolve their college, 
wherin was a deane or provost and 4. prebendaries with 
other ministers. 

The prebende of Plymton self was the title of one, and 
the prebend of S. Peter and Paule at Suttoun, now caullid 
Plymmouth, a nother. Bisshop Warwist, to recompence the 
prebendaries of Plymton, erectid a college of as many as 
were ther at Bosenham in Southsax, and annexid the gift of 
them to his successors Bisshops of Excester. Then he set 
up at Plymton a priorie of canons-regular, and after was 
there buried in the chapitre house. 

Diverse noble men gave after landes to this priorie, 
emong whom was Walterus de Valle torta^ lord of Tremer- 
ton a in Cornewal, and, as sum say, of Totenes, but yet I fo. 24. 
know no certentie of that. 

I know that he was a man of fair possessions about Plym- 
mouth, and that he gave onto Plymtoun priorie the isle of 
S. Nicolas cum cuniculis^ conteyning a 2. acres of ground, or 
more, and lying at the mouthes of Tamar and Plym ryvers. 

I hard say, that the landes of Valletorte were for a mor- 
ther doone by one of them confiscate, and sins the great 
part of them have remaynid yn the kinges handes. 

There were byried sum of Courteneis and diverse other 
gentilmen in the chirch of the priorie of Plymtoun. 

Plymtoun Mary stondith not apon Plym river; for it is 
distant almost half a mile from it. But it stondith on Torey 
brooke by the est ripe of it, wherby the lower and first 
buildinges of the court of the priorie be almost clene chokid 
with the sandes that Torey bringgith from the tynne 
workes. 

One Prior Martine the 3. or 4. prior of Plymtoun buildid 
the substance of the chirch that there a late stoode. 

a Trematon. 



2i6 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire. There is kept a fair at Plymtoun Marie [on S.] John's 
Day at Midsomer. 

Plymtoun Thomas is a quarter of a mile from Plymtoun 
Marie, so caullid of Thomas Beket: but now the chirch 
there is of S. Mauricius, knight and martyr. 

In the side of this town is a fair large castelle and dun- 
geon in it, wherof the waulles yet stonde, but the logginges 
within be decayed. 

Balduinus Reduerse, Erie of Devonshire, was lord of this 
toun and castelle. 

And after Isabella de Fortibus, the last of that familie, 
was lady of it. Many gentilmen hold their landes of this 
castelle. 

This Isabella gave great privileges to her town of Plym- 
ton, wher yet is a pratie market. 

The Courteneis, Erles of Devonshir, were syns lordes of 
this town. 

From Plymtoun Thomas to Le a bridge of stone of 3. 
archis. 

This bridge stondith on Yaulme b water, and a 2. miles 
lower on it is Yaulm bridge, and a mile lower it goith to 
the se, a 4. miles, as I esteme, by south est from the [main] 
mouth of Plym water. 

This river risith by [north north est.] 
fo. 25. From Le bridge to Ivy bridge a 3. miles. 

The ryver of Arme, c or Armine, rennith under this bridge, 
and a 2. miles lower on it is Armington bridge. 

Sum say that part of Philippe King of Castelle navie was 
driven toward the mouth of this water, wher is no haven, but 
periculus rokkes. This river risith by north est, and rennith 
apon great rokky stones with no smaul noise. 

From Ivy bridge to Modbury a 2. miles. 

The ground is fertile of corne and pasture, and sum good 
wooddes betwixt Plymtoun Thomas and Modburie. 

The tounelette of Modbury is privilegid, and hath diverse 
hamlettes longging onto it. 

Sum say that the Ruans, sum say that the Oxtons were 
lordes of Mudbury. 

Campernulph is now chief lord there : and he told me 

Lee Mill Bridge. b Yealm r. c Erme r. 



PART III 



217 



that Oxton was lord of it immediately] afore the Camper- Devonshire, 
nulphes: but he contendid that the Campernulphes were 
lordes of it afore the Oxtons. 

Campernulphe of Modburies graundfather maried the sole 
doughter and heyre of Childerle of Devonshir by Excester : 
and had 80. li. land by her. 

Ther was a nother house of the Campernulphes more 
auncient, caullid Campernulphe of Bere. The last of this 
house left a doughter and heire caullid Blanch, and she was 
first maried onto Copestan of Devonshir : and after devorcid 
and maried onto the Lorde Brooke, steward onto Henry the 
vij. and he had by her a 700. markes of land by yere. 

There dwellith one Prideaux in Modburi, a gentilman of 
an auncient stoke and fair landes, ontil be chaunce that 
one of his parentes killid a man : wherby one of the Cour- 
teneis Erie of Devonshire had Colum John and other landes 
of the Prideaux. 

Prideaux isle in Modbury chirch. Hille a gentilman in 
Modburi paroche. This name rose by a lawier and juge that 
left onto his heires a 300. markes of land. 

The grand father of Hille no[w lyving] sold an 100. li. 
land. 

Ther is one of the Fortecues dwelling in Modbury, whos fo. 26. 
father had to wife the mother of Syr Philip Chaumburne 
now lyving. 

Ther was a house of monk aliens of the French order at 
Modbyri. The site of their mansion is yet scene on the 
north side of the chirche. The founder was ther scant 
knowen. I take it that Ruan or Oxton were founders of it. 

This priory with the personage of Modbyri impropriate 
was given yn King Edward the 4. tyme to Eyeton College. 

From Modbyri to the forde, wher I passid over Awne a 
ryver, about a 4. or 5. miles. , 

This water cummith by Estbrenton, b and a litle lower 
even by the toun is a bridge over Aune. 

Estbrenton is in the highway betwixt Plymmouth and 
Excestre. 

Estbrenton is a vj. miles from the forde, wher I passid 
over Awne, and Garebridge on Aune is a 2. miles lower. Garabridge. 



Avon r. 



b ? South Brent. 



c Garabridge. 



218 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire. Mr. Stoure house a litle beyonde this ford on an hille 
side. 

Awne and Arme rivers go to the se at Arme mouthe.* 

From this forde to Rostbridge a 2. miles, wher I passid 
over a brooke caullid communely Harburne Water: but it 
is written, as I lernid, Hurbertoun. 

This ryver cummith out of a welle a 2. miles by north est 
above Rostbridge, and goith from Rostbridge a 2. miles 
lower to Bowbridge in the valley betwixt Ascheprentoun and 
Corneworthy. And a litle lower is a creke of salt water 
breking into 2. crekes or armes at the hedde, wherof the one 
receivith Hurberton water, the other castith up toward 
Corneworthy. 

From Rostbridge to Totenes a 2. miles. Al the ground 
betwixt Modbyri and Totenes plentiful of good gresse, corn 
and woodde. 

The towne of Totenes lyith along from the toppe of an 
high rokky hille by west onto the roote of it by est. 

This toun hath beene waullid: but the waulles be now 
clene downe. 

A man may see wher thfe foundation was of them. 

Ther be yet 3. gates by [west, est and . . .] 

fo. 27. The castelle of Totenes stondith on the hille north west 
of the towne. The castelle waul and the stronge dungeon 
be maintainid. The logginges of the castelle be clene in 
ruine. Many gentilmen hold their landes by gard and ser- 
vice to this castelle. 

The Lordes Zouches were long time lordes of this town 
and castel, now Eggecombe by gift of atteindure of Zouche. 

King John gave first privilege of a mairalte to Totenes. 

King Edward the first augmentid the libertes of Totenes. 

There is but one paroch chirch in Totenes, and that is set 
in the midle of the toun. Ther is a greate steple tour, and 
the greatest belles in al those quarters. 

There was a priorie of Blak Monkes at the north est side 
of this paroch chirch impropriate to the priorie of Totenes. 

There is an hospitale by the chirch yarde. 

Ther is a lazar house on the south part of the toun en- 
do wid with sum landes. " t 

[* This is an error, see p. 222.] 



PART III 219 

Totenes Bridge on Darte of 7. archis. Devonshire. 

Litle Totenes a flite shot byneth Totenes Bridge. 

The toune of Totenes is servid with conducta of water 
having 3. castell[ettes in the toune.] 

Delabont Lord of Litle Totenes erectid ther a celle of 
freres ord. S. Trinitatis. 

Oldham Bisshop of Excestre suppressid this house, and 
gave the landes to the vicars of the cathedrale chirch of 
Excestre. 

Byri Pomerey Town lyith hard on the est ende of Totenes 
Bridge. Byry Pomerey a chirch almost a mile of: and Byri 
Pomerey castelle aboute half a mile from the chirch. 

Dartington Park half a mile above Totenes Bridge, on the 
same ripe of the water that Totenes is. In this park is a 
great maner place that longid to the Duke of Excester. S. 
Liger, that maried the Duches of Excester, kept house in 
this place. 

A litle lower then this parke cummith down on the same Guile flu. 
ripe a brooke from west caullid Gulle, b and goith into Darte <m 
Ryver. 

The river of Darte by tinne workes carieth much sand to 
Totenes Bridge, and chokith the depth of the ryver [all] 
downeward, and doth much hurt to Dertmouth Haven. fo. 28. 

Derte Ryver cummith out of Dartemore, and the hed of 
it is rekenid to be a 15. miles above Totenes. 

Dertmore is of very greate compace, and is suche a wilde 
morisch and forest ground as Exmore is. 

Bridgges on Darte Ryver.* 

From Totenes to Aschprenton c by hilly but fruteful ground 
a 2. miles. 

Thens to Corneworthy Village by like ground a mile, and 
here was a priorie of nunnes lately suppressid. 

In the valley bytwene Corneworthi and Ascheprenton 
rennith a brooke caullid Hurbertoun Water d communely 
Harburne. 

[* Leland left a blank here which he never filled up.] 



a Berry Pomeroy. b ? Bidwell brook. c Ashprington. 

d Harbourne r. 



22O 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Devonshire. This water cummith out of a welle spring, and so 
renning about a 2. miles passith thorough a stone bridg 
caullid Roste. Thens a 2. miles lower to Bowbridge, and 
ther goith into salt water that crekithinto the land out of the 
maine streame of Dartmouth Haven. 

This creke at the hedde brekith for a litle space up into 
2. armes. The one goith up toward Bowbridge, a the other 
to Corneworthi. 

From Corneworthy to Dertmouth by like ground a 4. 
miles. 

About half a mile above Dertmouth town is a creke 
goyng out of the maine streame of the haven caullid Old 
Mylle Creke. 

There is a tounlet or I enterid into Dermouth toune 

Arnesse. caullid Hardenesse inhabitid most by fisschar men and sum 

marchauntes, having in it a chapel of Clare : and also the 

Hanky's great ruines of Hauley's Haul, an exceding rich marchant 

Haulle. and a noble [warriour.] 

fo. 29. There is only a bay fillid by fluddes with salt water, driving 
at the ebbe 2. milles, that devideth Ardenes from Dertmouth 
Town: and over this bay is a stone causey and 2. flatte 
bridgges. 

Ther be evident tokens that of old tyme ther hath beene 
much building betwixt the toun of Dertmouth now inhabitid 
and Stoke Fleminge, wherapon it must folow that Old Dert- 
mouth stode that way, or els that Stoke Fleming was larger 
then it is now. 

The toune of Dertmouth lyith in lenght on a very rokky 
hille on the haven side, about half a mile from the very 
mouth of it, and extendith in lenghth aboute a quarter of a 
mile. There be good marchaunt men in the towne: and to 
this haven long good shippes. 

This toune is servid with conduct water. There is a fair 
chirch in the towne, but it is but a membre of the paroche 
chirch of Tunstale, b half a mile [of] on the top of an hille. 

Sum think that wher the personage house of Tunstalle 
now is was sumtyme an house or celle of French monkes. 

The personage of Tunstalle was impropriate to Torrebay 
Abbay. 



Bow. 



b Townstall. 



PART III 221 

John Hawley, a riche marchant and noble warrior again Devonshire, 
the French men, lyith burid afore the high altare with his 2. 
wives in Dertmouth chirch. Obiit a. D i . 1403. 

Copestan, now a man of great landes in Devonshire, 
maried the heir generale of Hawley, wherby his landes were 
much augmentid. 

The Briens, emong whom Guy Brien was famose, were 
lordes of Dertemouth towne. 

King John gave privilege of a mairalte to Dertmouth. 

Edward the 3. gave licens to 'the town of Dertmouth to 
purchase. King Edwarde the 4. gave xx. /*. fee to Dert- 
mouth towne. Richard the 3. gave x. K. more : and Henry 
the 7. x. //. A faire [bulwa]rk made of late in [Dertmouthe 
toune]. 

There be 2. towers at the haven mouth and a chaine to 
draw over; one of those toures stondith [by] Sir George 
Carew castelle caullid Stoke Fleming at [the haven mouth.] 

Bridges on Teigne. 

The hedde of Teigne-Mouth is a 20. miles from Teigne- 
mouth that risith in Darte-More at a place caullid Teigne 
Hed. 

Jagforde a Bridge and toune; the bridge is half a mile 
above the towne, having a market and 2. faires. 

This bridge is a 4. or 5. miles from the hed. 

Clifford Bridg of stone a 4. miles lower. 

Brideford Bridg of stone 4. miles and more lower. 

Chiddeley b Bridge of stone a 5. miles lower. 

Teigne Bridge a 3. miles lower. 

This bridge is in the midle way betwixt Newton Busshel 
market toun and Kings Steinton. c 

Newtoun Busshel is a mile from Teigne, as I cam, ripa 
citeriori. 

Kinges Steinton a litle from Teigne, as I cam, ripa 
ulteriori. 

Leman Water d cummith by Newton Busshel from north 
west a 5. miles of. Leman Water cummith a mile byneth 
Newton into Teigne. Aller Water risith about a 3. mile by 

a Chagford. b Chudleigh. c Kingsteignton. 

d Lemon r. 



222 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire, south west from the place wher it goith into Teine almost 

at the same place and ripe wher Leman dothe. 
fo. 30. The mariners at Dertmouth counte the haven of Plym- 
mouth to be about a kenning from Dartemouth. 

Saultecumbe a Haven, sumwhat barrid and having a rok 
at the entering into it, is about a vij. miles by west south 
west from Dertmouth: and aboute half a mile withyn the 
mouth of this haven longging to the privilege of Dertmouth 
is Saultcombe a fisshar toune. 

The est point of Saltcombe Haven is a great foreland into 
the se cauliid the Sterte. b 

Hilton Castelle, longpng] to Courteney of Poudreham, is 
about a mile above Saltcombon the same side of the haven. 

And a 3. miles upper at this haven hed is Kingesbridg, 
sumtyme a praty town. 

Slaptoun a praty college toward the shore is almost in the 
midle way betwixt Dertmouth and Saltcombe Haven. Guy 
Brien was founder of this college. 

Ther is a very large poole at Slap ton a 2. miles in lenghth. 
Ther is but a barre of sand betwixt the se and this poole. 

The fresch water drenith into the se thorough the sandy 
bank. The waite of the fresch water and rage of the se 
brekith sumtime this sandy bank. Good fisch in Slapton 
Poole. 

Arme Haven d is a ... miles above Saultcombe Haven. 
The mouth of this lyith ful of flattes and rokkes, and no 
ship cummith in tempest hither, but in desperation. Too of 
Philip King of Castelle * shippes felle to wrak in this haven 
when he was dryven into England by tempeste. 

Arme Ryver cummith to this haven : And, as I hard say, 
Aune Ryver likewise, f 

Yaulme e Haven . . . miles above Arme Haven. 

Yaulme Ryver resortith to this haven. 

From Yaulme Mouth to Plymmouth. 

I ferid over from Dartmouth Toun to Kingeswere a praty 

[* Castile, King of Spain.] 

[t This is an error, the Aune or Avon has its own estuary.] 



Salcombe. b Start Point. c Ilton. 

d Erme Mouth. e Yealm. 



PART III 223 

fisschar towne againe Dartmouth, wherof Sir George Carew Devonshire, 
is lorde. 

This toun standith as a pointelet into the haven. 

These thinges I markid on the est side [of the] mouth of 
Dermouthe Haven : 

First a] great hilly point caullid Doune, and a chapel on 
half a mile farther in] to the se [then the west poynt of 
the haven.] Bytwixt Downesend and a pointlet caullid 
Wereford is a litle bay. 

Were is not a mile from Downesend inner into the haven. 

Kingeswere toun standith out as a nother pointelet, and 
bytwixt it and Wereford is a praty litle bay. 

A litle above Kingeswere town goith a litle crek up into 
the land from the maine streame of the haven caullid Water 
Hed, a place meete to make shippes yn. 

About half a mile above Water Hed goith into the land a 
creke long in respect of the first, caullid the Nesse a Creeke. 

And a mile above this is a greate creke caullid Gaunstoun b 
Creek, and Gaunston Village stondith at the hed of it. 

This creeke hedde is heere about half from the maine se 
by the cumpasing of it in Torrebay. 

From Kinges Were to Gaunton a 3. miles by hilly ground. 

From Gaunton to Pentown c almost 3. miles. 

Here cummith downe a praty broke, and renning by the 
shore sandes goith into the se in Torrebay. 

Torrebay Village d and Priorie a mile of. 

There is a peere and socour for fisshar bootes in the 
botom by Torre [Pri]ory. 

In this Abbay * by 3. fair gate houses. 

William Bruer the first made this house on his own ground. 
Bruer bought Torre Mohun therby and gave it to this abbay. 
Petrus filius [Mathaei there] buried gave [land to it. Daw- 
ney gave Northton to this priory . . . isjeakre a rich {mer- 
chant gave much to this priory .] fo. 31. 

The west point of Torrebay is caullid Byri : e and more then 
within a mile of this point is a praty towne of fischar men 

[* Leland first wrote priory, then corrected it to abbay. For by 
read be.] 

& Noss. b Galmpton. c Paignton. 

d Torquay. Berry Head. 



224 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire, caullid Brixham : and this towne is a membre of the privi- 
lege of Dertmouth, and hath a peere by it. 

Men of Dertmouth caulle it but 5. miles betwixt the 
mouth of Dert and Torre, but I take it to be more, and that 
but only to Byri Pointe. a 

I take the bay of Torre by estimation to be a x. miles and 
more in cumpace, and Byri and Peritorre b Pointes be dis- 
tant a greate lege, that is about a 4. miles. 

Fisschar men hath divers tymes taken up with theyr nettes 
yn Torrebay musons of hartes, wherby men juge that yn 
tymes paste it hath be forest grounde. 

I markid almost in the midle of this bay one house sette 
on the hard shore: and a srnaul peere by it as a socour for 
fischar botes. 

The est point of Torrebay ys caullid Petitorre, b and to 
the sight it is not so much pointid into the se as Byri 
Hed is. 

Ther is by Peritorre a great rokke caullid Isleston, as an 
isle environid with the se. 

Ther is an other rokky isle far bigger then Isleston, and 
is caullid Horestane. It lyith a mile by south est into the se 
from Peritorre Point. 

There is also an islet caullid Blak Rok. This lyith by the 
shore about a mile by south est from Peritorre toward Teign- 
mouth. 

From Petitore to Teignmouth by a shore a litle baying in 
a v. miles scant. 

The hole ground bytwixt Torrebay and Exmouth booth 
sumwhat to the shore and especially inward is wel inclosid, 
fruteful of come and grasse, and meatly welle woddid: and 
this quarter is caullid [the] Southhammes [being] the frute- 
ful[est part] of [all] Devonshire.] * 

From Torrebay priorie and town d [to] Hacham 6 a 3. 
miles. 

Hacham lordship of olde tyme longgid to one of the 

[* The lower corners of this leaf are torn.] 



a Berry Head. 

b Petit Tor ; but the present Hope's Nose seems intended. 

c Oar Stone. d Torquay. e Haccombe. 



PART III 225 

Archidekens, of whom ther be dyverse fair tumbes in the Devonshire, 
chirch ther. 

[This] lordship with other landes cam to one [of the 
Ca]rews, and diverse of t[his name be also] buried in the 
same chirch.] 

The very utter west point of the land at the mouth of 
Teigne is caullid the Nesse, and is very hy redde clif ground. 

The est point of this haven is caullid the Poles. This is a 
low sandy grounde other cast out by the spring of sand out 
of Teigne, or els throuen up from the shores by rage of wynd 
and water: and this sand occupieth now a great quantite 
of ground bytwene Teignmouth towne, wher the ground 
mountith, and Teignmouth Haven. 

Ther be too tounes at this point of the haven by name of 
Teignemouth, one hard joining^to the other : the souther of 
them is Teignmouth Regis, a wher is a market and a chirch 
of S. Michael, and a peace of an embatelid waul again the 
shore : and this is taken for the elder town ; and at the 
west side of this town is a peace of the sanddy ground afore 
spoken of, ther caullid the Dene, wheron hath beene not 
many yeres sins diverse howses and wine celler. 

The inhabitantes ther telle how their toun hath bene 
defacid by the Danes, and of late tyme by the French- 
men. 

[The] other toun caullid Teignemouth Episcopi b standith 
[a lytle] by north [on the] same shore [upper] into the 
[have]n. 

Ther is a chirch S. Jacobi. 

Teigne ebbith and flowith up a five miles not to but as 
far as Newton Bushelle. 

First I markid a litle start above the haven mouth on the 
west side of it, a creeke caullid Stoken Teigne Hed, no 
great thing. 

Ther is another creeke [called] Come Teignehed d about 
[half a mile] upper into the [haven, and this goeth] a litle 
[farther into the land then Stoken Teignehead.] . . . 

From Teignemouth to Exmouthe [about a] 4. miles. [From 
Exmouth to Exchester a 7. miles.] 

a Kingsteignton. b Bishopsteignton. 

c Part of Newton Abbot. d Combeinteignhead. 



226 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire. Sepulchra Eccl Exon. , 

fo. 32. j n sacello S. Mariae coram Altari sub plane marmore 
jace, Petrus- [Qm'm'L] Petra tegit Petrum [nihil official 
tibi tetrum.] * 

In boreali parte ejusdem sacel. sub arcu. 

Hicjacet Edmundus de Stafforde intumulatus^ 
Quondam profundus legum doctor reputatus* 
Verbis facundus, comitum de stirpe creatus: 
Felix et mundus pater hujus pontificates. 

In austr alt parte ejusdem sub arcu. 

Gualterus {Brounescombe} t Epus Exon. 
Fundator collegii de Glasney apud Penrine. 
Olim sincerus pater omni dignus amore. 
Primus Walterus magno jacet hie in honore. 
Edidit hie plura dignissima laude statuta, 
Quae tanquamjura servant hie omnia tuta. 
Atque hoc collegium, quod Glaseney plebs vocat omnis> 
Condidit egregium^ pro voce data sibi somnis.% 
Quot loca construxit) {pietatis\ quot bona fecit ', 
Quam sanctam duxit vitam^ vox dicere nequitl 
Laudibus immensis jubilet gens Exoniensis^ 
Et chorus et turbae, quia natus in hac fuit urbe. 
Plus si scire velis^ festum statuit Gabrielis. 
Gaudeat in coelis igitur pater iste fidelis. 

In presbyterio coram supremo altari. 

Tho. Bytten Epus Exon. 

Bruer Epu$ Exon. fundator 4. dignit, Eccl. Exon. 

In australi parte presbyterii. 
In Berkley natus jacet hie Jacobus tumulatus. 

[* Burton wrote the words in brackets on Leland's MS. Burton has, 
in his first copy, " Petrus de Quivile, episcopus Exon. cum hac inscrip- 
tione Petra tegit . . . tetrum. Obijt 1292, 12 E. i."] 

[t Leland wrote the name Goode, Burton corrected it as above on 
Leland's MS.] 

[ The six lines, Olim somnis, were inserted by Burton in Leland's 
MS. in the blank space. In 1. 7 B. wrote pietatis for L.'s/ra/*V/.r.] 



PART III 227 

In boreali parte presbyterii. Devonshire. 

Stapletun Epus Exon. 

Lacey : whos tumbe Heines Dene of Excester defacid. 

Henricus Mareschal Epus Exon. 

In australi insula chori. 

Oldham Epus Exon. 
[Chichester] miles. 

In boreali insula chori. 

Speke in quodam sacello. 

Stapletun miles e regione sepulchri Stapletun Epl 
Exon. fratris ejus. 

In transepto ecclesiae ad austrum. 
Joannes Epus Exon. 

In navi ecclesiae. 

Hugo Courteney Comes Devoniae et Margareta ejus 
uxor, fili a et Heres. 

Brentingham Epus Exon. in boreali insula nam's 
ecclesiae e regione tumuli Hugonis Courteney Comitis 
Devoniae. 

Joannes de Grandison extra portam occidentalem navis 
eccl. in sacello. 

Joannes Thesaurarius Exon. Ecclesiae fecit capellam 
Carnariae in coemiterio cathedr. eccl. Exon. 

The town of Excester is a good mile and more in cum- P. 33. 
pace, and is right strongly waullid and mainteinid. 

Ther be diverse fair towers in the toun waul bytwixt the 
south and the west gate. 

As the waulles have be newly made, so have the old 
towers decayed. 

The castelle of Excester standith stately on a high ground 
bytwixt the est gate and the north. 

Ther be 4. gates in the toune by the names of est, west, 
north and south. 

The est and the west gates be now the fairest and of one 
fascion of building; the south gate hath beene the strongest. 



228 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire. There be diverse fair streates in Excester, but the high 
streate, that goith from the west to the est gate, is the 
fairest. 

In this streate be castella^ aquaeductus, et domus civica. 

There be xv. paroche chirchis in the towne. 

The cathedrale chirch of S. Peter and Paule : the cimiterie 
wherof having 4. gates is environid with many fair housis. 

The college house, wher the cantuarie prestes lyith, made 
of late tyme by John Rese Deane of St. [Bu]rianes. 

The Vicares College. 

The Carnarie chapelle in [the cemijtery, made by one 
John Tr[esurer of] the cathedrale chirch of Ex[cester.] 

A chapelle * in the cimiterie. 

There was a priorie of S. Nicolas, a celle to Bataille-Abbay, 
in the north side of the toune. 

Joannes de Grandisono Bisshop of Excester made an hos- 
pitale of S. John, and endowid it with landes. This hospitale 
is hard by the est gate. 

There is an other poore hospitale in the toun wherin yet 
sik men be kepte. 

There was an house of Gray Freres bytwixt the north and 
west gate neere the towne waulle, now a plain vacant ground 
caullid Frerenhay. 

Bytten Bisshop of Excester remevid thens the Gray Freres, 
and buildid them an house a litle without the south gate. 

There was an house of Blake Freres in the north side of 
the cemiterie of the cathedrale chirch, but withoute the 
close. 

The Lorde Russelle hath made hym a fair place of this 
house. 

There appere 2 . fragmentes of inscriptions of the Romaines 
sette by chaunce of later tymes in the town waulle renewid 
on the bak side of [this] house sumtyme longging to the 
Blak Freres. One of thefm stan]dith in a tower of the waul, 
[the] other is in [the waull hard by the tower.] 
fo. 34. The suburbe that lyith without the est gate of Excester is 
the biggest of al the suburbes of the towne, and berith the 
name of S. Sithewelle, where she was buried, and a chirch 
dedicate ther to her name. 

[* Leland has corrected chapelle by writing paroch chirch above it.] 



PART III 229 

The surburbe without the north gate is caullid S. David Devonshire, 
downe, alias . . . 

The suburbe without the west gate is caullid S. Thomas 
suburbe. 

In this suburbe is a greate stone bridge of 14. arches over 
Ex river. 

The suburbe without the south gate is caullid by the 
name of S. Magdalene. 

Bridges on Ex.' 

Excester Bridg of xiiij. archis. 

Cowley a mile and more upward, having a xij. archis undre 
the Gut and Causey. 

Thorberton a about a 4. miles upper. 
Tuverton b Bridge a v. miles upper. 
Tuverton Town is on the est ripe of Ex ryver. 

Ex vita S. Rumwaldi auctore incerto. 

Rumwoldi pater rex f nit Northanhumbr. 

Rumwoldi mater filia Pendae Regis Mer riorum. 

Rumwoldus natus in Sutthun pago. 

Rumwoldus baptizatus apud Sutthun ab Widerino 
Epo. 

Rumwoldus ab Eadwoldo Presbytero in baptismate 
susceptus. 

Rumwoldus 3. tantum vixit diebus. 

Rumwoldus obiit 3. Nonas Novembr. 

Rumwoldus sepultus est ab Aedwoldo in Sutthun. 

An", sequente translatus est ab Widerino in Brace- 
learn, 

An , ab ejus obitu 3. translatus est in Buccingaham. 

Ex vita S. Brinstani Epl Ventani, qui successit 
Fridestano tempore Aethelstani Regis. 

Brinstanus constituit Xenodochium ante portam Ven- 
tanae urbis. 

Obiit Beatus Brinstanus a. 935. An . Reg. Aedelstani 
Regis IT*. 

a Thorverton. b Tiverton. 



2 3 o LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire. Sepultus est Ventae. 

Successit Brinstano Aedelwoldus. 

Ex Vita S. Winnoci. 

QuadanocuS) Ingenocus^ Madocus et Winocus Britoms 
monachi in Sit hut Monasterio^ cui praeerat Bertinus, 

Ex Vita S. Wilkbrordi. 

Wilkbrordus filius Wilgis monachi in Coenobio 
S. Andreae in Northumbria. 

Wilkbrordus Hagustaldunum * Scottos petiit. 
Wilkbrordus Epus Trajectensis. 

In Bibliotheca Exoniensi. 

fo. 35. Dialogus Barptokmei Episcopi Exon. contra Judaeos 
ad Balduinum Archiepiscopum Cantuar. Quamvis fides 
Catholica. 

Eulogium Joannis Cornubiensis ad Akxandrum 3. 
Pont. Ro. In Concilia Turonensi quod dudum congre- 
gasti. 

Bacon de aspectibus lunae ad alios planetas. 

Bacon de victoria Christi contra Antichristum. 

Bacon de copia vel inopia cujuscunque hominis ex 
nativitate ex horis solis in 12. signis. 

Fasciculi Zizaniorum Joan. Wiclif. 

Tractatus Arnulphi monachi de corpore et sang. Dnl. 

Odo Parisiensis super Psalterium. 

Ex Vita Sanctae Sativolae. 

Benna pater Sativolae. 

Sativola nata Exoniae. 

Sativola dolo novercae a Feniseca amputato capite 
occisa^ ut suburbana praedia ei praeriperet. 

Fans Sativolae. 

Ecclesia constructa in honorem Sativolae. 

Joannes de Grandisono abbreviavit Legendas Sanct- 
orum in usum Exon. Eccles. a. D. 1336. 

[* This word is in the margin in MS., with a mark for insertion 
above. ] 



PART III 231 

Ex Charta Edwardi de Donat. Cathedr. Eccl. Devonshire. 

Exon. et Leofrico Episcopo. 

Eadwardus rex et Eadgydis regtna* 

Cornubiensem Dioecesim, quae olim in Beati Germani 
memoria atque Petroci veneratione Episcopali solio adsig- 
nata fuerat^ ipsam cum omnibus suis adjacentibus 
paroeciis? terris^ villis, opibus^ beneficiis, S. Petro in 
Exon. \civitate\ trado^ scilicet ut una sit \sedes episcopalis 
unumque] pontificium et una ecclesiastica\regula\ propter 
paucitatem atque devastationem bonorum et populorum, 
quoniam pyratici Cornubiensem ac Cridiensem ecclesias 
devastare poterant) ac per hoc in \civitate~\ Exonia \tuti- 
orem munitionem adversus hostes habert visum estl\ 

Testes Donat. Edwar. Regis. 

Leofricus Dux. 

Siwardus Dux. 

Spegen Dux."\ 

Haraldus Dux. 

Radulphus Dux. 

Tosti Dux. 

Thinges notable on the west shore of Exmouth Haven. 

There lyith a great vaste plaine and baren sandy feld at 
the west side and very point of Exmouth Haven : 

And in the west part of this haven mouth a litle above 
this sand goith in a creke a mile or therabout into the land. 
Sum caulle it Kenton Creke. 

Kenton personage impropriate to Saresbyri Chirch. 

A 2. miles upper in the haven from this creeke is Kenton, 
a very pety thoroughfare: and a right goodly chirch in it. 

[* Leland wrote this part of his page very confusedly, running his 
extracts into the margin. The full charter is given by Dugdale, Mon. 
Anglic, ed. 1675, vo ^ i> P- 22 9 where we see that Edward made the 
transfer with the authority of his queen; and bishops. The words in 
brackets are supplied , from Dugdale, and, a few variations occur in 
which Hearne says Leland is more correct than Dugdale. Leland only 
gives a few of the witnesses. ] 

[t This name is doubtless Swegen (Sweyn). Leland mistook the 
A.S. w for a p.] ' 

a Parochiis. 



232 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire. This tounlet is within a very litle of the main streme of the 
haven. 

Powderham late Sir William Courteneis castelle; it stond- 
ith on the haven shore a litle above Kenton. Sum say that 
a lady being a widow buildid this castelle; it is strong, and 
hath a barbican or bulwark to bete the haven. I think that 
it was Isabella de Fortibus. 

Passing from Kenton I cam to ... village a 2. miles 
of, seing a praty lake on the lift hond, and an issue out 
of it. 

Thens to Exminstre a praty townlet, wher be ruines of a 
maner place embatelid in the front. I trow it longid to the 
Marquise of Excester. 

Thinges notable on the est side of Exmouth. 

Exmouth a fisschar tounlet a litle withyn the haven 
mouth. 

Apsham & a praty tounlet on the shore a 4. miles upper in 
the haven. Heere is the great trade and rode for shippes 
that usith this haven: and especially for the shippes and 
marchant mennes goodes of Excester. 

Men of Excester contende to make the haven to cum up 
to Excester self. 

At this tyme shippes cum no farther up but to Apsham. 

vol. viii. E X Ugenda sanctorum * secundum usum Exonien. eccl. 
P" 89 ' auctore Joanne Grandisono episcopo Exon. 

Ex vita S. Bonefadi archiepiscopi. 

Bonefacius in West Saxonum provintia Angl. apud 
Creditoniam in Devonia ortus est. 

Pater ejus direxit ilium ad monasterium Examcestre^ 
quod modo Exonia dicitur, et abbati Wulfhardo commen- 

[* The passages from " Ex legenda sanctorum " to end of the extract 
"ex vita S. Fimbarri" are printed from vol. viii. of Leland's MS., 
pp. 89 to 94, as intended in the second edition of Hearne. This is the 
proper place for them, according to the indications given by Stow 
(Tanner, 464, iii, 101, 102), who however only copies a part of them.] 



Topsham. 



PART III 



2 33 



vol. viii. 
p. 90. 



davit. Bonefacius cum confratribus Trajectum petiit ut Devonshire. 

evangelium praedicaret : sed infecto opere domum rediit. 

Bonefacius a Daniele episcopo Wentano literis commen- 
datus Romam petiit. 

Bonefacius apostolus a Gregorio juniore episcopo Ro. 
missus ad Bavaros, Thuringos et Fresones evangelium 
praedicavit tanquam Willebrordi cooperator. 

Bonefacius in Madeburgh * cellam construens Hessis 
evangelizavit. 

Bonefacius factus archiepiscopus a Gregorio 3. pont. 
Ro. 

Ex vita S. Gul. archiepiscopi Ebor. 

Gulielmus filius Hereberti comitis strenuiss. ex Emma 
sorore Stephani regis Angl. 

Ex vita S. Cuthburgae. 

Cuthburga Kenredi regis Westsax. filia^ soror Inae 
regis et S. Kenburgae virginis. 

Cuthburga nupsit Alchfrido regi Northumbr. eruditiss. 

Cuthburga servata virginitate a marito obtinuit ut se 
ad monasterium conferret: unde construct o apud Win- 
burne coenobio virginum coetum collegit. 

Ex vita S. Melori. 

Melorus filius Me Hani regis Cornubiae. 

Haurilla comitis Riuoldi filia in Devonia orta mater 
S. Melori. 

Riuoldus fratricida et invasor Cornubiae nepotem suum 
Melorum alter o pede et manu altera privavit. 

Melorus enutritus in coenobio S. Corentini. 

Melorus consilio Riboldi patrui sui a nutritio * suo * Cerealtino. 

occisus est. 

Ex vita Thomae Cantelupi episcopi Herefordensis. p. 91- 

Cantelupus natione Angl. 

Cantel: factus Capellanus Innocentii 4. pont. Ro.Lug- 
duni in quodam concilio. Thomas postea studuit Aureliae 
in legibus civilibus. 



[* Leland corrects Manaburgh to Madeburgh,] 



234 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Devonshire. Cantelupus cancellarius Henrici 3. regis Angl. 

Cantelupusfactus doctor theolog. Oxon. tempore Roberti 
de Kilwarby archiepiscopi Cantuar. 

Cantelupus recuperavit dominium venationis de Mal- 
verne a comite Glocestriae. 

Cantelupus orta inter ilium et Joannem Pecham archi- 
episcopum Cantuariens. lite de jure suae eccl. ad pont. Ro. 
appellavit, ac ad urbem veterem pervenit. 

Cantelupus ad Florentinum juxta montem Flasconis 
diver tit) ubi et obiit a", D. 1282. 

Ossa ejus postea delata ad Hereforden. eccl. 

p. 92. Ex charta Edwardi confess, regis Angl. de translat. 
sedis episc. ad Exoniam. 

Constituo cathedram sedis episco. in monaster. S. 
Petri infra moenia civitatis Exon. 

Eadgydis uxor Edwardi confess. 

Constituta sedes episcop. in Exonia tanquam in loco 
tutiori. 

Ex vita Karantoci. 

Karant. filius Keretici regis Britan. 
Karant. construxit or a tonum in loco quidictus Guerith 
Karantauc. 

Karanton, i.e. villa Karantoci, locus datus Karant: 

Ex vita Pirani. 

Piranus, qui et Pieranus, et Kyeranus, de Hibernia 
oriundus in provint. Ostrige. 

Domuel Pater Pirani, mater ejus Wingela dicta. 

Piranus discipulus S. Patritii. 

Piranus venit in Britan : 

Piranus obiit et sepultus est in Britannia. 

Wingela mater Pirani in loco prope filium cum sanctis 
virginibus habitabat. 

Bruinetfilia cujusdam reguli. 

Chenduith. Syr Rafe Chenduit, Baron of Chenduites Langelegh 
P- 93- that now is Freren Langelegh in Hertfordshir. 

Syr John Chenduit his sunne. 

Syr Rafe Chenduit Syr John sun. 

William Chenduit Syr Rafe sun. 



PART III 235 

Thomas Chenduit Rafes sun. 
John Chenduit sun to Thomas. 

Ex charta Richardi comitis Cornubiae de libertatibus 
de Lostwithiel et Penkenek. 

Penkenek) nunc pars Biirgi de Lostwithiel, discernitur 
rivulo ab alter a parte Burgi* 

Testes. Robertus de Esthal archidiac. Wigorn. 

Reginaldus de Boterellis^ nunc Botreaux. 

Philippus de Bodrigan. 

Thomas le Archideken. 

Alanus Bloyon. 

Rogerus de Bodrigan. 

Gul. de Lancoik. 

Michael de Northampton. 

Joannes Beuprai^ i.e. de bello prato^ tune senescallo et 
vicecomite nostro Cornubiae. 

Datum apud Watlington 12. anno reg. Richardi regis 
Ro. et comitis Cornubiae. 

Ex vita S. Fimbarri. p. 94. 

Fimbarrus in Durconensi natus oppido. 

Erat enim films Armagin, filii Diducui^ filii Airth^ 
filii Flavit, filii Ecocac, filii Caprii Degen^ quern bestia 
nutrivit in heremo. 

Fimbarrus in baptismo Joannes dictus. 

Postea a pulchritudine capillorum Fimbarrus dictus. 

Corpensis episcopus praeceptor Fimbarri. 

Fimbarrus Albaniam petiit. 

Fimbarrus consecratus in episcopum a Gregorio epi- 
scapo Ro. 

Fimbarrus in Hiberniam rediens fit episcopus Cor- 
cagensis. 

Nomina Episcoporum Exon. Eccl. Devonshire. 

Leofricus. Joannes Graunson. 

Osbertus. Thomas Brantingham. 

. Gul. Wanvest. Gul. Courteney. 

[* This sentence Leland wrote in the margin.] 



236 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire. Robertus. Edmundus Stafforde. 

Barptolemeus. John Katerek. 

Joannes. Edmundus Lacey. 

Henricus. Georgius Neville. 

Simon. John Bouth. 

Gul. Brewer. Peter Courteney. 

Rtchardus. Richardus Fox. 

Gualterus primus.* Oliver King. 

Petrus. John Arundel. 

Thomas By tton. Richard Redmayne. 

Gualterus Stapleton. Hugo Oldeham. 
James Berkeley. 

The cathedrale chirch of Excester remaynid after the 
tyme of Leofricus, the first Bisshop of Excester, after one 
rate to the tyme of Peter the first, that began the cathedrale 
chirch, now standing in Excester, and levied a subsidie of 
the clargie of his diecese to the setting forward of it. 

Joannes de Grandisono Bisshop of Excester enlargid the 
west part of the chirch, making vij. archis wher afore the 
plot was made but of v. 

This Joannes voltid the body of the cathedrale chirch of 
Excester. 

This Joannes Grandisonus convertid the landes and frutes 
of S. Marie Oterey to a collegiate chirch. 

Sum think that ther was a celle of French monkes at 
Oterey: or an house of religion yn Fraunce with landes 
there. The wich celle or landes Graunson convertid to the 
use of the college now beyng in Oterey. 

This Joannes Grandisonus chaungid an hold fundation of 
an hospital of S. John's in Excester and melioratid it, putting 
crossid brethern in it. 

This Joannes Grandisonus turnid an old almose house of 
xij. poore menne, and as many women, to whom nomination 
Calender was given fratres Calendarum, to the use of the logging of the 
Hey. vicares chorales in the cathedrale chirch of Excester. 

Brentingham Bisshop of Excester finishid this college in 
building. 

Hugh Oldham Bisshop of Excester gave and procurid a 

[* Burton has Walterus de Brounescombe.] 



PART III 237 

litle celle [of freres] Ordinis S. Trinitatis at Tot[enes]. . . . Devonshire, 
[comune tablinge in the] . . . 

Joannes de Grandisono collectid the legendes as they be fo. 37. 
now redde in divine services in the diocese of Excester. 

Bisshop Stapleton of Excester voltid the Presbyterie. 

Bisshop Stapleton made also the riche front of stone worke 
at the high altare in the cathedrale chirch of Excester: and 
also made the riche silver table in the midle of it. Yet sum 
say that Bisshop Lacye made this sylver table; but ther is no 
lykelyhod yn it. 

Bisshop Neville, as I hard say, made the Chapitre House 
as it is now at Excester. 

Syns I hard that Edmund Lacy began the Chapitre House, 
and Neville performid it. 

Ex Chronico quodam. 

S. Edwardus Confessor a regni sui sexto Dnl n. 

1044. quidam Lewinus habuit istos tres episcopatus, 

Wigorniensem, Cornnbiensem et Cridiensem. Is toque 

mortuo, successit ei Leofricus ultimus Epus Cornuliae et 

primus Exon. 

Ex Tabula quadam de Genealogia Joannis 
Grandisoni Epl Exon. 

Hie erat filius Gul. Grandisonidegenere Imperatoris, 
qui frater fuit nobilissimi Dnl Othonis de Grandisono 
in Burgundia Dioecesis Lausenensis ubi Castrum de 
Grandisono est situmfirmis saxis. 

Mater istius Episcopi erat Dna Sybillafilia et semi- 
heres Domini Joannis Tregor decora, Dnl Castri de 
Ewisham Herefordiam juxta, ubi terras, dominia pos- Ewis. 

sidebat et castra. 

Qui Tregor fuit filius Dnae Julianae sororis S*. 
Thomae de Cantilupo Epl Herefordensis. 

Idem Joannes Grandison habebat quatuor fratres ger- 
manos nobiles Petrum et Othonem Milites, Thomam ac 
Gulielmum clericos spirituales, temporalia et spiritualia 
strenue regent es. 

Insuper idem Episcopus quatuor sorores habebat, Ag- 
netem, quae Dno Joanni de Nonvode nubebat, Mabillam 



238 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire, secundam Dns Joannes de Pateshul ducebat, qui multos 
viriliter bellando devincebat^ Matildem tertiam monialem 
ac priorissam de Acornebyri^ et vita semper devotissimam. 
Catarinam quartam Dno Gulielmo spetiosam * De Monte 
Acuto Comiti de* Sarum nuptam; de qua duos filios cito 
progenuit, Gulielmum, qui unicam filiam maritavit Dm 
Edmundi nobilis Comitis tune Cantiae, Fratris Edwardi 
RegiS) utentis tune Corona Angliae. Edwardus Rex a 
Conquestu 2 s . erat iste. 

Joannes secundus filius audacitatis mirae Dnl Thomae 
de Monthermer unicam filiam duxit, cujus Mater Joanna 
fo. 38. Comitissa Gloverniae fuitsoror praedicti Edwardi Regis ^ 
militiaque floruit. 

Ex eadem Catarina Gulielmus $. filias genuit. 

Prima erat Elizabeth, formosa vocabatur, Dno Egidio 
de Badelesmer statim maritatur. Et post mortem illius 
Dno Hugoni Spenser sponsatur. Qui in suis actibus 
militiosus vocabatur. 

Secundafilia nomine vocata Sybilla Edmundo filio et 
heredi libere fuit data Comitis Arundeliae: et tertia 
Philippa Rogero de Mortuo mart quam cito conjugata. 

Obiit Joannes Graunson\ praesul Exon. a. milleno 
ter centeno sexageno undeno. 

This inscription is graven in a flatte marble stone, under 
the which Guliam Bruer Bisshop of Excester is buried : 

Hicjacet Gul. Bruer Epus Exon. primus fundator quatuor 
dignitatum hujus Ecclesie. 

The Graunt of King Edward the Confessor was that the 
landes of viij. monkes that were yn his tyme yn the abbay of 
Excester should be distributid emong 20. prebendaries. 

From Excester to Cowley Bridge about a mile. There 
brekith out a litle above this bridge an arme out of Ex ryver 
as I cam to the bridge ripa citer., and after dryving certein 
milles returnith into Ex above Excester. 

From Cowley Bridge to Syriok Newton a Bridg of 4. archis 

[* Spetiosam^ etc. Leland has perhaps misplaced this word in copy- 
ing it should follow quartam ; he also wrote comiti sic for comiti de 
Sarum. ] 

[t For his place of burial see before, p. 227.] 

a Newton St. Gyres. 



PART III 239 

over Cride a Ryver a 2. miles dim. and half a mile farther is Devonshire 
the village or tounlet of Syriak Newton. 

From Newton to Crideton 2. miles. 

The ground betwixt Excester and Crideton b exceding fair 
corn, gresse and wood. 

There is a praty market in Kirton. b 

The toun usith clothing, and most therby lyvith. 

The place wher the old cathedrale chirch of Crideton 
stoode is now occupied with buildinges of houses by the 
new chirch yarde side. The olde chirch was dedicate to 
S. Gregory. 

The chirch ther now stonding hath no maner or token of 
antiquite. 

One Sir John Scylley a knight and his wyfe sumtyme 
dwellyng in that paroche be buried in the north part of the 
transsept of this. 

The bisshop of Excester hath a maner place or palace by 
the chirch yarde, and to this ma[ner place longijth a pa[rk]e. 

Ther is a deane, and he is as the curate ; but he is no fo. 39 
prebendarie of course. 

Ther be xij. good prebendes in Kirton, beside certen bur- 
saries, ministers and choristes. 

Crideton stondith on the [west *] ripe of Cride Water. 

Cride Water risith about a 2. miles by north west above 
Crideton, and so descendith to Crideton, and 3 miles dim. 
lower goith under Newton Bridg of 4. arches, and thens 
about a ij. miles dim. lower rennith under a stone bridge 
of 2. arches cawllid ... and scant half a mile lower goith 
flat south into Ex river a litle above Cowley Bridge. 

From Excester to Clist c Bridg a 3. [myles.] Under this 
stone bridge archid rennith a pratie broke caullid . . . 

This broke goyng about half a mile lower rennith by Clist, 
the Bisshop of Excester goodly manor place. 

A 5. miles farther I passid by a forde over a riveret caullid 
Tale, that a mile dim. lower above S. Mari Oterey toun goith 
into Oterey Water. 

Ther is a bridge off stone by the ford of Tale. From this 

[* Suggested by Burton.] 



B Creedy. b Crediton. c Clyst. 



2 4 o LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire, ford of Tale I rode about [a 2. miles] farther to Veniton a 
Bridges, [where Oterey] Water is devidid into 4. armes by 
pollicy to serve grist and tukking milles. 

Apon 3. of these streames I roode by fair stone bridges. 

The first arme of the 4. was the leste, and had no bridg 
that I markid. On the north side of the first bridge was a 
chapelle now prophanid. 

S. Marie Oterey town is ... from Veniton bridgges. 

From Veniton bridges to Honiton a 2. miles on the est 
ripe of Oter River. 

Honiton is a fair long thorough fare and market toun, 
longging to Courteney of Powdreham : beyng just xij. miles 
from Excester by est in the high way to London. 

A litle beyond Honiton* I left London way on the right 
hond and rode north est 3. miles to Mohun's Oterey. 

The hedde and course of Oterey. b 

Oterey risith flat north a 5. miles above Mohun's Oterey 
at about a place caullid Oterford. 

Thens it rennith a 4. miles to a village caullid Upoter. c 

Thens a mile to Mohun's Oterey. 

Mohun's Oterey sumtyme caullid Oterey Fleming. Syr 
George Carew hath a goodly maner parke at Mohun's Oterey. 

Syr George Carew told me that this lande [was not of the] 
fo. 40. landes [of Mohuns, Erles of Somerset], but of a nother 
Mohun, of whos name ther were Barons. 

He said that Mohun of Somersetshire the Erie bare in 
gold a crosse ingraile sabelles : and that Mohun of Devon- 
shir gave the arme with the pouderid maunch. Much of the 
land that this Mohun had cam by an heir general of one 
Fleming, that was Lord of Stoke Fleminges lordship and 
the castelle at Dertmouth. 

Alanus Fleming was a notable man in that Stoke. 

Carew maried an heir general of the Stoke of Mohun of 
Devonshir. 

[* The letters ing are written above, showing the second form, 
Honington.] 
* 
a Feniton. b Oter r. c Upottery. 



PART III 241 

Carew trew name Montgomerik, and he is written thus in Devonshire, 
old evidence, Montgomerik Dns de Carew. M OHS 

Syr Nicolas Carew cam out of this stok. ricus. 

The very auncient armes of the Carews be 3. lions sabelle 
in gold. 

Ther was and is a chapelle of S. Patrike, as I remember, yn 
the castelle of Dartemouth : and it hath beene yn tymes paste, 
as it apperith, sum litle celle annexid to sum great abbay. 

Oterey goith from Mohun's Oterey to Honiton a 3. miles. 

Thens to Veniton Bridge a 2. miles. 

Thens to S. Mary Oterey. 

Oterey goith from S. Marie to Newton Bridge about a mile fo. 41. 
of. 

Thens to Oter Mouth and the very se a v. miles. 

Oterton a praty fischar toun standith on the est side of 
the haven about a mile from Otermouth. 

And on the west side of the haven is Budelegh a right 
almost again Oterton: but it is sumwhat more from the 
shore than Oterton. 

Lesse then an hunderith yeres sins shippes usid this haven, 
but it is now clene barrid. 

Sum caulle this haven Budeley Haven of Budeley toun. 

The mouth of Oterey Haven lyith south west. 

Ther is a fisshar village lower then Oterton, even at the 
very est south est point of Otermouth. This village is caullid 
Salterne, and hath beene in tymes past a thing of sum esti- 
mation: and of this village the haven of Otermouth was 
caullid Saltern Haven: or pera venture of a crek cumming 
out of the mayn haven into it. 

From Mohun's Oterey to Colington b v. miles by good 
corne pasture and sum wood. 

About a mile or I cam to Colington I saw from an hille 
Shoute, c a right goodly maner place, a mile of on an hille 
side of the Lord Marquise of Dorsete, and by it a goodly 
large parke. 

The toun self of Colington is no very notable thing; the 
personage of it is impropriate to ... 

The Bisshop of Excester's Chauncelar is vicar of this town 
and a fair house ther. 

a Budleigh Salterton. b Colyton. c Shute Hill. 

R 



242 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire. Coley a river rennith under the rote of an hille that this 
town stondith on. 

This brooke risith, as I could esteme, by west north west 
a ... miles from Colington, by the which it rennith: and 
then, as I markid, it passith by Colecombe Park hard by 
Colington lately longging to the Marquise of Excester, and 
thens going a mile and more enterith betwixt Axbridge and 
Axmouth towne into Ax ryver. 

From Colington to Seton now a mene fisschar toun scant 
2. mile. 

I passid over Cole Water a again at Coliford, or I cam to 
Seton. 

Ther hath beene a very notable haven at Seton : b but 
now ther lyith betwen the 2. pointes of the old haven a 
mighty rigge and barre of pible stones in the very mouth 
of it: and the ryver of Ax is dryven to the very est point of 
the haven caullid Whit Clif, and ther at a very smaul gut 
goith into the se : and her cum [in smaull fishar botes] for 
socour. 

fo. 42. The town of Seton in now but a meane thing, inhabited 
with fischar men, it hath bene far larger when the haven 
was good. The Abbate of Shirburne was lord and patrone 
of it. 

On the west part over an hille byyond Seton is Wiscombe, 
a fair maner place, sumtyme the Lord Bonvilles; now long- 
ging to the Marquise of Dorsete. 

Ther longgid and doth yet a chapelle to Seton caullid 
Bereword nere the shore, and ther is an hamlet of fischar 
men. 

There was begon a fair pere for socour of shippelettes at 
this Bereword : but ther cam such a tempest a 3. yeres sins 
as never in mynd of [men] had before was sene in that 
shore, and tare the pere in peaces. 

The men of Seton began of late day to stake and to make 
a mayne waulle withyn the haven, to have divertid the 
course of Ax ryver, and ther almost in the midle of the old 
haven * to have trenchid thorough the Chisille, and to have 

[* Leland here repeats "and ther," omitted.] 



Coly r. b Seaton. 



PART III 243 

let out Ax and receyvid in the mayn se : but this purpose Devonshire, 
cam not to effect. 

Me thought that nature most wrought to trench the Chisil 
hard by Seton toun, and ther to let in the se. 

The west point of Axmouth Haven is caullid Bereword, a 
scant half a mile distant from the very toune of Seton. 

[Sidmouth a] fisschar toun with a broke 5 [of that name an]d 
a bay, vj. miles west Set[on] ... by west above Sidfmouth.] 

The est point of Axmouth Haven is caullid White Clif. 

These 2. pointes be almost a mile- in distance. 

The veri issue and mouth of Ax into the se at this tyme is 
hard under the rootes of Whiteclif. 

I passid from Seton at ebbe over the salt marsches and the 
ryver of Ax to Axmouth, an old and bigge fischar toune on 
the est side of the haven. 

The Priory of Sion was lord patrone here. 

And heere I lernid that ther is an abbay in Normandy 
caullid Mountborow, 6 and this place shewith by writinges 
that Axmouth, Sidmouth and Oterton were celles to it. 

The Descent and Course of the Ryver of Ax 
from the Hed. 

Ax risith a mile est from Bemistre, d a market toun in 
Dorsetshir, at a place caullid Ax Knolle, a ground longging 
to Sir Giles Strangwais in a more on the hangging of an 
hille : and thens rennith south west a 4. miles to Forde 
Abbay, stonding in Devonshire on the farther ripe of it. And 
here about it is a limes to Devonshir and Somersetshir. 

Ax thens rennith to Axminstre, a pratie quik market toun 
a 3. miles lower ripa citeriori. Th[is toun] is in Devonshir. 

The personage of Axmister, as I lernid, is impropriate to fo. 43. 
the chirch of York. 

The chirch of Axmistre is famose by the sepultures of 
many noble Danes slain in King yEthelstanes time at a 
bate! on Brunesdoun therby: and by the sepultures likewise 
[of*] sum Saxon lordes slain in the same feld. 

[* Hearne. Leland omits.] 



Beer. b The Sid r. c Monteburgh Abbey. 

d Beaminster, 



244 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Devonshire. Ax thens rennith thorowgh Axmistre bridge of stone about 
a quarter of a mile lower then Axmistre town. 

Sumwhat lower then this bridge enterith Yartey ryver, 
being sumtyme a raging water, into Ax ryver. 

Artey risith by north west, and enterith into Ax by est. 

Ther is a stone bridge on Artey about half a mile from the 
place wher it enterith into Ax. 

This bridge of sum is caullid Kilmington Bridge, a village 
not very far from it. 

About half a mile lower then Axmistre Bridge is Newen- 
ham, sumtyme an abbay of Bernardines, of the foundation 
of Mohun Erie of Somerset, and it stondith on the hither 
ripe of Ax to the est in Devonshire. 

[Ax rennith] a mile dim. lower thorough [Ax bridg of] 2. 
archis of stone. This bridg servith not to passe over at 
high tydes, otherwise it doth. 

Thens Ax rennith half a mile lower to Axmouth town. 

And a quarter of a mile lower it goith undre White Clif 
into the occean se, ther caullid Ax Bay. a 

Dorsetshire. From Axmouth to Lime b a 4. miles by meatly good ground 
but no plenty of wood. 

Lime is a praty market toun set in the rootes of an high 
rokky hille down to the hard shore. 

This town hath good shippes, and usith fisshing and 
marchauntice. 

Merchauntes of Morleys in Britaine much haunt this 
town. 

Ther cummith a shalow brooke from the hilles about a 
3. miles of by north, and cummith fleting on great stone 
thorough a stone bridge in the botom. 

The tounes men communely caul this water the Buddel. d 

One Borowgh a marchaunt man in time of minde buildid 
a fair house in Lime, having a goodly towr at the entery 
of it. 

Ther is but one paroch chirch in Lime. 

Ther is no haven at Lime : but a quarter of a mile by 
[west south] west the toun is a great and . . . [in the sea 
for succour of shippes.] 



a Seaton Bay. 



b Lyme Regis. 
d ? Lyme r, 



Morlaix in Brittany. 



PART III 245 

Lime is distant from Colington a v. miles. Dorsetshire. 

From Colington * to Charm outh by metly goode ground a fo. 44. 
good fisshar toune, a long mile. 

Here I first passid a litle broket, and after in the very 
botom and farther end of the toun I passid over Charebroke, a 
that a litle lower goith into the se: and of this ryver the 
town takith the name. 

Chare Water risith a 3. miles above Charemouth by north 
in a park of the Kinges caullid Marsche Woodde. 

From Charmouth to Chidwik b a -3. miles by meatly good 
grounde. This is a fisshar town distant a mile from the 
shore. Arundale of Lanheron in Cornwaul is lord of this 
town, and hath a manor place and park there. 

In the farther end of this town I passid over a broke that 
thens resortith to the se. 

From Chidwik to Bridport by corne, pasture and wood, 
2. miles. 

At the west ende of this town rennith a ryver : and going 
a mile lower enterith into the ocean. 

Nature hath so set this ryver mo[uth] in a [valley by]twixt 
2. hilles that with [cost the se] might be brought in, and [an 
haven] made. 

Britport, of sum written Bruteport, is a fair larg town, and 
the chief streat of it lyith in lenght from west to est. 

Ther crosse a nother fair strete in midle of it into the 
south. At the north ende of this streate is a chapelle of 
S. Andreas, wher sum say that the paroch chirch was yn old 
tyme. 

The paroch chirch of the town is now stonding in the 
south end of this streate. 

I saw a tumbe on the north side of the high altare in this 
chirch having this inscription: 

Hie jacet Gulielmus^ filius Elizabeth de Julers, Comitissae 
Cantiae, consanguineae Philippae quondam Reginae Angl. 

[* Leland has here written Colyton in error for Lyme.] 

[t This William was sonne of Sir Eustace Dabregecourt Kt. second 

sonne of the L. Dabridgecourt in Renault, and of this Elizabeth, 

daughter of Gerrard E. of Juliers, the widowe of John Plantaginet E. 

of Kent, sonne of Edmund of Woodstock E. of Kent, and brother to 



a Char r. b Chideock. 



246 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Dorsetshire. Ther was in sight or ever I cam over the ryver into Brit- 
port a Lazar House : and not far of a chapelle of S. Magda- 
lene in the which is a cantuarie foundid. 

And over the bridge a litle by west in the town is a 
chapelle of S. John. 

Ther is also a chapelle in the town of S. Michael. 

The town longgith to the king and hath privilege for a 
market and 2. bailives. 

From Britport to the north west point of the Chisil a [ren- 
ning] from Portland thither about [a 5. miles by] shore 
somewhat baying. 

fo. 45. The Course of the Ryver that cummith to Britporte. 

This ryver b risith by north litle more then half a mile 
above Bemistre, and descendith as yet a smaul water down 
by the est ende of Bemistre under a litle stone bridge of 2. 
praty arches. 

Bemistre is a praty market town in Dorsetshire, and usith 
much housbandry, and lyith in one streat from north to 
south : and in a nother from west to est. 

Ther is a fair chapelle of ease in this town. Netherby 
is the paroch chirch to it: and Bemistre is a prebend to the 
chirch of Saresbyri. 

Bemistre is but 4. miles from Crookeshorn, d a market in 
Somersetshir by north from Bemistre. 

Hoke e Park having an auncient maner place on it is but 
a mile dim. by est south est from Bemistre. 

Shirburn is 6. miles toward the est from Bemistre. 

The ryver goith from Bemistre a mile lower to Netherbiry 
an uplandisch toun, leving it on an hille on the farther ripe 
toward the west. Heere be 3. prebendes togither longging 
to the chirch of Saresbyri. 

The first is communely caullid Netherbyri in Ecclesiis. 
Antonie Chalcedonie hath this. 

K. E. 2. This William was brother to Sanchet Dabridgcourt Kt. and 
one of the founders of the Garter. Elizabeth was buried in the White- 
Freres at Winchester. Note by Burton, MS. a, p. 77. The margin is 
injured, but must have been whole in Hearne's day.] 



a Chesil Bank. b Brit r. c Netherbury. 

d Crewkerne. e Hooke. 



PART III 247 

The secund is caullid Netherbyri in terris. Dorsetshire. 

The 3. is caullid . . . 

The ryver from Netherbyri rennith a 3. miles lower on 
to Britport Bridg. And a mile lower by south into the se. 

I rode from Britport 3. miles to Netherbyri, and then a 
mile farther to Bemistre. 

The ground al this way is in an exceding good and almost 
the best vain of ground for corne, and pasture, and wood, 
that is in al Dorsetshire. 

I rode from Bemistre a mile to the toppe of an high 
hille, and ther I left not far of on the lift hande northworde 
Ax Knolle, wher Ax ryver risith that goith to Axmouth. 

Then I rode a mile farther by corn, pasture and wood. 

And after a 3. miles most by morisch but good pasture 
ground for brede of catelle onto Evershot, a right homble 
and poore market toun. 

And so a mile to Milbyri a by very good ground. 

Mr. Strangeguayse hath now a late much buildid at Myl- 
byri \lapide*\quadrato, avauncing the inner part of the house 
with a loftie and fresch tower. 

Ther be 2. of the Browninges sumtyme lordes of Milbyri 
that hath tumbes in the chirch hard by the maner place. 

Hie jacet Joan. Bruning, filius et heres Joan. Bruning et fo. 46. 
Aliciae ux. ejus, filiae et heredis Joan. Mautravers Militis, 
qui fuit 2. filius Joan. Mautravers Militis Dnl de Hoke: et 
Alenora uxor ejus, filia et una heredum Thomae Fitznicolle 
Militis, Dnl de Hulle jtixta Berkeley in Comit. Glocestr., qui 
quidem Joan, obiit 16. die Decembr. a". D. 1416. 

Hie jacet Gul. Brouningarmiger, filius Joan. Brouning de 
Melbury, armigeri, et Alienorae uxoris ejus, filiae et unius 
heredum Thomae Fitznicol Dnl de Hul juxta Berkle in 
Comit. Glocest: et Katarina ux. ejus, filia Laurentii Dnl de 
Southcote juxta Reding in Comit. Barkshir: ac Alicia Burton 
postea uxor praed. Gul., filia Joannis Burton, et Isabellae ux. 
ejus, filiae et hered. Joan. Twiford armigeri; quae quidem 
Alicia hanc tumbam fieri fecit a. D. 1467. 

These epitaphies were writen apon 2. tumbes yn the 

[* Hearne adds, Leland omits.] 



Melbury. 



248 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Dorsetshire, chirch at Melbury. But I lernid there that a saying was, 
that the body of one of these Bruninges was buried at 
Milton Abbay, and the body of the ither to Cerne. 



Cornwall. 



Dorset. 

fo. 47. 



Somerset. 



Inscriptions made * at the Request of Master Trewry 
at the Castelle of St. Maw's. 



Henricus act. Rex. Angl. Franc, et Hiberniae invictissimus 
me posuit praesidium reipubl. terrorem hostibus. 

Imperio Henrici naves submittite vela. 
Semper honos, Henrice, tuus laudesque manebunt. 
Edwardus fama referat factisque parentem. 
Gaudeat Eduuardo duce nunc Cornubiafelix. 

Ther is a fair park hard by the maner place of Milbyri. 

And yn this park is a pond, out of the wich issuith a 
broketh that with the course of a right few miles goith into 
Ivelle a ryver. 

The Stranguaise cam to this lordship by purchace. 

From Milbyri up the hille about a mile by frutefulle and 
meatly welle woddid ground. 

Then a vj. miles stille by champaine ground on an high 
rigge, wher in sight was litle corn and no wood, but al about 
great flokkes of shepe, from whom al the ground therabout 
is very propice. 

Here at the ende of the rigge or I descendid I markid to 
brookes going to Fraw or Frome ryver : 

The one caullid Sidling or Silling going into Frome about 
Bradeforde on the right hond, and this broket rennith not 
from the hed past a 2. miles. 

The other was on the lift hand cumming from Combe 
Valaunce and goith into Frome. 

Thens I passid down the hille to Frome toun a praty hus- 

* " By Mr. Leland himself" (note to Hearne, 2nd edition). St. Mawes 
Castle, Cornwall, was built in 1 542. It seems an afterthought to record 
these inscriptions here. 



Yeovil. 



PART III 



249 



Dorsetshire. 



band town a mile of, and so I passid at the tounes [? end] Somerset. 
over a bridge [of 3. arches]* stonding on Frome water. 

The Course of the Water of Fraw or Frome from the 
Hedde. 

Sum say, that the farthest spring of Frome is at a place 
caullid Kenford about a 2. miles above Hooke Park. 

The most common opinion is, that Frome risith in a great 
pond in Hoke Park and thens goith to . . .f 

Thens to Frome toun lying on the south west side of the 
ryver. 

Thens to miles to Bradeford a stonding on the same ripe 
of Frome. 

Thens 2. miles to Dorchester. 

Fordington bridge off Stone is a litle beneth Dorchester 
town. 

About a 2. miles lower is Woddeford b Castelle on the lift 
hond and ripe, as the streame cummith down. 

Thens to Wolle c bridge a 5. miles. 

Byndon is a litle lower then Wolle bridge, and stondith 
on the right hond and ripe as the ryver descendith. 

Thens scant 3. miles to Holme on the right hond and 

ripe. And a litle lower about a quarter of a mile lower is z/ , n 
r . , . , f Holm a 

Holme bridge of 4. arches. . . .J to Montegue. 

From Frome to Uphil d al by hilly ground, baren of wood fo. 48. 
but exceding good for shepe, a 4. miles. 

At this Uphil on the right hond as I cam is the very 
hedde of Way ryver, that of sum ys caullid Wile. 

Heere I cam into the way that ledith from Dorchester to 
Waymouth 3. good miles distant from this place, by al the 
which way I rode as yn a base level ground. 

[* Stow leaves the figure blank ; Burton adds it, as well as the word 
end after tounes ; which Leland may have intended but let slip.] 

[t Blank of several lines. ] 

[I A line of the MS. is gone here at the bottom of the page. A 
word follows arches which is obscure, then Stow reads on, Warwam 
bridge of 6 arches 2 miles lower, where he evidently found some diffi- 
culty in the first word, which may possibly be the obscure one still 
existing. ] 



a Bradford Peverell. 



b Woodsford. 
d Up way. 



c Wool. 



250 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Dorsetshire. Dorchester is 8. miles from Waymouth. 

Ther is a townlet on the hither side of the haven of 
Waymouth caullid Miltoun a beyng privilegid and having a 
mair. This toun, as it is evidently scene, hathe beene far 
bigger then it is now. The cause of this is layid onto the 
French-men that yn tymes of warre rasid this towne for lak 
of defence. For so many houses as be yn the town they be 
welle and strongly buildid of stone. Ther is a chapelle of 
ease in Milton. The paroch chirch is a mile of: a manifest 
token that Milton is no very old town. 

Ther was a fair house of Freres in the est part of the town : 
and the chief house of the Rogers in Dorsetshir was founder 
and patrone of it. 

Milton stondith as a peninsula by reason of the water of 
the haven that a litle above the toun spreddith abrode and 
makith a bay: and by the bay of the mayne se that gulfith 
in on the other side. 

The tounlet of Waymouth lyith strait agayn Milton on the 
other side of the [haven], and at this place the water of the 
haven is but of a smaul brede : and the trajectus is by a bote 
and a rope bent over the haven; so that yn the fery boote 
they use no ores. 

Waigmouth hath certein libertees and privileges, but ther 
is no mair yn it. Ther is a kay and warf for shippes. 

By this toune on an hille is a chapelle of ease. The 
paroche chirch is a mile of. 

The ryver of Way b or Wile risith not 4. miles ful above 
Waymouth by north west at Uphil in the side of a great 
hille. 

The se ebbith and flowith up aboute a 2. miles beyond 
Weymouth. 

Ther is a litle barre of sand at the haven mouth. 
fo. 49. There rennith up by the right hond of the haven a great 
arme of the se: and scant a mile above the haven mouth on 
the shore of this arme is a right goodly and warlyke castel 
made, having one open barbicane. 

This arme rennith up farther a mile as in a bay to a point 
of land wher a trajectus is into Portland by a long causey of 
pible and sand. 

a Melcombe Regis. b Wey r. 



PART III 251 

This arme goith up from the strait of the trajectus and Dorsetshire 
is of a good bredth, and so se lyke goith up to Abbates-Byri 
about a vij. miles of, where is a litle fresch * resorting to 
the se. 

A litle above Abbates-Byri is the hed or point of the 
Chisil lying north weste, that from thens streachf up 7. miles 
as a maine narow banke by a right line on to south est, and 
ther buttith on Portland scant a quarter of a mile above the 
new castell in Portland. 

The nature of this bank of Chisil is such that as often as 
the wind blowith strene at south est so often the se betith 
it and losiththe bank [and so]kith thorough it; so that if this 
winde might most continually blow there this bank should 
sone be beten away and the se fully enter and devide 
Portland, making it an isle, as surely in tymes past it hath 
beene as far as I can by any conjecture gather. 

But as much as the south est wind dooth bete and breke 
of this Chisille bank, so much doth the north west wynd 
again socor, strengith and augmentith it. 

On the farther point of the trajectus into Porteland cum- 
ming from Waymouth is a point of land like a causey al of 
pible and sand cast up by rages of the se, wheron I went 
scant a mile to the lowest part of the rotes of the high 
ground of Portland, wher a late a right strong and mag- 
nificent castel is buildid. a 

And from this castelle to the very south est point of the 
Chisil is but a litle way : and the arme of the se that goith 
up to Abbates-Byri gulfith in bytwixt the south est point of 
the Chisil and the castelle. 

Portland. 

Portland hath bene of auncient tyme be al likelihod en- o. 50. 
vironid with the se, and yet berith the name of an isle. It is 
eminent and hilly ground on the shore of it, and a great 
plain yn the midle of it. The cumpace of it is countid to 
be about a 7. miles. But if a man should cumpace it by the 

[* Litle fresch, i.e., a freshet. L. T. S.] 
[t I.e., stretchith. Stow has streathe.] 



Portland Castle, built in 1520. 



252 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Dorsetshire, very rootes and depe shore the cumpace wold mount to a 
x miles. 

The soile is sum what stony : and the shore very rokky. 
The isle is fruteful of corn and gresse: and hath plenty of 
sheepe. 

There be at this present tyme about a 80. housis in the 
isle. Ther hath beene al most as many mo as it apperith 
by ruines. 

There is but one streat of houses in the isle, the residew 
be sparkelid. 

There is a castelet or pile not far from [the] streate : and 
is set on an high rokke hard by the se cliffes a litle above 
the est ende of the chirch. 

The paroche chirch that is but one at this tyme in the isle, 
is longe and sumwhat low, buildid in the hangging rootes of 
an hille by the shore. 

This chirch and paroche is about a mile dim. to go the 
next way to it from the kinges new castelle in the isle : and 
to go to it by cumpace of the shore it is 3. miles or more. 
Sum say that in tymes past ther was a nother paroch chirch 
in the isle : but I there lernid no certente of it. 

There be very few or utterly no trees in the isle, saving 
the elmes about the chirch. Ther wold grow more if they 
were ther plantid ; yet is the isle very bleke. 

The people bring wood thither out of Wight and other 
places. They brenne also cowe dung dryed with the hete of 
the sunne. 

The people of the isle lyve most now by tillage, and 
sumwhat faulle from fisshing. 

The people be good th[er in] slyngging * of stonys, and use 
it for defence of the isle. 

fo. 51. The people ther be politique inough in selling theyr com- 
moditees and sumwhat avaritiose. 

The personage sette in the high streat is the best building 
in the isle. 

The Bisshop of Winchester is patrone of the chirch. 

The isle is the kinges: and much of the land there is 
holden by ... of hym. 

[* Hearne rezdijlyngging, but the long stroke common to/ and s has 
no cross-stroke. The letters are faint. Stow omits this sentence.] 



PART III 253 

From the est south est point of the haven of Waymouth Dorsetshire, 
caullid S. Aldelmes Point, a beyng a litle foreland, is a litle 
bay scant of a 2. miles, by the which I rode: and vij. mile 
farther I saw on the shore a litle fisshar toun caullid Lille- 
worth," sumtyme longging to the Newborows now to Poyn- 
inges, wher is a gut or creke out [of] the se into the land, 
and is a socour for smaul shippes. 

West Lilleworth on the west side of the creke. 

Est Lilleworth is a mile and more from West Lilleworth 
and standith up into the land. 

The soile betwixt Waymouth and West Lilleworth is not 
very frutefulle, apter for catelle then corn, and no great 
plenty of wood. But about Est Lilleworth is metely good 
ground, plenty of wood. 

The goodly maner place of the Newborowes, lordes of Est 
Lilleworth, is hard by the paroch chirch. 

The Newborows sepulchres were at Byndon Abbay wherof 
they were founders. 

The laste of that name, whos doughter and heyre was 
maried to Syr Henry Marney, dyid in Estsax or Southfolk, 
and ther was byried. 

There stondith a tumbe in Est Lilleworth chirch that was 
erectid for his buryal. 

The genealogie of the Newborows and the name of heires 
general that they maried with be yn glasse windows in a 
parler in the maner place at Est Lilleworth. 

Wher as the limites of Est Lilleworth do end, ther begin- fo. 52. 
nith Porbek forest ground. 

(Loke whither Purbeke be not so corruptely caullid for 
Corbek.)* 

From Est Lilleworth to Holme a celle to Montegue, and a 
litle lower to Holm bridge a 2. miles, f most by low and 
blake morisch ground, over growen with heth and mosse. 

Thens to Ware by much like ground, saving that about 
Wareham self the ground is frutefuller. 

[* This is a side note of Leland's. ] 

[t Leland inserts "of 4. miles" over "a 2. miles," by way of cor- 
rection.] 



a Or St. Albans. b Lulworth. 



254 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Dorsetshire. The lenght of Wareham, as it is now, is from north to 
south. 

Ther is at the south end a fair bridge of vj. archis apon 
Fraw or Frome ryver. 

Wareham is now, within the waulles faullen doun, made 
into gardeins for garlike. 

I have the description of Wareham in an other Itinerarie 
of myne.* 

A 2. forow lenghtes out of Wareham by north is a great 
bridge of vi. archis over Trent ryver, alias Pyddildour. a 

The Course of Trente. 

From Wareham to Lichet b village a v. miles by sumwhat 
low and morisch ground, such as is yn Purbek Forest. 

Ther cummith a smaul gut as in a fenny ground out of 
the haven of Pole onto the toun of Lichet or I enterid 
into it. 

When I rode out of Lichet ther lay a way to Pole by a 
fery agayn Pole self: so that by this way Poole is but 2. 
miles from Lichet. 

But I roode from Lichet about : and so Pole is 3. miles 
distant from Lichet. 

Pole is no town of auncient occupying in marchantdise : 
but rather of old tyme a poore fisshar village and an ham- 
melet or member to the paroche chirch. 

It is in hominum memoria much encreasid with fair build- 
ing and use of marchaundise. 

It standith almost as an isle in the haven and hangith by 
north est to the mayne land by the space almost of a flite 
shot. And in this place is a dike, and to it often cummith 
thorough out the hav[en wjater, and here is an [embatelid 
gate] of stone to enter in [to the town.] 

fo. 53. The lenghth of the toun liythe almost fulle by north and 
south. 

The key for the shippes standith south est. 

Ther is a fair toun house of stone by the kay. 

* This record of one of Leland's journeys seems to be lost; I find no 
description of Wareham. 



a Piddle or Trent r. b Lytchett. 



PART III 255 

King Richard the 3. began a pece of a toun waulle at Dorsetshire, 
one ende of the kay; and promisid large thinges to the 
town of Pole. 

I can gather no otherwise, but wheras of old tymes shippes 
cam sumwhat nere Wereham up the haven, and there had 
vente of their wares, and synnes shippes lost their rode ther 
for lak of depth of water shippes kept and resortid nerer to 
Pole toun, and so it by a litle encreasid, and Wareham felle 
clene to ruines. Howbeit Wareham was ons sore rasid in 
the Danes warres. 

Ther is a fair chirche in Pole. a 

Ther lyith agayn the kay a point of land as a causey after 
the fascion of a brode swerd with a sharp [point], the point 
is again the town: the brode parte hangfynge up to the 
land], and by this causey men cum from Lichet to the fery. 

The water of Poole Haven gulfith in on bothe sid of this 
cause or point of ground. 

If a man should round aboute cumpace the water withyn 
the mouth of Poole Haven it wold streach welle toward 20. 
miles. 

There ly 3. isles withyn this haven, wherof the most 
famose is Brunkesey. b Sum say that ther hath bene a paroch 
in it. Ther is yet a chapelle for an heremite, it longid to 
Cerne Abbay. 

Ther be men alyve that saw almost al the town of Pole 
kyverid with segge and risshis. 

Christes-Chirch Twinham viij. miles from Pole. 

From Pole to the haven mouth. . . . 

From the mouth up on the shore by south west is in a bay 
a 3. miles of a fisshar toun caullid Sandwiche, c and ther is a 
peere and a litle fresch. 

The very utter part of Sainct Aldelmus d Point is 5. miles 
from Sandwich. 

And from this point in an other bay lyith west West Lille- 
worth, wher is sum socour for shippes. 

[Waymouthe is countid 20.] miles from Pole. 

From Pole to Winburn 4. miles, wherof 3. and an half be fo. 54. 
by morisch and hethy ground. 

a Poole. b Branksea or Brownsea. c Swanage. 

d St. Alban's. 



256 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Dorsetshire. The soile about Winburn Minstre self is very good for 
corne, grasse and woodde. 

Or I cam into Winburn by half a mile I passid over Aleyn a 
bridg of xij. archis apon Stour. 

Bridges on Stour byneth Blanford Bridg. 

Blanforde Bridge is 4. miles lower on Stour then Stoure- 
ton Minster. b 

From Blanford Bridge to Stourmister b bridge of stone a 
3. miles. 

Thens to Juliane bridge of stone at the one ende of Twin- 
burne, c and half a quarter of a mile lower to Aleyn bridge of 
xij. fair archis at the other ende of Twinburn. 

Thens to Iver bridge of stone a vj. miles lower. 

Thens 2. miles to Christe-Chirch Twinham. 

Christes-Chirch is communely countid to be viij. miles 
from Winburn. 

The toun of Winburn is yet meatly good and reasonably 
welle inhabitid, it hath beene a very large thing, and was in 
price in tyme of the West-Saxon kinges. 

Ther be in and about it diverse chapelles that in tymes 
paste were, as I have lernid, paroche chirchis of the very 
toun of Winburne. 

The Saxon kinges had hard by the toun a castelle now 
caullid Badbyri, d but clerely down. The diches, hilles, and 
site ther of be yet evidently seene, now conyes borough 
in it. 

Ther hath beene sins a fair maner place caullid Kinges- 
ton-Haul, and this is also now in a maner clerely defacid. 
It berith in wrytinges the name of Kingestoun Lascy. 6 
Wherapon I gather that one of the Lacys, predecessors 
onto Henry Lascy Erie of Lincoln, buildid this house, and 
I gather therby also, that the Lascys were lordes of Win- 
burne, and by hym it cam to John of Gaunt Duke of Lan- 
castre, to the which duke [dom] it yet longgith. And the 
fo. 55. courtes for Winburn be yet kept at Kingeston. 

The famose wood of Bathan, now communely caullid of 
sum Bothom, is nat far from Kingeston. 

a Allen r. b Sturminster, c Wimborne. 

d Badbury. e Kingston Lacy. 



PART III 257 

Kingestoun lyith by north west in a maner hard to Win- Dorsetshire, 
burne. 

The chirch of Winburne Minstre was first a nunnery 
erectid by S. Cuthburge. 

It is but of late tymes that a dene and prebendaries were 
inductid into it. 

The cryptes in the est part of the chirch is an old peace 
of work. S. Cuthburga was buryid in the north side of the 
presbyterie. 

King Etheldrede was byried by her> whos tumbe was lately 
repairid, and a marble stone ther layid with an image of a 
king in a plate brasse with this inscription : In hoc loco qui- 
escit corpus S. Etheldredi, regis Westsaxonum, martyris, qui 
a. D i . 827, 13". die Apr. per manus Danorum Paganorum 
occubuit. 

Cuthburga sins was translatid to the est end of the high 
altare. 

Erie John of Somerset, or, as I rather think, John Duke of 
Somerset his sun, lyith buried in a goodly tumbe with his 
wife in the south side of the presbiterie sub arcu. 

There lyith in a goodly large tumbe of marble in the 
south isle by the quire one Barok or Berwike, as I hard say 
there. Lady Margarete mother to Henry the vij. foundid and 
endowid a grammar schole in Winburne. 

The ministers of the chirch of Winburne hath a praty 
house or college to inhabite. 

The Deane hath a fair house. 

The Course of Winburn River. 

Winburn risith a 3. miles by estimation above S. Giles 
Winburne, and so cumming by north est by S. Giles Win- 
burne, wher Mr. Asscheley hath his maner place and park, 
des[cen]dith a 6. miles lower to Wa[de]ford* bridg of 4. 
archis [of stone] in the . . . ende of Winburne town, and fo. 56. 
so goith down half a quarter of a mile lower, and breking 
ynto 2. armes rennith thorough 2. bridges of 3. archis a peace 
in the very town of Winburn, caullid Isebroke Bridges, one 
beyng nere the other: and strait cumming ynto one botom 

[* Part of this word (and of others here) was injured before Stow's 
time he writes it Waileyford, unsteadily.] 

S 



258 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Dorsetshire, goith a litle lower to a mylle, and a litle lower goith into 
Stour by est south est not much above Aleyn Bridge. 

From Winburn to Horton 4. miles much by woddy 
ground. 

This was sumtyme an hedde monasterie, syns a celle to 
Shirburn. The village was now a late brent. 

Here is a litle broke that goith by the botom of the toun, 
and therabout hath 2. litle bridges on it, and goith toward 
S. Giles Ascheley a into Winburne. 

From Horton to Cranbourn a 3. miles al by champain 
ground ha[ving] nother closure nor wood. Cranbourn is a 
praty thorough-fare, and for one streat meatly welle buildid. 

There rennith a fleting bek thorough it, and passid doun 
thorough the streat self on the right hond. I gessid it to 
resorte to Horton, but I am not sure of that. 

Here was sumtyme an hedde abbay, after made a celle to 
Tewkesbyri by an Erie of Glocester. 

From Craneburn I passid about a 2. mile or more, al by 
playne champain ground, leving Blakden, b the kinges great 
park hard on the lift hond. 

Wiltshire. Thens a 6. miles by like ground to Honington a good 
village. 

In the botom of this toun goith a great water, and ther I 
passid over a bridg of a 3. archis, and so [to] Saresbyri c al 
champayn ground a 2. miles. 

This water or ryver is caullid Chalkbourn d ; it risith a vj. 
miles from Shaftesbyri, yn the way betwixt Saresbyri and it, 
a mile from the high way in a botom on the left hond riding 
from Saresbyri to Shaftesbyri, and thens to Honington, cum- 
fo. 57. mith thys ryver, that is about a xij. miles from the hed of 
Chalkbourn Water, and a 2. miles dim. byneth Honington it 
goith into Avon about a mile byneth Harnham bridge. 

And, as I remembre, Mr. Baynton hath a place on this 
water, wher his father was wont to dwelle. 

The toun of New-Saresbyri with the suburbes of Harnham 
Bridge and Fisschertoun is t[w]o good miles in cumpace. 

Ther be many fair streates in the cite of Saresbyri, and 
especially the High Streate, and the Castel Streate, so caullid 



Wimbourne St. Giles. 
c Salisbury. 



b Blagdon. 
a Ebble r. 



PART III 259 

bycause it lyith as a way to the castelle of Old-Saresbyry. Al Wiltshire, 
the streates in a maner of New-Saresbyri hath litle streame- 
lettes and armes derivyd out of Avon that rennith thorough 
them. 

The site of the very toun of Saresbyri and much ground 
therabout is playne and low, and as a pan or receyver of 
most parte of the water of Wyleshire. 

The market place in Saresbyri is very fair and large and 
welle waterid with a renning stremelet ; in a corner of it is 
domus civica, no very curius pece of work but stronly buildid 
of stone. 

The market of Saresbyri is welle servid of flesch; but far 
better of fisch : for a great [parte] of the principal fisch that 
is taken from Tamar to Hampton resortith to this town. 

There be but 2. paroche chirchis in the cyte of Saresbyri, 
wherof the one ys by the ma[r]ket place as in the hart of the 
town, and is dedicate to S. Thomas. 

The other is of S. Edmunde, and is a collegiate chirch of 
the fundation of Delawile Bisshop of Saresbyry. This chirch 
stondith at the north west ende of the toun hard by the 
town diche. 

This diche was made of the tounes men at* such tyme as fo. 58. 
Simon Bisshop of Saresbyri gave licence to the burgeses to 
strengthen the town with an embatelid waulle. 

This diche was thoroughly caste for the defence of the 
town so far as it was not sufficiently defendid by the mayn 
streame of Avon: but the waulle was never begon; yet, as I 
remembre, I saw one stone gate or 2. in the town. 

Harnham bridge was a village long afore the erection of 
New-Saresbyri. and there was a chirch of S. Martine long- 
ging to it. 

There standith now of the remain of the old chirch of S. 
Martin a barne in a very low medow on the north side of 
S. Nicolas Hospital. 

The cause of the relinquisching of it was the moystenes 
of the ground often overflowen. For this chirch was ther 
a new dedicate to S. Martine in a nother place that yet 
standith. 

Licens was get of the king by a Bisshop of Saresbyri to 

[* MS. has as.] 



260 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Wiltshire, turn the kingges high way to New-Saresbyri, and to make a 
mayn bridge [for] passage over Avon at Harnham. 

The chaunging of this way was the totale cause of the 
ruine of Old-Saresbyri and Wiltoun. For afore this Wiltoun 
had a 12. paroch chirches or more, and was the hedde town 
ofWileshir. 

Ther was a village at Fissherton over Avon or ever New- 
Saresbyri was buildid, and had a paroche chirch ther as it 
yet hath. 

In this Fisschertoun, now a suburbe to New-Saresbyri, was 
sins the erection of the new toun an house of Blake Freres 
buildid not far from Fissherton bridge. 

Ther was also an house of Gray Freres withyn the toun of 
Saresbyri of the fundation . . . Bisshop of Saresbyri. 
fo - 59- The cite of Old-Saresbyri standing on an hille is distant 
from the new a mile by north weste, and is in cumpace half 
a mile and more. 

This thing hath beene auncient and exceding strong : but 
syns the building of New-Saresbyri it went totally to ruine. 

Sum think that lak of water caussid the inhabitantes to re- 
linquisch the place; yet were ther many welles of swete water. 

Sum say, that after that in tyme of civile warres that 
castelles and waullid townes wer kept that the castellanes of 
Old-Saresbyri and the chanons could not agre, insomuch 
that the castellanes apon a tyme prohibited them cumming 
home from Procession and Rogation to re-entre the town. 
Wherapon the bisshop and they consulting togither at the 
last began a chirch on their* own propre soyle: and then 
the people resortid strait to New-Saresbyri and buildid ther : 
and then in continuaunce were a gr[eat] numbre of the 
houses of Old-Sare[sbyriJ pullid doun and set up at New- 
Saresbyri. 

Osmund Erie of Dorchestre and after Bisshop of Sares- 
byri erectid his cathedrale chirch ther in the west part of the 
town: and also his palace. Wherof now no token is but 
only a chapelle of our Lady yet standing and mainteynid. 

Ther was a paroch of the Holy Rode beside in Old-Sares- 
byri : and an other over the est gate wherof yet sum tokens 
remayne. 

[* Leland first wrote kis, but corrected it to their.} 



PART III 261 

I do not perceyve that ther were any mo gates in Old- Wiltshire. 
Saresbyri then 2, one by est, and an other by west. Withoute 
eche of these gates was a fair suburbe. And yn the est 
suburbe was a paroch chirch of S. John : and ther yet is a 
chapelle stand inge. 

The ryver is a good quarter of a mile from Old-Saresbyri 
and more where it is nerest onto it, and that is at Stratford 
village, south from it. 

*There hath beene houses in tyme of mynd inhabitid in 
the est suburbe of Old-Saresbyri : but [now] ther is not one 
house nother [with]in Old-Saresbyri or without in[habite]d. 

Ther was a right fair and strong castelle within Old-Sares- fo. 60. 
byri longging to the Erlee of Saresbyri especially the Long- 
espees. 

I reede that one Gualterus was the first Erie after the 
conquest of it. 

Much notable ruinus building of this castelle yet ther re- 
maynith. 

The diche that environid the old toun was a very deepe 
and strong thynge. 

The Course of Avon Ryver. 

Avon Ryver risith by north est not far from Wolphe-Haul 
yn Wyleshir. The first notable bridg that it cummith to is 
at Uphaven. 

Thens a 4. miles to Ambrosbyri, a and there is a bridge. 

Thens to Woddeford village a 4. miles, standing on the 
right ripe, and Newtoun village on the lift ripe. 

The Bisshopes of Saresbyri had a propre maner place at 
Wodford. Bisshop Shakeston pullid it doun by cause it was 
sumwhat yn ruine. 

Thens to Fisscharton b bridg of vj. stone arches a 3. 
miles. 

Thens a very litle lower to Crane bridge of a vj. arches of 
stone. 

Thens a forowgh lenghte lower to Harneham bridge of vj. 
gret arches of stone, a mayne and stately thing. 

[* This sentence is omitted by Stow.] 



a Amesbury. b Fisherton. 



262 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Wiltshire. Here is at the west ende of this bridge only a litle islet 
distante betwixt a nother bridg of 4. praty arches, and under 
this rennith a good streme as I take it of Avon Water as an 
arme breking out a little above and sone after rejoyning; or 
els that Wilton Water hath ther his entery into Avon. 

From Harnham bridge to Dunton a a fair bridge of stone 
a 4. miles. 
Hampshire. Thens to Fording bridge of stone a 4. miles. 

Thens to Ringwodde bridge a 5. miles. 

And so a 5. miles to Christes-Chirch Twinham, and strait 
to the se. 

Christe-Chirch xviij. miles from Saresbyri. 

The Course of Wile Ryver. b 

Wiltshire. Wyle risith a 3. miles or more above Wermistre, c and so 
cummith a x. miles doun to Hanging Langforde standing as 
the descent is on the right hond of it. 

Thens a 3. miles to Stapleford village on the same hand. 

Here cummith into Wyle from north west Wintferbury] * 
water whos . . . 

fo. 61. Thens cummith Wyle a 2. miles and rennith thorough the 
town of Wilton dividid in armes. 

And here cummith into Wile a ryver caullid Nadder, alias 
Fovington Water, bycause it risith about Fovington village 
5. miles by west from Wilton. 

From Wilton to Saresbyri 2. miles. 

Here about Harnham bridge is the confluence of Wyle 
and Avon. 

fo. 62. Ex Tabella in Sacello S. Mariae. 

Orate pro anima Richardi Poure, quondam Sarum 

Episcopt, qui Ecclesiam hanc inchoari fecit in quodam 

fundo ubi nunc fundata est ex antique nomine Miryfelde 

in honorem B. Virg. Mariae 3. CaL Maij in festo S. 

Vitalis Martyris An . D. 1219. regnante tune Rege 

[* Stow has Winterbury, which was probably written by Leland. 
Burton has Winterborne. Now the Bourne river, Wilts.] 



a Downton. 



Wiley r. 



c Warminster. 



PART III 



263 



Richardo post Conquestumprimo. Fuitque Ecclesiahaec Wiltshire. 

in aedificando per spatium a^v. annorum temporibus trium 
Regum, videlicet antedicti Richardi, Joannis^ et Henrici 
3. Et consummata 8. Cal. Apr. An . D. 1260. Iste 
Richardus Episcopus fundavit missam Beatae Mariae 
Virginis solenniter in hac Capella quotidie celebrandam, 
et appropriavit Rectoriam de Laverstoke ad sustenta- 
tionem ejusdem missae. Qui quidem Richardus Episco- 
pus postea translatus fuit ad Episcopatum Dunelmen- 
sem: fundavitque Monasterium apud T^arraunt in Comit. Tarentum 

Dorset, ubi natus nomine Richardus Poure: ibique cor Durotrigum. 

ejuS) corpus vero apud Dureham humatum est. Et obiit 
15. die April. Anno Dom. M[CCXXXVIL XXL 

Incipit Prologus in Philobiblon Richardi Dunelmen- 
sis Episcopi) quem librum compilavit Robertus Holcot de 
ord. Praedicatorum sub nomine dicti Episcopi. 

Dicta Halarij Episcopi super Matthaeum et 7. Epis- 
tolas Canonicas. 

Versus plus minus 300. Michaelis Cornubiensis contra 
Magistrum Henricum Abrincensem coram D". electo 
Winton. et Episcopo Rofensi. 

Poenitentiale Egberti Archiepiscopi Eboracensis. 

Computus Rabani. 

Incipit sticcinctus Dialogus Ecclesiasticae Institutionis 
a Dno Ecgberto Archiepiscopo Eburacae Civit. compo- 
situs. 

Birinus Episcopus Dorcastrensis et Apostolus Gewis- 
sorum natus Romae. 

Birinus sepultus Dorcastriae. 

Hedda Episcopus transtulit corpus Birini ad Venta- 
nam Civitatem. 

Aethelwoldus 26. Episcopus Ventanus rursus ejus cor- 
pus ad summum Altare transtulit. 

Robert Lord Hungreford dyed xviij. of May anno D i . fo. 63. 



Robert is buried on the north side of the altare of our 
Lady Chapelle in a chapelle of his own fundation. 



[t This date was left vacant by Leland, except the figure M, but was 
added, probably by Burton, in the MS.] 



264 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Wiltshire. Margaret wife to Robert and doughter to William Lord 
Botreaux is buried in the midle of the same chapelle in an 
high tumbe. 

Sub hoc lapide marmoreo desuper insculpto humatum est 
corpus Reverendi Pair is Nicolai Longespe, quondam Sarum 
Episcopi^ qui plurima huic contulit ecclesiae, et obiit 18. 
mens. Maij a. D. 1291. ex cujus parte australi jacet Rober- 
tus Wichamton^ ex parte boreali Henricus Brandesburn re- 
quiescit. 

Ther lyith under an arche on the north side of our Lady 
2. noble men of the Longespee. 

Ther lyith in a chapelle on the south side of our Ladies 
Chapelle altare [Rich.} Beauchaump Bisshop of Sarum in 
the midle of the chapel in a playn marble tumbe. 

Bisshop Beauchamp's father and mother ly also there in 
marble tumbes. 

Syr {John C]eyney late Knight of the [Garter] lyith also 
in this chapel. 

Bisshop Beauchamp had made afore a riche tumbe and a 
chapel over it at the west end of our Lady Chapelle, but 
one John Blith Bisshop of Sarum was after buried under 
it.* 

It is said that Beauchampe axid ons a sister off . . . 
how she likid this tumbe. 

S. Osmundes first tumbe on the south side of our Lady 
whil the shrine was a makyng. 

In Presbyterio ex parte Bor. 

Audeley Episcopus Sarum. 

Rogerus Mortyvalle Episcopus Sarum, qui plurima huic 
contulit ecclesiae. Obiit 14. die mensis Martii^ a". D. 1302. 

Ex parte Australi Presbyt. 

Simon de Gandavo Epus Sarum: obiit a". D. 1297. 
4. Nonas Apr. 

In med. Presbyterii. 
Robertus Wyville Epus Sarum. 

[* Burton adds, "who dyed 23 Aug., 1499."] 
[t Leland left no blank, but omitted the name.] 



PART III 265 

In Australi Insula. Wiltshire. 

Egidius de Britport Epus Sarum. 
Richardus de Medford Epus Sarum. 

In Insula or. 
Wytte Epus Sarum cum imagine aenea de aurata. 

In Navi Ecdesiae. o. 64. 

Joannes Chaundelar Epus Sarum primus Thesaurar. et 
Decanus ejusdem EccL obiit a. D. 1426. 
Alter Epus Sarum ibidem sepultus. 

In Bor. Insula navis EccL 

Sepulchra duorum Episcoporum veteris^ ut autumant, 
Sarum. 

Inscriptio alterius sepulchri: 

Adfer opem> devenies in idem. 

Gualterus Hungreford Miles, quifuit captus a Gallis et a 
suis redemptus. 

There is also a sepulchre with an image of 4. fote in 
lenght of a bisshop. 

There be auncient tumbes on the south side, wherof one 
hath a image of marble of a man of warre. 

There is a bisshop buried by the side of the waulle of the 
south isle again the high altare without as in a cemitery, 
wherin the vergers ly, and in one of the mayne butteres of 
the chirch ther is hard by an inscription . . . [Latin] sum- 
what defacid. 

Thingges excerptid out of the Martyrologe Booke 
at Saresbyri. 

Nonis Januar. obiit Walterus Walrond, qui dedit ter- 
ram de Estdeona ad communit. hujus Ecdesiae. Obiit 
2. Non. Januar. Walterus de la Wyle Epus Sarum, 
quifundavit eccl. conventu. S. Edmundi. 

Obiit 3*. Cal. Febr. Serlo Decanus Sarum et postea 
Abbas Cirencestriae. 

Gualterus primus Decanus Sarum. 



266 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Wiltshire. Arestaldus Sacerdos advunculus S. Osmundi. 

Helias de Derham* Canon. Sarum, qui a prima fun- 
datione Rector fuit novae fabricae Eccl. Sarum 25. 
annis. 

Henricus de Winterburn dedit in commune Ecclesiae 
Sarum decimas de dominico suo de Winterburn. 

Robertus Wykehampton Epus Sarum obiit 4. Calendas 
Maij. 

Hubertus de Burgo Justidarius Angl. obiit 7. Idibus 
Maij. 

Nicolaus Langespe Epus Sarum obiit 15. Cal. Junii. 

Galfridus Dispensator vir nobilis. 

Ernulphus Falconarius dedit duas praebendas Eccl. 
Sarum. 
fo. 65. Hubertus Epus Sarum postea Archiepus Cantuar. 

Hardingus i s . Thesaurarius Eccl. Sarum. 

Berbertus de Percy dedit praebendam de Cerdestoke 
Eccl. Sarum. 

Henricus Cessun Canon: Sarum impetra\vit\ trans- 
lationem Eccl. Sarum. 

Robertus Cementarius rexit per 25. annos. 

Alicia Bruer contulit huic Eccl. totum marmor ad 
novam fabricam per 12. annos. 

Gualterus Scamel Thesaur. Dec. et postea Epus 
Sarum obiit 12. Cal. Octobr. 

Gualterus de la Wyle Epus Sarum obiit 12. Cal. 
Octobr. sepultus est ad altare S. Edmundi. 

Nova Eccl. Sarum dedicata a". D. 1258. a Bonifacio 
Archiepo Cantuar. praesente Rege et Regina tempore 
Egidii Episcopi. 

Robertus Wyville EpuS Sarum obiit 5. Id. Octobr. 

Tertio Non. Novembr. Robertus de Bingham Epus 
Sarum obiit A". D. 1 246. 

Et invictus princeps Thomas de Monte acuto^ comes 
Sarum. 

Jocelinus Epus Sarum obiit 14. Cal. Decembr. 

Egidius Epus Sarum obiit Id. Decembr. 

Richardus Comes Cornub. et \rex Ro\manorum dedit 
gardinum . . . ae. 

[* Leland first wrote Berham, afterwards correcting to Derham.] 



PART III 267 

Ther be 10. archis in eche isle of the body of Saresbyri Wiltshire, 
chirch exceding richely wrought in marble. fo. 66. 

There be in eche side of the first transeptum by north and 
south of the west ende of the quier 3. archis. 

The west side of the first transeptum hath no archis, but a 
strait upright flat waulle. 

Ther be in eche isle on the quier taking the presbyteri 
with it 7. archis. 

Ther be in eche part of the secund transeptum, that 
standith as a lighte and division betwixt the quier and the 
presbyteri, 2. arches. 

Ther be in the great and fair chapelle of our Lady at the 
est ende of the high altare 3. pillers of marble on eche 
side. 

The vestibulum on the north side of the body of the 
chirch. 

The tourre of stone, and the high pyramis of stone on it, 
is a noble and a memorable peace of work. 

The chapitre house large and fair, and ys made 8. square 
and a piller in the midle. 

The cloistre on the south side of the chirch is one of the 
largest and most magnificentist of England. 

A notable and strong square tower for great belles and a fo. 67 
pyramis on it on the north side of the cathedrale chirch in 
the cemiterie. 

The bisshopes palace on the south est side of the 
cemiterie. 

Bisshop Beauchaump made the great haulle, parler, and 
chaumbre of the palace. 

The great and large embatelid waulle of the palace having 
3. gates to entre into it thus namyd; the Close gate as prin- 
cipale by north ynto the town, Sainct Annes Gate by est, 
and Harnham Gate by south towarde Harnham Bridge. The 
Close waulle was never ful finishid, as yn one place evidently 
apperith. I redde that in Bisshop Rogers dayes, as I remem- 
bre, a convention was betwixt hym and the canons of 
Saresbyri de Muro Clausi. Muru 

The vicars of Saresbyri hath a praty college and house for Cfausi 
their logginges. 

Egidius Bisshop of Saresbyri, caullid Britport, because he 
was borne at Britport in Dorsetshir. 



268 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Wiltshire. This Egidius kyverid the new cathedrale chirch of Sares- 
byri thoroughout with leade. 

This Egidius made the college de Vaulx for scholers be- 
twixt the palace waulle and Harnam Bridg. 

Part of these scholars remaine yn the college at Saresbyri, 
and have 2. chapeleyns to serve the chirch ther, beyng dedi- 
cate to S. Nicolas. 

The residew studie at Oxford. 

The scholars of Vaulx be bounde to celebrate the anni- 
versarie of Giles theire founder at the paroch chirch of 
Birtport wher he was borne. 

Richard Poure, Bisshop of Saresbyri and first erector of 
the cathedrale chirch of New-Saresbyri, foundid the hos- 
pitale of S. Nicolas hard by Harnham Bridge, instituting a 
master, viij. pore wimen, and 4. pore men in it, endowing 
the house with landes. On the south side of this hospitale 
fo. 68. is a chapelle of S. . . .* standing in an isle. 

And on the north side of this hospitale is an old barne, 
wher in tymes past was a paroch chirch of S. Martine. 

This chirch was prophanid and a nother new made in 
Saresbyri for it, bering yet the name of S. Martine. 

The cause of the translation was bycause it [stoode] ex- 
ceding low and cold, and the ryver at rages cam into it. 

This chirch of S. Martine and the hammelet or village of 
Harnham stode or ever any part of New-Saresbyri was buildid. 

One Aschue, alias Aschgogh, Bisshop of Saresbyrif in 
Henry the 6. tyme was beheddid in a rage of the communes 
for asking a tax of money, as sum say, on an hille hard by 
Hedington ; wher at this tyme is a chapelle and heremitage. 
The body of hym was buried in the house of Bon-Horns at 
Hedington. 

This Aschue was a Master of Ar[ts]. 

Bisshop Simon gave leve to the burgesis of his toun of 
New-Saresbiri to diche and to environe the toun of Sares- 
byri with a waulle. The great diche and long yet ther ap- 
perith, but the waul was never begon. 

fo. 69. Clarington Park and Maner Place about a mile by south 
est from Saresbyri. 

[* Blank in original.] 

[t an. 1450, 28 H. 6, is here noted in the margin by Burton.] 



PART III 269 

The parke of Clarington a is a very large thing, and hath Wiltshire, 
many kepers yn it. 

Ther was at Clarington a priory caullyd Ivy Chirch. 

From Saresbyry to Rumesey b xiiij. [miles]. 

From Rumesey to Hampton. 

From Saresbyri to Thomas Beketes bridge of 2. stone 
arches a mile al by champayn. 

Under this bridg rennith a praty broke c rising a 3. miles 
above it by north est. 

This broke goith ynto Avon about a mile beneth Ham- 
ham Bridge. 

Passing a 3. miles farther I left a mile of on the right 
hond Bukholt Woodde, a great thing, wher in tymes past by 
likelihod hath bene a chace for dere. 

Thens 8. miles al by champayn grounde baren of woodde Hampshire, 
to Stoke Bridge of ... stone archis. Stoke stondith as the 
broke rennith on the lifte hand of it 

Andever water d passith thorough this bridg, but it metith 
afore with Horwel streme. 

Andever is 3. miles of by [north]* from Stoke Bridge. 

Ther is a stone bridge at Andever over the water. 

The hedde of Andever water is not far above Andever. 

Ther is no notable bridge on this water betwixt Andever 
and Stoke [Bridge]. f 

This water resortith into Teste Ryver at ... 

Rumesey a xij. miles from Stoke Bridge. 

From Stoke to Winchestre 8. miles al by champayn 
ground baren of wodde. 

The soyle betwixt Saresbyri and Winchestre of white clay 
and chalk. 

The toun of Winchester is by estimation a mile dim. in fo. 70. 
cumpace withyn the waulles. 

The lenghth of it lyith from est to west : the bredth from 
north to south. 

Ther be in the waulles vj. gates, by est one: by west an 
other: the third by south: the 4. by north. The 5. is caullid 



* Supplied by L. T. S.] 

t Bridge was written in Leland's MS. by Burton. ] 



a Clarendon. b Romsey. c Bourne r. d Anton r. 



270 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Hampshire, the Kinges Gate, and is betwixt the south gate and Wolvesey 
the Bisshopes palace. The 6. is bytwixt north gate and est 
gate, no great thing but as a postern gate namid Bourne Gate. 

The castelle joynith hard to the south side of the west gate. 

The cathedrale chirch and the close lyith on the south 
side of the towne, and is in cumpace with the cemitery nere 
half a mile: and one side of it hemmith in the towne as the 
waul of it, even almost from the Kinges Gate to the very 
palace waulle of Wolvesey. 

The castelle or palace of Wolvesey hemmith yn the toune 
waulle from the close waul almost to the [est gate]. 

The palace is welle tourrid, [and for the] most part waterid 
[about]. 

[St. Mary Abbey] a litle by est withyn [the west gate], 
welle waterid with an arme of Alsford Ryver that rennith 
thorough it, and after to Wolvesey the bisshop's palace. 

Ther is a fair chapelle on the north side of S. Mary Abbay 
chirch in an area therby ; to the wich men entre by a certen 
steppes; under it is a vault for a carnarie. One Inkepenne, 
a gentilman that berith in his sheld a scheker sylver and 
sables, was founder of it. Ther be 3. tumbes of marble of 
prestes custodes of this chapelle. 

Entering ynto Winchestre by thest gate ther was hard 
within the gate on the right hand an house of Gray Freres. 

And hard by on the same hand a litle more weste is a fair 
hospital of S. John, wher pore syke people be kept. Ther 
is yn the chapelle an ymage of S. Brinstane, a sumtyme Bisshop 
of Wynchester: and I have redde that S. Brinstane foundid 
an hospitale yn Winchestre. 

The Blake Freres College stoode sumwhat toward the 
north withyn the [to]wn. 

The White Freres.* 

The Augfustines house a litle] without [the south gate on 
the left] hond in the [way to Hampton]. 

fo. 71. S. Swithunes, now caullid the Trinite, standith in the 
south side of the toun. 

A chapelle with a carnary at the west ende of the cathe- 
drale chirch. 

[* A blank here in original.] 



a St. Beornstan. 



PART III 271 

The new college lyith without the toun wal by south hard Hampshire, 
agayn the close waulle. 

The water that cummith from Wolvesey and the close 
goith hard by the este side of the college, and so toward 
Saynct Crosse. 

The college of S. Elizabeth of Hungarie, madebyPontissara a 
Bisshop of Winchester, lyith strait est apon the new college : 
and ther is but a litle narow causey betwixt them. The mayne 
arme and streame of Alsford water devidid a litle above the 
college into 2. armes rennith on eche side of the college. 

Withyn these 2. armes not far fro the very college chirch 
of S. Elizabeth is a chapel of S. Stephan. 

Ther was an hospitale for poore folkes a very litle without 
the Kinges Gate maynteinid by the monkes of S. Swithunes 
now suspressid. 

There hath beene withyn the town waulles a ... paroche 
chirches. Bisshop Fox suppressid dy verse, of the[m, inv]iting 
the people of them to maintain the othjer yet standing: 
and to make [som honest] lyving onto the incumbent. 
[Ther be yet] . . . paroche chirche[s standing within the] 
waulles of Winchester.] 

Ther is a streate in Winchestre that leadith right from 
the High Strete to the north gate, caullyd the Jury, by cause 
Jues did enhabite it, and had theyr synagoge there. 

The staple houses for wolle at Winchestre lay from the 
west gate yn a bak way to the north gate. 

S. Michael's Gate in Winchestre is spoken of of aunciente 
wryters, but that name is now out of use. Ther is a chirch 
of S. Michael by the Kinges Gate, wheron I conjecture that 
the Kinges Gate was sumtyme caullid S. Michael's Gate, or 
els the south gate. 

Ther is a suburbe at the est gate of sum caullid the 
Soken : and is the biggest of al the suburbes longging to the 
cyte of Winchester. 

In this suburbe be 2. paroche chirchis : and a litle with- fo. 72. 
out this suburbe estwarde on the toppe of an hille in the 
way to London is a chapelle of S. Giles, that sumtyme, as 
apperith, hath bene a far bigger thyng. 

Waldavus, Erie of Northumbreland, a noble Saxon or 

a John of Pontoise. 



272 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Hampshire. Dane was behedid by the commaundement of King Wylliam 
Conquerour. 

Ther is also a litle suburbe without the west [gate, and 
in] it was a chirch or [chapell that now servith for a barn.] 

The sub[urbe without the northe berithe the name of 
Hyde]. 

In this suburbe stoode the great abbay of Hyde, and hath 
yet a paroche chirche. 

This abbay was ons caullid Newanminstre and stoode in 
the close hard by S. Swithunes, otherwise then caullid 
Ealdenminstre. 

But when it was translatid thens to Hyde it bare the name 
of Hyde. 

The bones of Alfredus, king of the West-Saxons, and of 
Edward his sunne and king, were translatid from Newan- 
minstre, and layid in a tumbe before the high altare at 
Hyde: in the which tumbe was a late founde 2. litle tables 
of leade inscribid with theyr names. And here lay also the 
bones of S. Grimbald and Judoce. 

On the south side of Hyde Abbay betwixt it and the 
waulle is a medow caullid Denmark, wher the fame is that 
Guido Erie of Warwik killid great Colebrande the Dane sin- 
gulari certamine. 

There is yet a paroche chirch yn Hyde suburbe. 

Ther is a litle suburbe without Dome Gate or postern. 

Ther is [a] fair suburbe without the [K]inges Gate caullid 
the Kinges strete. 

[Ther] lyith also a litle suburbe withfout the south gat]e: 
and here abou[t was a fair chirjch of S. Feith [suppressid by 
Bysshope] Fox: and the [paroche annixtd to Sainct Crosse]. 

Ther was a very fair chapelle of S. Catarine on an hille 
scant half a mile without Winchester toun by south. This 
chapelle was endowid with landes. Thomas Wolsey car- 
dinal causid it to be suppressid, as I hard say. 

vol. viii, Ex libello Donationum Winton. EccL* 

Kinewaldus rex dedit Cometon, Alresford^ Wordiam 
et Wordiam. 

[* This list of gifts is taken from pp. 87, 88, of vol. viii of Leland's 
MS. ; the leaf may have formerly followed fo. 72 of vol. iii (ending with 



PART III 273 

Adulphns rex contulit Chiltecomb? Hampshire. 

Egbertus rex contulit Drokenesford^ Wordy ', Awelton 
et Bedehampton. 

Edwardus rex dedit Overton. 

S. Edwardus rex dedit Portland^ Wikes^ Holewelle 
et Waymuth. 

Aethelstanus rex dedit Chibalton et Elendon quod est 
Worston. 

Edredus rex dedit Husseborn. 

Athelstanus rex dedit Merdon et Ecberbyri. 

Emma regina dedit Brandesbyri. 

Ailwinus nobilis dedit Witten. 

Fritheswiglia regina dedit Taunton. 

Agelwinus dux dedit Cleram. 

Alwara nobilis uxor Leowin dedit Alwarestok. 

Elphegus praefectus dedit Crond . . . del . . . 
. . . it Wyly id ... St . . . 

Hospitale de Fordingbridge given to the Kinge's p. 88. 

College in Cambridg. 

Abbatia de Waverlegh. 

Ab. de Letelegh. 

Prioratus de Selebourne prope Aulton or. S. Aug. 

Prior atus de novo loco: Newwark in comit. Surrey 
prope Okyng. 

Prior, de Burton in insula Vecta ord. S. Aug. 

Prior, monialium de Ivingho^ ex Fundat. episcopi 
Winton. in dioecesi Lincoln. 

Domus Dei de Hampton. 

Decanatus de Somebourn: prope Winton. 

Prior de Motesfont. 

Prior, de Caresbrok in insula Vecta. 

Ab. de Quarrere in Vecta. 

the words "as I hard say") for the marks and injury left by the damp 
upon it tally with those upon the leaves of vol. iii at that place. But the 
reason given in the footnote, vol. iii, p. 87 of Hearne's edition, 1744, that 
it "ought to be inserted in this place, as appears from Mr. Stow's 
transcript" is erroneous; Stow neither copies nor makes mention of it. 
(Tanner MS. 464, vol. iii, fo. 114.)] 



a Chilcomb. 
T 



274 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Hampshire. Prior, de Hay ling habet in Cheling insula. 
insulaprope Prior, de Selebourn. 

. . ortchcsttr. Prior, de Brommore pr ope Avon. 
Prior S. Crucis. 
Abbat. d\e\ Durford. 

Prior, de Hamelerise: novum colleg. Winton. nunc 
possidet. 

Prior, de Apledorcomb. 
Prior, de Okebourn. 
Prior, de Ankerwik. 
Prior, de Edenwelle. 
. . . eta insula. 
. . . stoke. 

fo. 73. The course of Alresford Ryver. 

This ryver a first beginnith of a great numbre ol fair sylver 
springes a good mile above Alresford : and these resorting 
to a botom make a great brode lak, communely caullid 
Alsford Pond. 

Then it cummith into a narow botom and rennith thorough 
a stone bridge at the ende of Alresford toun, leving it on 
the lifte hand or ripe. 

Thens to Hichin b Stok village a 3 miles, wher is a litle 
bridge for horse men and fote men. 

Thens 2. miles to Eston village, wher is a wood bridge for 
cartes. 

Thens to a village or place caullid Worthy : and here the 
water beginnith to breke into armes, and those again into 
other armelettes that resorte to Hyde, and the lower partes 
by est of Winchestre, serving the streates plentifully of water, 
the close, S. Maries Wolvesey and the new college. 

[The] great streame of Alresford [water] cummith from 
Wortfhy to] the est bridg of Winc[hestre,] having 2. arches 
of stone. 

Thens half a quarter of a mile to Sainct Elizabethes Col- 
lege, and ther breking into 2. armes rennith on eche side of 
it : and thens goith toward Sainct Crosse, leving it a quarter 
of a myle on the right hond. 

And after goith to Twyford a myle dim. lower, wherabout 



Alre r. 



b Itchen Stoke. 



PART III 275 

al the water gatherith into one botom, and thens goith a vj. Hampshire, 
myles to Wood Mylle, and ther enterith into a salt creke. 

Mr. Philepotte dwellith by Twyforde. 

Ther is a wood bridge a litle above Wood Mille caullid 
Blak Bridg. 

Blake Bridge made of wod is betwixt S. Elizabeth and 
Est Bridge. 

Oterburne village a 3. miles strait south out of Winchester. 
Here cummith a broke downe caullid Oter from west, and 
rennith by est into Alresford water. 

The way from Winchester to London. 

To Alreford vij. miles. 

To Altoun vij. miles. 

To Farenham a vij. miles. 

To Guldeforde [ix.] miles. 

To London [xxv.] miles. 

From Winchester to Southampton x. miles, that is 3. miles fb. 74. 
to Oterburn, and vij. forewarde. 

The soile in sum part betwixt meately good and mouch 
dry feren* ground, apter for brede of catelle then to bere 
corne. 

The most part of the ground betwixt enclosid and reason- 
ably woddyd. 

Ther is a park a 3. miles out of Winchester, almost by 
south, caullyd Hursley, longging to the Bisshop of Win- 
chester. 

And by this park was a castelle caullid Merden, wherof Marden 
sum smaul mines or tokens yet remayne. Castel. 

The town of Old Hampton a celebrate thing for fisschar 
men, and sum merchauntes, stoode a quarter of a mile or 
ther abou[t]e from New Hampton b by north est and 
streatchyd to the haven syde. The plotte wheryn it stoode 
berith now good corn and gresse, and is namyid S. Maryfeld 
by the chirch of S. Mary stonding hard by it. 

Sum men yet alyve have scene dyvers houses (especially 
up into the lande of Old-Hampton) withyn the feld self now 
caullyd S. Maryfeeld. 

[* Burton has " ferae."] 
a Farnham. b Southampton. 






276 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Hampshire. [Some thin]ke that the great suburbe [standing yet with] 
out the est gate of New [Hampton and jojyninge to S. Marie 
[Chirche is part of Old-JHamptoun. 

Ther is a chapel of S. Nicolas a poore and smaul thing 
yet stonding at the est ende of S. Marie Chirch in the great 
cemiterie, wher constant fame is that the old paroche chirch 
of Old Hampton stoode. One told me there that the litlenes 
of this chirch was cause of the erection of the great chirch 
of our Lady there now stonding by this occasion : one 
Matilde, Quene of England, askid what it ment, that a great 
numbre of people walkyd about the chirch of S. Nicolas, 
and one answeryd; it is for lak of rome in the chirche. 
Then she ex voto promisid to make ther a new : and this was 
the originale of S. Marie Chirch. Thys Queene Matilde, or 
sum other good persones folowing, had thought to have 
made this a collegiate chirch; but this purpose succedid 
not fully. Yet nevertheless S. Marie Chirch at thys day [in] 
token of the auncient[nes of Old- Hampton is] mother 
fo. 75. chirch [to all the chirches in New-Hampton.] Andyn testi- 
monie of thys the commune sepulture of New Hampton ys 
in the cemiterie of S. Marie Chyrche. 

And there be many fair tumbes of marble of marchauntes 
of New Hampton buryed in the chirch of S. Marie, as yn 
their mother and principale chirch. 

Ther is on the south side of the cemiteri a fair mansion 
place of stone longging to the person of S. Maries. 

The old town of Hampton was brent in tyme of warre, 
spoyled and rasyd by French pyrates. 

This was the cause that the inhabitantes there translatid 
themself to a more commodius place, and began with the 
kinges licens and help to builde Newhampton and to 
waulle yt yn defence of the ennemies. 

Ther be yn the fair and right stronge waulle of New- 
Hampton these gates: 

Fyrst Barre gate by north large and well embatelid. In 
the upper parte of [this gate] is domus tivica : and [under- 
ne]the is the toun prison. [There is a gre]ate suburbe with[out 
this gate, and ther] is a great [double] dike welle waterid on 
eche hand without it. And so 4. tourres in the waulle, 
(wherof the 3. as a corner towre is very fair stronge) to the 
est gate. 



PART III 277 

The est gate is stronge, but nothing so large as the Barre- Hampshire. 
gate. 

There is a suburbe withoute this gate, and S. Maries the 
mother chyrch of Newhampton stondith yn it. 

There be vj. fair tourres in the walle betwixt the est gate 
and the south gate : and loke as the town without the 
waulle is doble dichid from the castelle to Barre-gate, and 
so to est gate; so it is from est gate almost even to south 
gate. 

The south gate stondith not even ful south but south est: 
and ther is ioinyd to it a castelet welle ordinancid to bete 
that quarter of the haven. 

Ther is a nother meane gate a litle more south caullid 
Goddeshouse-Gate, of an hospitale yoinid to it. 

And not far beyond it is a fair gate caullid the Water 
[gat]e: without the wich is [a faire square key] forsid with 
[piles into the haven water] for shipfpes to resort to]. 

Then a 3. towrres to the west gate. fo. 76. 

The west gate is strong, and even without it is a large 
key for shippes, as there is without the water gate. 

Ther be 2. gates beside, wherof one is as a posterne, and 
the other is by the castelle. 

The glorie of the castelle is yn the dungeon, that is both 
larg, fair, and very stronge, both* by worke and the site 
of it. 

There be 5. paroche chirches withyn the toun of 
Hampton. 

The Holie Roode Chirch stondith yn the chief strete of 
the town. 

There was a college of Grey Freres in the est south est 
part of the toune touching to the toune waulle betwixt the 
est and the south est gates. 

There is an hospitale yn the toun toward the south caullyd 
Godd[es]house, wheryn is a chapelle dedicate to Saynct Domus Dei. 
Juliane the bisshop. 

Thys [holspitale was foundyd by 2. [marchjauntes beyng 
bretherne, [whereof] the one was caullyd Ge[rvasius the 
ojther Protasius, [of the sayntes day by likelih]od that they 
were [borne on]. 

[* MS. booth.] 



2 7 8 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Philippa Re- 
gina uxor 
Eadneardi 3. 



Hampshire. These 2. brethern, as I there lernid, dwellyd yn the very 
place wher the hospitale is now at such tyme as Old Hamp- 
ton was brent by pyrates. 

These 2. brethern for Goddes sake cause* their house to 
be tumid to an hospitale for poore folkes, and endowed it 
with sum landes. 

I redde in an old registre at Wynchester, wher names of 
abbays, priories and hospitales that were of the patronage 
of the Bisshop of Winchester were named, emonge the which 
was hospitale sive domus dei de Hampton. 

I take it this, that sum Bisshop of Winchester renewid the 
old fundation adjecting more lande, and so had the 
patronage. 

Syns by the request of a quene it was impropriate to the 
Quenes College yn Oxforde. They maynteynthe [hosjpitale, 
and take the residew of [the prolfites. 

There be 3. [principal streajtes yn Hampt[on, whereof 
that that goithe] from the [barre-gate to the water] gate is 
fo. 77. one of the fairest streates that ys yn any town of al Eng- 
land, and it is welle buildid for timbre building. 

There ys a fair house buildid yn the midle of this streat 
for accomptes to be made yn. 

There cummith fresch water into Hampton by a conduct 
of leade, and there be certen castelletes onto this conduct 
withyn the town. 

There be many very fair marchauntes houses in Hampton : 
but the chefest is the house that Huttoft, late custumer of 
Hampton, buildid in the west side of the toun. 

The house that Master Lightster, chief barne of the Kinges 
escheker, dwellith yn is very fair. 

The house that Master Mylles the Recorder dwellith yn 
is fair. 

And so be the houses of Nicoline and Guidote Italianes. 



A Brefe Description of the Haven of Southampton. 

The bredth of the mouth or the entery of South- 
ampton haven is by estimation a 2. myles from shore to 
shore. 



[* Causycl, Stow.] 



PART III 



279 



At the west point of it is a stronge castelle a late buildid Hampshire, 
caullid Caldshore, communely Cawshot. a 

There is on the est side agayne it a place caullid Hamel- 
hooke, b wher be a 3. or 4. fisshars houses. 

The haven shorith up a 7. miles on the west side tyl it 
cummith up to Hampton toun standing on the other side : 
and here by estimation the trajectus is a mile from land to 
land. 

Thens it goith up farther a 3. miles to Redbridge : and 
ebbith and flowith a myle above that. 

And to this salt arme as the highest and principale hed of 
the haven resortith both Teste Ryver and Stoke Bridge water 
yn one botom. 

On this side of the haven I markid few other thinges 
notable. 

But I markid that the body and principale streame of 
the haven enterid by south as at the mouth: and went up 
by* ... 

A 3. miles from Hamelehooke, that lyith as at the est 
point [of] the haven, goith a creke by n[orth east up] yn to 
the lande caullid com[monly Hamel]le Creeke : c and of s[um 
Hamelle hajven, wheryn is a very fair rode for greate fo. 78. 
shippes. 

It takith name of a good fisschar toun caullid Hamelrise, d 
that lyith about a mile ynward from the creke mouth on the 
lift hand by weste. 

This towne now longgith to the new college in Win- 
chester. It longgid afore to a priorie of religious men in the 
same toune. 

A 3. miles above Hamelrise at the very hedde of the creke 
is a good village caullid Budley or Botley. 

And to this creeke by my estimation resortith the water 
cummyng from Bisshops Waltham, a praty tounlet a 3. 
miles of. 

Scant a mile from the mouth of Hamelrise Creeke lyithe 
Letelege e on the shore upward in the mayne haven. 

[* Blank in original.] 



Calshot. * Hook. Hamble r. 

d Hamble. e Netley. 



2 8o LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Hampshire. Here a late was a great abbay in building of white 
monkes. 

About a 2. miles upward brekith in a great creeke out of 
the mayne haven and goith into the land by northe. 

On the lift hand of this creke by west [a] litle from the 
shore stondith a [cha]pelle of our Lady of Grace sum[tim]e 
hauntid with pilgrimes. 

[Right] agayn it is Hichyn a smaulle [village] on the est 
side: and hereof the trajectus is caullid Hichin-Fery. 

A 2. miles upper in the creek lyith S. Dionise on the left 
hand and west ripe, where of late was a priorie of chanons 
ord. S. August. 

And on the right hand on the est ripe lyith almost agayn 
it Bythern, a sumtyme a castelle longging to the bisshopes of 
Winchester, wherof yet sum ruines remayne : now a ferme 
longging to the Bisshop of Winchester. 

Wood Mille lyith scant a mile upward, as at the hedde of 
the creeke : and hither resortith Alresford Ry ver augmentid 
with dyverse brokes. 

At Wood Mylle is good taking of salmons. 

The toun of Hampton is not half a mile above the mouth 
of this creke. 

The shore from Caldshore to Christes-Chirch Twinham. 

From Cauldshore b castelle upward by south west a ... 
brekith in a creeke c that goith up into the land a 3. or 4. 
miles, and at the hedde of this creeke was Bewley, an abbay 
of white monkes, a tounlet and a certen territorie of ground 
privilegid with [saunctuarie.] 

The castelle at Hurste [on the shore] is countid to be [a 
xiiij. miles from Caldshjore. 

fo. 79. This castelle is set almost righte agayne the farther ende 
of the land of the Isle of Wighte. 

And the trajectus heere from land to land is about a 2. 
miles, the which narow place is defendid by Hurst castelle. 

Christe-Chirch Twinhamburne is a vj. miles above Hurste; 
and this toun being in Hamptonshire is the limes and the 
ryver by it of Hamptonshir and Dorseteshire. 

a Bitterne. b Calshot. c Beaulieu r. 



PART III 281 

The New Castelles in Wighte. Hampshire. 

Ther be 2. new castelles sette up and furnishid at the 
mouth of Newporte, that is the only haven in Wighte to be 
spoken of. 

That that is sette up on the est side of the haven is 
caullid the Est Cow : and that that is sette up at the west 
syde is caullyd the West Cow, a and is the bigger castelle of 
the 2; 

The trajectus betwixt these 2. castelles is a good myle. 

The next part of the land and shore of Hamptonshire is 
a vij. miles from [the] Cowes. 

From Hampton to Hichin village that stondith on the 
farther side of the fery about a mile. 

Thens to Hamelrise a fisschar toun by much enclosid and 
hethy ground myxt with feme a 3. miles. 

Thens over the fery and to Tichefeld a 2 good miles by 
lyke grounde. 

Yet in sum vaynes about Tichefelde is very good grounde. 

I left a praty lake on the lifte a litle or I enterid into 
Tichefeld toun. 

Mr. Wriothesley hath buildid a right stately house em- 
batelid, and having a goodely gate, and a conducte castelid 
in the midle of the court of it, yn the very same place 
wher the late monasterie of Premostratenses stoode caullyd 
Tichefelde. 

There is a gramer stixte propter ripamfluminis. 

There is also a parke, the ground wherof is sumwhat 
hethy and baren. 

Buddeley b is caullid but 3. miles from Tichefelde. 

The Course of Tichefeld Water. 

This ryver risith about Estmayne c a x. miles by north est 
from Tichefeld. It cummith from Estmaine to Wikeham or 
Wicombe a praty townlet on the right hand a 5. or 6. miles 
lower, where the water brekith into 2. armelettes, and goith 
under 2. wodden bridgges soone cumming to one streame 
agayne. Thens [a 3. or 4. miles] to a wood bridge by Mr. 
Wriothesleys [house], leving Tichefeld toun on the right 

a East and West Cowes, built in 1540. 

b Botley. c East Meon. 



282 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Hampshire, [rype, and] a litle beneth goyth under Warebridge of 
tymbre. Hither it ebbith and flouith. Thens withyn [a] myle 
it resortith into the wa[ter of] Hampton f haven], 
fo. 80. From Tichefeld to Gosport a litle village of fisshar men 
by much hethy and feren ground a vj. miles. 

Heere stoode a prophanid chapelle nere the shore of 
Portesmouth Haven scant half a mile from the very mouth 
of the haven. 

Thinges that I notid on the West Part of Portesmuth 
Haven. 

The lande at the west point of Portesmouth Haven is a 
sandy nesse and sone brekith of, gyving place to the 
open se. 

Ther is a round stone toure with ordinaunce at the west 
point of the mouth of Portesmouth Haven. 

And a litle way upper to the haven is a greate creke 
goyng by west up into the land a mile caullid Ostrepole 
Lake. a 

Scant a quarter of a mile above this is Gosport village. 

About a mile above this village is a nother creke caullid 
Forten of Forten a litle village by it. 

A myle and an half above this is Bedenham Creeke, so 
caullid of a village standing by it. This creeke mouth lyith 
almost agayn Portchester castelle. 

Fareham a fisschar village lyith aboute a myle more up- 
ward at the very hedde of the haven. 

It is about a 7. miles from the west [point] of Portesmuth 
Haven to the [est] point of Hampton Haven, [and in th]e 
mifdle wa]y almost betwixt [is a fisshar village] caullid* . . . 

Thingges that I notid on the este side of Portesmuth 
Haven. 

The land heere rennith farther by a great way strait into 
the se by south est from the haven mouth then it dooth at 
the weste poynte. 

There is at this point of the haven Portesmuth toun, and 

[* Blank in MS. ? Lee on the Solent.] 



a Haslar lake. 



PART III 283 

a great round tourre almost doble in quantite and strenkith Hampshire, 
to that that is on the west side of the haven right agayn it : 
and heere is a mightfy] chaine of yren to draw from tourre 
to towre. 

About a quarter of a mile above this tower is a great dok 
for shippes, and yn this dok lyith yet part of the rybbes of 
the Henry Grace of Dieu, one of the biggest shippes that 
hath beene made in hominum memoria. 

There be above this dok 2. crekes in this part of the haven. 

The castelle of Portchester standith a 3. miles by water 
from Portesmuth toune. 

The towne of Portesmuth is murid from the est tour a fo. 81. 
forowgh lenght with a mudde waulle armid with tymbre, 
wher on be great peaces both of yren and brasen ordinauns, 
and this peace of the waulle having a diche without it ren- 
nith so far flat south south est, and is the place most apte 
to defende the town ther open on the haven. 

Then rennith a diche almost flat est for a space: and 
withyn it is a waulle of mudde lyke to the other: and so 
thens goith round aboute the toun to the circuite of a myle. 

There is a gate of tymbre at the north est ende of the town : 
and by it is cast up an hille of erth dichidj wherin be gunnes 
to defende entre into the toun by land. 

There is much vacant ground within the toun waulle. 

There is one fair streate in the toun from west to north 
este. 

There is but one paroche chirch in the town. 

There is a chapelle in a vacant ground [in the southe weste 
syde of the town toward the waulle and shore]. 

There is also in the west south west part of the toun a fair 
hospitale sumtyme erectid by Petrus de Rupibus Bisshop of 
Winchester, wheryn were a late xij. poore men, and yet vj. 
be yn it. 

I lernid in the toun that the 2. towers in the haven mouth 
were begon in King Edwarde the 4. tyme, and sette fore- 
warde yn building by Richard the 3. Kyng Henry the vij. 
endyd them at the procuration of Fox Bisshop of Winchester. 

King Henry the vij. at his firste warres into Fraunce 
erectid in the south part of the towne 3. great bruing houses 
with the implementes to serve his shippes at such tyme as 
they shaul go to the se in tyme of warre. 



284 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Hampshire. One Carpenter a riche man made of late tyme in the 
mydle of the high streate of the town a town house. 

The toun of Portesmouth is bare and litle occupied in 
time of pece. 

fo. 82. King Henry the vij. of late tyme sette in Portesmuth 
capitaines, and certen soldiours in garnison. 

The town of Portesmuth standith in a corner of an isle 
bering the name of Portesmuth. a 

This isle is in lenght a vj. miles and a 3. myles in bredth. 

This isle berith good corn and grasse. 

The ground is made an isle by this meene : There brekith 
out an arme of the mayn haven about a 3. miles above 
Portesmuth, and goith up a 2. miles or more by marisch 
grounde to a place caullid Portebridge 2. miles from Portes- 
muth. Then brekith there out a nother creke out of the 
mayn se or Avant Haven and goith * up also to Portebridg, 
and there is the ground insulatid. 

The ground within the isle of Portesmuth is partely en- 
closid, fruteful of corn and hath sum wood. 

From Portesmuth toun to Portesbridge of 2. arches of 
stone ij. mjles. 

This bridge is the limes of the isle. 

And heere I markid one arme of salte water ebbing and 
flowing that cummith owt of Portesmuth Haven up by marsch 
ground onto Portebridge. And an other creke t[hens] f from 
the mayne se to the same bridge. And these 2. crekes 
meting at the bridge make the Isle of Portesmuthe. 

From Portebridge partely by Portdown a playn ground, 
partely by woodde, to Southwike a 4. miles. 

Southwik is a good bigge thorough fare but no celebrate 
market. The fame of it stoode by the priory of the Blake 
Chanons there and a pilgrimage to Our Lady. 

Here lyith by est Southwike a great forest ground wel 
woddyd caullid Est Bere, b welle replenishid with deere. 

There is a nother chace and forest ground of this name a 
3. or 4. miles by west of Winchestre, and is caullid the Forest 
of West Bere. 

[* The MS. has /&&, in error.] [t Hearne.] 



a Portsea Is. b Forest of Bere. 



PART III 



285 



From Southwike to Wikeham by enclosid ground 3. miles. Hampshire. 

There standith on the lift hand of Estmain a Ryver Master 
Wodales maner place agayn the towne. Wikham is a large 
thorough fare, and welle occupied. 

From Wikham to Waltham b a praty town 3. miles by en- fo. 83. 
closid ground, good pasture, wodde and corne. 

Here the Bisshop of Winchester hath a right ample and 
goodly maner place motid aboute and a praty brooke renning 
hard by it. 

This maner place hath beene of many bisshops building. 

Most part of the 3. partes of the base court was buildid of 
brike and timbre of late dayes by Bisshop Langton. 

The residew of the inner \part\ of the house is al of 
stone. 

The hedde of this brooke c for the most parte risith within 
a mile of the town of sundry springes in the way to Win- 
chestre. This brooke goith toward Budley and Hamelrise 
Creke. 

From Waltham to Winchester a 7. miles. 3. by enclosid 
and woddy ground: and 4. by champain.* 



[In the Church of Farley, Com. Somerset.] f 

Hicjacet Thomas Hungreforde Chevaler Dns de Far- 
ley ', Welewe^ et Heitesbyri, qui obiit 3. die Decembris an . 
1398. cujus animae propitietur Deus. Amen. 

Hie jacet D". Joanna, uxor ejusdem Thomae Ifunger- 
ford^filia Dm Edmundi Husee, militis^ quae obiit primo 
die Mensis Martii a". D. 1412. 

Out of a Table in the Chapelle of Farley Castel. 

Thomas Hungreford knight and Dame Johan his wife. 
Syr Gualter Hungreford Lord Hungreford, Knight of 

[* Here follow two blank leaves in Leland's MS., not numbered. 
The heading is taken from Burton's copy, but Stow transferred here part 
of the next, viz., " In a chapell at Farley Castell."] 

[t These notes on Farleigh chapel as far as " Gualter and Edward his 
sonnes" relate to " Castelle-Farley," before pp. 137, 138.] 



Somerset, 
fo. 84. 



a East Meon r. 



Bishops Waltham. 



c Hamble r. 



286 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset, the Garter and High Tresorer of England, sun and heir 
to Thomas and Johan. 

Catarine heire to Peverel was wife to Syr Gualter. 

Syr Robert Lord Hungreford sunne and heir to 
Walter. 

Margaret lady and heir to Botreaux his wife. 

Robert Erie Hungreford sun to Robert. 

Heleanor Lady Molens, heir to Molens, wife to Erie 
Robert. 

Leyland. 

Erie Robert and Eleanor buried at Saresby[ri] in the 
cathedrale chirch. 

The Line of Walter late Lord Hungreford. 

Gualter Hungreford knight. Jone his wife. Edward 
sun to Walter. Jane his wife. Syr Walter Lord Hungre- 
ford. Susan. Alice. Elizabeth. G[ualt]er and Edward 
his sonnes. 

Davers of Daunsey in Wileshir by Bridg . . . Susan 
Davers Alice Sannes Elizabeth Husee. 

Thingges notid apon the Book of Bath.* 

Aeiston, nowcaullid Long Aeiston,f by Bristow about 
a 3. miles from Bristow by i ... 

Priscton a 4. miles from Bath by south west in Caines- 
ham Hundrede. 

Corston a 3. miles by west south west from Bath. 

Aelvestun, alias Olvestoun, in Glocestreshirei6. miles 
out of Bath almost on Severn. 

Cold Aeschtun 4. miles out of Bath playn north. 

Dyddenham longgith to the bisshop. 

Westun a mile west from Bath. 

Hamptune a mile by est north est owt of Bath. 

Northstok north west 3. miles by north on Launtes- 
dune from Bath. 

Sondestok 2. miles south from Bathe. 

[* These notes as to Bath and its neighbourhood on fo. 84, and those 
on fo. 87 (p. 290) supplement the long account of that city, before 
pp. 139-144.] 

[t Leland interlines "alias I," as though it should be written Iston.~\ 



PART III 287 

Stantune [Stanton Prioris] * 4. miles by south west Somerset, 

from Bath. 

Counton a 4. or 5. miles and more west south west 
from Bath : and it joynith with Corston. 

Aeischwik about a 12. miles from Bath on Mendepe. 

Dunestorre a celle to Bath wher Master Luterelle now 
dwellith. 

Corlecombe a mile north out of Bath. 

In Transepto EccL in Merid. parte.\ fo. 85. 

Thomas Stawel miles. Glestenbyri. 

Horologium. Petrus Lightfote monachus fecit hoc opus. 
Geffre Fromont Abbas Glaston. 

Hugo Doctor. Theolog. fr. Walteri Monington Abb. In 3. plain 

Glaston. gret stones. $ 

In Bor. parte. 

Edvardus de la Zouche monach. Glaston. cog. Ed- 
vardi 3. 

Gualterus More Abbas Glaston. 

Epit. Joan Taunton Abb. Glaston. 

Ut multo tandem sumptu multoque labore 

Fit Pastor jamj am commoda multa parat. 
Rura colit Christi docet et praecepta Joannes > 

Mox animi exuvias condit in hoc tumulo. 

Epit. Michaelis Ambresbyre Abbatis. 

Qui serpentinas fraudes et vincla resolvit, 

Restituitque ovibus debita rura suis: 
Postquam turbida tranquillasset tempora saxo 

Ecce sub hoc Abbas integitur Michael. 

Epit. Roberti Pedreton Abbatis Glaston. 

Liberal oppresses Pedreton ab aere alieno, 
Demum hac composita pace quiescit humo. 

[* Stanton Prioris interlined.] 

[t These notes .as to Glastonbury Abbey extend to the end of fo. 86, 
p. 290. They supplement the short account given on p. 148.] 

[ These words in the MS. are opposite the line "Joannes Chinok 
Abbas Glaston," preceding Geffre Fromont, which was crossed through 
by Leland.] 



288 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset. Gualterus de Tantonia alias Hec Abbas Glaston ante 
imaginem Crucifixi. 

Hie fecit frontem Chori cum imaginibus 1. id etss * ubi 
stat Crucifixus. 

Lectura antiqui operis ex dono Richardi Bere Abbatis 
Glaston. 

Gualterus Monington in Choro Abbas Glaston. 

Hie fecit voltam Chori et Presbyterii et auxit longit. 
Presbyterii 2. arcubus. 

In Presbyterio. 

Edmundus Senior in bor. parte. 
Edmundus Irenside in merid. parte. 
Arcturus in media. 

Epit. Arturii. 

Hie jacet Arturus flos regum, gloria regni, 
Quern mores, probitas commendant laude perenni. 
Versus Henrici Swansey Abbatis Glaston. 

Infer, ad pedem ejusdem tumuli. 

Arturi jacet hie conjux tumulata secunda, 
Quae meruit coelos virtu turn prole secunda. 

Inscript. in capite tumuli. 

Henricus Abbas. 
Crucifixi imago in capite tumuli. 
Arturii imago ad pedes. 
Crux super tumulum. 

2. Leones in capite et duo ad pedes tumuli attingentes 
terres. 

In Meridionali Insulae adjac. Presbyterio. 

John Breynton Ab. Glaston. 

Sepulchrum armati in lapide. 

Joannes Selwod Ab. Glaston. ante cap. S. Andreae. 

[* The letters of this word or words are injured ; what are legible 
appear to be " 1 ... id etss ubi," etc. There is no mark indicating 
lapidibus or lapidies. Hearne suggests lapidibus Us to be intended.] 



PART III 289 

In Bor. Insula. Somerset. 

Joannes de Cantia Abb. Glaston. [in d\lto tumulo. 

In Navi Eccles. f 0t 86 

Adam Sodbyri Abbas. 
Mater ejus a laeva. 
Pater a dextra. 

Nicolaus From Abbas Glaston. 
Fuit Paduae et in Basiliensi concilia . 
Staford comes Devon, sub arcu in parte merid. 
Richarde Bere Abbas Glaston: in meridion: insula 
navis Eccles. 

In Capella S. Mariae a Bor. part. Chori in Sacello. 

Joannes Biconel miles et Elizabeth. 

Gil. Semar miles in eadem volta. 

Gualterus Fromont abbat began the great haul. Gualter 
Monington next abbate to hym endid it. 

Gualter Monington made to the midle parte the chapitre 
house. 

John Chinok abbate his successor performid it, and ther 
is buried in sepulchre cum imagine alabastri. 

This John Chinok buildid the cloyster, the dormitor, the 
fratery. 

Abbate Adam gave a vij. great belles. 

Richard Bere abbate buildid the new lodging by the great 
chambre [caujllid the kinges lodging [in] the galery. 

Bere buildid [the] new lodginges [for] secular pre[stes, 
and] clerkes of our [Lady.] 

Abbate Beere buildid Edgares chapel at the est end of the 
chirch : But Abbate Whiting performid sum part of it. 

Bere archid on bothe sides the est parte of the chirch that 
began to cast owt. 

There be vj. goodly windowes in the top of eche side of 
the est part of the chirch. There were 4. of old tyme, sins 2. 
addid, and the presbyterie enlonggid by Gualter Monington 
abbate. 

Bere made the volte off] the steple in the transepto^ and 
under 2. arches like S. Andres crosse, els it had fallen. 

Bere made a rich altare of sylver and gilt : and set it afore 
the high altare. 



2 9 o LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset. Bere cumming from his embassadrie out of Italic made a 
chapelle of our Lady de Loretta, joining to the north side 
of the body of the chirch. 

He made the chapelle of the sepulcher in the southe end 
Navis ecclesie wherby he is buried sub piano marmore yn the 
south isle of the bodie of the chirch. 

He made an almose house in the north part of the abbay 
for vij. or x. poore wymen with a chapel. 

He made also the maner place at Sharpham in the parke 
a 2. miles by west from Gleston: it was afore a poore lodge. 

Wyral Park lyith hard to Glaston by west. 

Nordwood Park a mile by est from Glaston. John Selwod 
abbat buildid a place there. 

Pilton Park about a vj. miles from Glaston by est. 

John Chinok abbate buildid a maner place ther. 

Weston a litle maner Pl[ace . . . mile] west by Glaston. 

Mere a fair old maner place 2. miles from Glaston by 
north. 

Dameron a mene maner place a vij. miles west south west 
from Saresbyri in Wileshir. 

Estbrent a 10. miles by north north west from Glaston a 
faire maner place. 

Sturmestre Newton castelle in Dorsetshir, a 4, miles from 
Shaftesbyri. Edmund Irenside gave it to Glaston. 

fo. 87. * Stafford folowid Nicolaus Bubwith. This Stafford 
was translatid to Cantwarbyri. 

Then was Thomas Bekington, borne be likelihod at 
Bekington in Selwod, sumtyme a scholar and felaw of 
the New College in Oxford. 

Robert Stilington folowid, felow of Al Soullen College 
yn Oxford. 

Richard Fox folowid afore Bisshop of Excestre. 

Oliver King Secretarius Henr. vij. folowid. 

Adrianus Card, folowid. 

[* This line begins a fresh leaf; there is no other separation from 
preceding matter. The list gives the Bishops of Bath and Wells from 
Nicholas Bubwith (accession 1407) to John Clerk, who was bishop until 
1541. William Knight, his successor, was bishop when Leland visited 
Bath; see before, p. 145. Several former bishops are noted as com- 
memorated among the tombstones, pp. 292-294.] 



PART III 291 

Thomas Wolsee Card: folowid. Somerset. 

John Clerk. 

Guliam Knighte makith a crosse cumpassid with 7. 
then 6. and one piler in the midle. 

S. Andres Water. 

Doultingcote a and a bridge. Coscumbe b is about a 
3. mile above that, and Shepton a mile above that. 

Everchriche c and the Bisshops house. 

Golafre Bridge one arche; ther is a broke. Milton 
a litle above on the hille. This is Milton Water, it 
rennith into Briwe d 2. miles beneth Briweton Bridge at 
a place caullid . . . 

Both sides of Briweton e in Selwood o[nt]o the Market 
Crosse. 

B[riw]e risith at Briwecumb [about] . . . [mjiles by Guliam Gil- 

[est] north est [above] . . .* bert first - 

Claustrum juxta Australem par tern Navis EccL Wellensis.^ 

Thomas Bekington made the west ende of the cloyster fo. 88. 
with the volte, and a goodly schoole with the schole master 
logging and an escheker over it, having 25. wyndowes toward 
the area side. 

Bekington began also the south side of the cloyster. But 
one Thomas Henry, Treasorer of Welles and Archidiacon 
of Cornewaull, made an ende of it in hominum memoria. 

This side hath no housing over it. 

Thomas Bekington obiit 14. die Januar. a D. 1464. 

Thomas Bubwith J made the est part of the cloyster with 
the litle chapel beneth and the great librarie over it having 
25. windowes on eche side of it. 

There is no part of the cloystre on the north side of the 
area to walk yn, for it is onely hemmid with the south isle 

[* St. Andres Water Briwecumb; see before, pp. 146-149.] 
[t Fos. 88, 89 (pp. 291-294) chiefly relate to Wells cathedral; as to 
Wells see before, pp. 144-146.] 

[t Thomas Bubwith, made Archdeacon of Wells, 1419.] 



a Doulting. b Crosscombe. c Evercreech. 

d Brue r. e Bruton. 



292 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset, of the body of the chirch. Ther is only a chapelle yn that 
side of the area made by one Cukeham. 

There is set to the est ende of the cloystre an exceding 
goodly ch[apel in] transepto of Bisshopfs] Stil[lington and 
King.] 

Sepulchra in Navi Eccl. Welknsis. 

Decent arcus in utroque latere navis Ecclesie praeter 
campanile in utraqueparte transepti, sex in utroque latere 
orientalis partis ecclesiae. Decem arcus ex utraque 
parte navis Ecclesiae Wellen. 

Robertas Burnell Episcopus Wellensis. He lay not 
many yeres sins in an high tumbe with an image of 
brasse, now undre a plain marble. 

Thomas Lovel. 

Nicolaus Bubbewith in bor. parte sub arcu; Obiit [27. 
Oct.~\ a" D. 1424; fecit Capellam in qua humatus est, et 
ibidem 4. cape llanos instituit. 

Hie dedit Eccl. Wellensi et Bathon. duoscalices aureos. 

Fecit quadratam turrim et campanas ad boreale latus 
Occident, partis Ecclesiae, etpanellam Claustri cum capella 
inferius, et libraria superius, et libris pretiosis ditavit. 

Hospitale 24. pauperum in urbe Wellensi praeter 
Hospii. S.Joannis, quod fuit situm juxta pontem amniculi 
in meridionali parte urbis versus Glessenbyri. Hoc opus 
inceptum a Gul. Bubbith Episcopo Wellensi, et absolutum 
ab ejus executoribus. 

A dextra Capellae Bubwit jacet sub piano marmore 
Gualt. Haselhaw Epus Wellen. 

E regione ad merid. a dextra alterius Capellae jacet 
Richardus Epus Wellen. sub piano Marmore. 

Sepulchra in Transepto Eccl. Wellen. 

Hie jacet Joanna, Vicecomitissa de Lisle, unafiliarum 
et heredum Thornae Chedder Armig. quae fuit uxor 
Joannis, Vicecomitis de Lisle, filii et heredis Joannis, 
Comitis Salapiae, et Margaretae ux. ejus, unius filiarum 
et heredum Richardi, Comitis Warwici, et Elizabeth 
uxoris ejus, filiae et heredis Thomae de Berkeley, militis, 
jD f , de Berkley, quae obiit 15. die mensis Julii An . D. 
1464. 4. E. 4. 



PART III 293 

Hugo Sugar Canon. Wellen. executor Thomae Bek- Somerset. 

ington et Roberti Stilingtoni Vicarius gener. multa bona 
fecit Eccl. Wellen. jacet in Navi Eccl., reparavit domos 
Vicariorum, opus ante inceptum a Bekingtono. 

Joannes Storthwaith Cancellar. Wellensis, executor 
Bubbewith Episcopi Bathon. fecit Capellam et Cantariam 
in boreal, parte pri mi Transepti. 

In superiori Transepto versus boream sunt tr\es~\ 
celebres tumuli; * duae tumbae \_sunt e md\rmore sine 
ulla [inscriptions] . . . Thomae \Episcopi Wellensis\ . . . 

In superiori Transepto versus meridiem jacent in ele- fo. 89. 

gantibus tumulis 2. Episcopi, et quidam Bikenelle canon- 
icus Wellensis, Bikenelli cujusdam nobilis consanguineus, 
in alta tumba. Hie canonicus dedit terras Eccl. S. 
Andreae. 

In Presbyterio versus Austrum sub Arcu. 

Bekington in tumba celeberr. Epus Wellen. 

Jocelinus sepultus in medio Chori Eccl. Wellen. tumba 
alta cum imag. aerea. 

About Polydorus armes in the clothes hanging over 
the staulles in the quier : Haec Polydori sunt munera 
Vergilii. About his armes in the same clothes: Sum 
laurus virtutis honos pergrata triumphis. 

Ad Boream. 

Radulphus de Salapia Epu$. Wellen. hie antea tumu- 
latus fuit ante supremum altare^ sed tumulus obfuit 
celebrantibus ministris. 

In Boreali Insula juxta Chorum. 

Quatuor tumuli et imagines Episcoporum Wellen. quae 
referunt magnam vetustatem. 

In Meridionali Insula juxta Chorum. 

Quatuor tumuli Episcoporum Wellensium^ quorum tres 
imagines habent antiquitatem referentes. Quartus est 
Gulielmi Bytton^ quern vulgus nuper pro Sancto coluit. 

[* These passages are not in Stow. Hearne seems to have supplied 
the words that are now destroyed or illegible.] 



294 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Somerset. Primus tumulus sic inscriptus est Bvrwoldus 
'[super stes circa an. Do. 1000.] 

Qiddam Episcopus Wellen. jacet in sacello ejusdem 
insulae: et Gunthorp Decanus Wellen. et D*. privati 
sigilli jacet ibidem. 

In Capella D. Mariae ad orientaliss. partem eccles. 
Gul. Wellensis cum e . . . 

Joannis Drokisford Episcopus Wellensis sepultus in 
capella S. Joannis at the south west end. [Guil.] Bytton 
primus. . . . 

Ask for Radeclif Maner longging to Welles. 

Ask wher Lidyard Episcopi is a 3. or 4. miles from 
Taunton. 

Ask wher Knap is. 

Ask wher Berlinch Priory is. It is in the utter part 
of Sommersetshir toward Devonshir. 

Ask for Stokcury Priory in Somersetshir. 

Aske where is the maner of Lillesdon. 

Iren owr found a late in Mendipe, and yren made 
ther. 

Mr. Guise hath at his maner of \_Elmore~\ * in 
Glocestreshir okes the rootes with yn the ground whom 
be convertid into very hard stone. And ther sum say 
that ther is ground that if a man cut a pece of wod ther 
and stike it in it wyll grow. 

Palatia Episcopi. 

Banwelle 12. myles by west from Welles, in radicibus 
Mendepe. 

Chew x. miles by north west from Welles, and v. 
miles from Bristow. 

Everkriche, now yn ruine, a 7. miles from Welles by 
south este. 

Wivelescumbe. 

Welles Palace. 

Twiverton, alias Twirton. 

Clavertun^ manerium Episcopi^ cujus Curiam con- 
struxit Radulphus de Salapia. 

\* Written by Burton on Leland's MS.l 



PART III 295 

The toune of Shirburne a is in cumpace a 2. miles.* Dorset 

S. Mary the abbay chirch, sumtime a paroche chirch, fb. 90. 

burnid a hunderith yeres or more sins by a sedition in 
the toune for a font broken doun by a boucher caullid 
Water Gallor. 

Sum say that a prest shot an arow with fier to a pece 
in the partition of the abbay chirch and paroch chirch 
then be chaunce readid f or thatchid. 

The toun was compellid to help to the reedification 
of it. 

Abbate Bradford, in whos tyme it was brent, build 
agayn the est part. 

Peter Ramsunne, next abbate save one to Bradeford, 
buildid al the west part of the chirch, and the chapelle 
of our Lady of Bow on the south side of the old Lady 
Chapel. 

Ramsun made the new Yn and dyvers houses in the 
north part of the toun. 

One of the Sainct Johns lyth buried in the south side 
of the chapitre house. 

Abbate Frithe not long afore Bradford made the 
cloyster. 

Ther be paintid yn the volt of the chapiter house the 
bisshops that set at Shirburn. 

Abbate Myer the last abbate save on made the tower 
over the conduct. 

Philip Fizpaine and his wife lay buried . . . [on the] 
south side [of the presbyterie.] { 

Ther was a paroche chirch of S. Emerentiana in the 
north part of the toune, wher now is a playn close. 

Alhalowes paroche chirch pullid doun alate, and 
the paroch chirch made in our Lady Chirch at the 
abbay. 

S. Michel Chapelle now doune. 

S. John Heremitage by the mylle now down. 

[* These notes on fos. 90, 91, as to Sherborne, Dorset, and a portion 
of Somerset, including Stoke-under-Hambdon, were used in the narra- 
tive; see before, pp. 152-159.] 

[t I.e., reeded. Hearne.] J [J Supplied by Hearne.] 



a Sherborne. 



296 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Dorset. A new chapelle in S. Mary Chirch yard on the south 
side made by one Dogget a chanon of Saresbyri. 

Thomas Bekkettes chapelle by the new Yn. 

An hospitale begon to be indowed 4. anno Henrici vj. 
The king is taken for principal founder. But men of 
the landes by pece meales.* 

The castel is yn the est ende of the toun, and ther is 
a chapelle withowt the castelle in a close by est. 

The toun is of the hold and lordship of the Bisshop 
of Sarum. 

The mere lyith by est the castel, it was very far 
bygger. Ther be vij. spring, alias vij. sisters, in an 
hylle syde north est from Shirburne. They gether strait 
to one botom and cum to the mere, and thens the broke 
cummith from the mere in one botom, and rennith on 
the south side of the toune. 

Ther cummith as bigge a brooke for Puscandel a 3. 
miles by flat est betwixt the park and the mere, as the 
streame of the [meere, and joyneth at the lower mylle 
of the mere.] 

Newelle a litle burne rising in the west part cummith 
by the west part of the abbay, [and so goithe to the 
ryver.] 

fo. 91. John Myer abbate of Shirburne said that he had 
redde in Latine bookes of his house that Shirburne 
was caullid Clarus f fons. 

Shirburn Water goith a 3. miles benethe Shirburn to 
Clifton, wher Mr. Horseys house is, and a litle beneth 
that is the confluence of Shirburne Water and Ivel a 
Ryver. 

Above this confluence cummith yn on the same side 
Coker Water, a praty streame, rysing by west at West- 
coker, and then renning a 3. miles, and so into Ivel. 
Somerset. Sum think that one of the farthest heddes of Ivel 
should be about Coscumb, a 2. mylys by ... from 
Ivel. 

[* Hearne suggests that Leland intended, " but men got most of the 
landes," etc. There is no blank. Stow omits.] 
[t Leland wrote Clare , then corrected to Clarus.'} 

* Yeo r. 



PART III 297 

Ivelle village standith on the same side of the ryver Somerset, 

that Ivelcestre a doth, and 3. miles lower the ryver 
cummith by Ivel village that standith on the other ripe 
contrary to Ivel and Ivelcestre. 

This Ivelton is scant a mile above Ivelcestre. 

Limington sumtyme longid to one Juverney a famose 
knight, richely buried in a chapel on the north side of 
Limington chirch. Limington cam to th[e Bonevills] 
by heir general. 

St. Barbe dwellith at * ... a mile from Limington. 
S. Barbe hath but a mark land. His grantfather was 
nepos, and sold most of the lande. 

Bonville Lord Bonvile had many bastardes, emong 
whom he left sum land to one whos issue male yett 
remainith. 

Ther was but on of the Bonvilles lord, and that was 
Syr William, whos landes [by] heir general [cam] to 
Harifngton.] 

[In Stoke under Hamden Chirch in Somersetshire.} f 

Icy gist le noble et vaillant Chivaler Maheu de Gourney 
iadys seneschal de Landes ; et capiteyn du Chastel Daques 
pro nostre seignor le roy en la Duche de Guyene> que en sa 
vie fu a la Batail de Beuamarun^ % et ala apres a la siege 
Dalgezire J sur les Sarazines^ et auxi a les baitalles de 
Le Scluse> de Cressy\ de Deyngenenesse, de Peyteres^ de 
Nazara^ Dozrey^ et a plusours autres batailles et asseges 
en les quex il gaigna noblement graunt los et honour par 

XX 

le space de iiij. et xvj. ans, et morust le xxviij. jour de 
Septembre Ian nostre seignor Jhu Christ mill, cccc.vj. 
que de salme dieitx eit mercy. Amen. 

Rookesbridge next to Bridge- Water the lesser arme. 

Highbridge toward Uphil. 

Uphil ys the hed wher al the water issueth to the 
Severn Se. 

[* Blank in MS.] 

[t Written by Burton on Leland's MS.] 

[t These words first written Beuamayn^ Dalgesire, then corrected.] 



a Ilchester. 



298 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Somerset. Treveth one of the heires by mariage to William 
Bruer. 

Treveth endyd Bridge- Water Bridge. 
Treveth armes on the bridge. 
Gul. Bruer junior made the Gray Freres. 
Treveth hymself buried yn Cornwalle. 
Botreaux hart buryed at the Gray Freres. 
Lady Botreaux ther buryed. 
Wyllyam Poole made the Chapel of S. Salvior. 
Bruer made S. John's and the castelle. 
An almose house made by the toun. It hath litle or 
no landes. 

A fresch bek rising a 4. miles [of by west at Bromfeild.] 
Simon's Bath, this water resortith toward Tivertun 



Devonshire. 

fo. 92. 



into Ex.* 

The partition of the shire a mile and more by northe 
west from Simon's Bath at the towres. The toures be 
round hillokkes of yerth sette for limites. 

Taw risith in Exmore south est from Berstaple. 

Tautun lordship and the priorie lordship on Berstaple 
side. 

Taustok lordship and Fremingtun lordship on the 
farther ripe longging a late to the dukedom of Excestre, 
now to the Lord Russelle. 

The cumpace of Berstaple by the old walle more then 
half a mile. 

Foure gates est, west, north and south. 

One paroche chirch, 4. chapelles, one chapel doune, 
a chapel of Al-Halow at the north gate self, a chapel of 
S. Nicolas at the west gate self. 

The castelle. 

The bridge of xvj. arches last made, as sum say, by 
Thracy. 

The priory made by Johel of Totenes sunne to 
Alurede. 

Tracy lord of the castelle, toun, and priory. Philippus 
de Columbariis lord of the same, he and his wife buried 
at the priorie of Berstaple, and so was Johelus. 



[* These Devonshire notes on fos. 92, 93, were utilised more or less 
on pp. 168-173, before.] 



PART III 299 

Philippus obiit circa annum D. 1344 (aut 7). Devonshire. 

Diverse of the lordes of Slane buried in Berdestaple 
priory. 

Gul. de Meretun lord of the castelle, toun, and priory 
of Berstaple. 

The Duke of Excestre lord of Berstaple. 

Margarete, Henry the vij. mother, lady of Berstaple. 

Henry Duke of Richmont and Sumerton lord of 
Berstaple. 

The chapelle in the paroche chirch yard fundatore 
Holmanno Vicario paroch. Eccl. 

From Berstaple to the haven mouth 5. miles. 

Budeford Bridg first begon by revelation of a poore 
prest. 

The bridge hath xxiiij. arches and a chapelle of our 
Lady at the farther ende. 

Landes gyven for maintenaunce of Budeforde Bridge. 

The fair paroch chirch of Budeford on the farther 
ripe and the better part of the toun. 

Appledre village on the farther ripe of Budeford 
Haven 2. miles of, then a mile to the haven mouth, a 
smaul thing at ebbe of water. 

The haven entery is barrid with sande, and the fo. 93. 

enterie into it is daungerus. 

From the very point of the haven mouth of Taw to 
cut strait over to Hertey Point is a 6. or 7. miles. And 
Hertland priory a 3. miles above Hertey Point, and 
standith not a mile from the se. But bytwix the mouth 
of Tawe and Hertey Point lyith a very cumpasid bay, 
and almost in the midle therof is a place caullid Clo- 
velle, wherabout Caryl dwellith : and here is the nerest 
trajectus into Lundey Isle. 

Newton 3. miles. 

Alston (Alscote). 

Master Bedlow. This man hath recoverid two lord- 
shippes that were the baron of Slanes. 

One Stawford a marchant of London made the causey 
and a bridge at ech end of it betwixt Berstaple priory 
and Pylton. 

The side of the lift hond of Pilton Strete longgid to 
Berstaple priorie. 



300 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Devonshire. The side on the right hond for the most parte to Clif 
Abbay. 

Ethelstane gave Pilton lordship to Malmesbyri. 

The abbay of Malmesbyri had the personage of Pilton 
and kept a celle ther. 

Pilton stondith by making of cloth. 

This King Ethelstane gave great liberties to Ber- 
staple. 

Bedlaw dwellith at Alscote. 

Master Monke dwellith about a mile from Litle 
Tarington. 

Mr. Rollys hath a very fair brik house at S. Giles 
half a mile by est out of Taringtun. 

Taringtun a bigge market toun, and hath a mair. 

Ther was a great castelle at Taringtun on Turege ripe, 
a litle above the south bridge of 3. arches of stone. 

Ther standith only a chapelle yn the castelle garth. 

I hard that one Syr William of Turington and his 
sunne after hym were lordes of it. 

There is but one paroche chirch. Dr. Chaumbre is 
persun there. 

Fristok priori about a mile from Taringtun. 

The water of Turege risith a 3. miles from Hertland 
by north weste in a moore even hard by the hedde of 
Tamar. 

Turege cummith to Depeforde bridg of 3. arches of 
stone. 

Thens to the south bridge of Torington : and half a 
mile lower to the north bridge of stone bigger then the 
south. Thens to Budeford Bridge. 

The first notable bridge of stone on Turege is Kiss- 
ington. 

Thens aboute half a mile to Pulforde Bridge. 

Thens a 2. miles to Woodforde Bridge. 

And aboute a 2. miles to Depeford Bridge and so 

Depeford is a 7. or 8. miles by land from Taringtun. 

Bedeford is a 3. or 4. miles by neth Taringtun. 
fo. 94. Depeford is a 9. miles from Hartland. 

Bedeford x. miles from Hartland. 

Torington 12. miles from Hartland. 

Lidford 18. miles from Torington. 



PART III 



301 



Moltun * a good market town a 7. miles by est from 
Berstaple. 

The Erie of Bath hath a goodly maner place toward 
Tivertun caullid Bampton. 

Bridges on Tamar.f 

A bridg of stone at Tamertun, there is a village on 
the est ripe. 

Yalme Bridge 2. miles lower. 

New-Bridge a 2. miles lower, it hath 3. great high 
arches and one low. 

Polstun Bridge a 2. miles lower. The abbay of 
Tavestok made this bridge, and hath fair landes ther- 
about. 

Greistun { Bridg about a 2. miles lower. 

Another bridg caullid New-Bridge. 

Lidford Bridge. 

Lanstuphandun. 

A long suburbe. 

The toune waul about a mile in cumpace on the toppe 
of a rokky hille. 

The dungeon of the castelle hath 3. wardes. 

One paroche chirche. 

A broket or pirle of water renning out of an hille 
nere the toun and cumming thorough a peace of the 
toun withyn the walle. 

A broke renning yn the botom in the suburb, caullid 
Aterey ; it risith a xij. miles of by west north west toward 
Bodmyn. 

Bodmyn 20. miles from Launstoun. 

Bodmyn 20. miles from Tamartun. 

Tamartun 4. miles from Launstun. 

The priorie of Blake Chanons by Launstoun suburbe. 

[* Leland first wrote Multun.~] 

[t These notes from Tamar to Padstow, at end of fo. 95, are the 
foundation of Leland's narrative before, pp. 174-179.] 

[J Leland corrected from Graistun.~\ 

[ From this word to " St. Caterine's Chapel " is written on the back 
of the leaf upside down.] 



Devonshire. 



Cornwall. 



302 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall. A broket cumming from an hille therby and renning 
thorough a praty wood hard by the house, and so thorow 
the offices of the howse, and then ynto Aterey. 

The old house of prebendaries at S. Stephan's on the 
hil a mile out of the toun. 

One Mabilia a countes was buried in the chapitre 
house. 

Prior Horestun had a fair tumbe in the south isle. 

Prior Stephan richely tumbed. 

Gawen Carow hath the priory in Ferme. 

S. Catarines Chapel on an hille withoute the toun, 
now defacid. 

fo. 95. From Launstun toward Botreaux a ij. miles metely 
good ground, and enclosid and sum wood. 

Then a viij. miles by mory, wild ground, baren of 
corne, and wood round aboute in sight, and then about 
a 2. miles toward Botreaux by ground bering sum corne 
but clene baren of wod. The people ther brenne for 
the most part firres and ling. 

My Lord of Huntendune hath a place caullid the 
Parke, wher Botreaux had a fair maner or castelle a vj. 
miles by south from Botreaux. The late Lord Hungre- 
ford had half this lordeship. 

Botreaux a xviij. miles from Hartelafnd.] 

Ther is a * prety toun and market a myle from witheyn 
the land * caullid Strettun, a xij. miles upper on Severn 
shore from Botreaux, and then a 6. or 8. miles upper 
to Hertland Point. 

Tredewi and a broke and 2. rokkes as islelettes. 

Bosuenny a privilegid toun and broke of Tredewi 
water, and this goith out at Bosuenny. 

A point of a litle land at Bosuenny, and a havenet 
if the pere were made. 

Treuenny. 

S. Simphorian Chirch. 

S. Julianesf Chapel in Tintagel Castel. 

[* Leland first wrote "a village a myle miles from the land," after- 
wards corrected it as above, but forgot to strike out " village " and 
"miles."] 

[t Called Ulette alias Uliane before, p. 177.] 



PART III 



303 



A broke into the se a mile of I rode, and a se rok Cornwall, 

as an isle a litle by weste of the mouth. 

Then about a 3. miles to Portissek, a praty fischar 
village, wither resortith a litle broke and makith a 
smaulle creke. 

And then a 2. miles farther to Porteuin * a fischar 
village; wher is a fischar village with a broke resort- 
ing to a smaulle creeke, and so to Padstow Haven 
mouth aboute a 3. miles. 

To S. Esse about a 4. miles from Tindagel. 

About S. Esse the soile wexith better for al thinges. 

To Trelille a 2. miles. 

M. Carnsey hath a place about a mile beyond Tre- 
lille, and ther is sum smaul wood. 

From Trelille to Wade-Bridge about a 4. miles. 

From S. Esse to Wade-Bridge good corn ground, 
but very litle or no wood. 

One Lovebone, vicar of Wade-Bridge, began 80. 
yere ago or more the goodly bridge of Wade-Bridge of 
xvij. arches, and with help of the countery finishid it. 

No bridges to be spoken of from Camilford, nor at 
Camilford on thys water to Wade-Bridge except Helham 
bridge and Dunmere bridge a 2. miles lower. 

Helham bridge. 

Dunmere bridge of 3. arches, it is a 3. miles be land 
higher then Wad-Bridg, [and a] 4. by water. 

Padstow a 4. miles lower, no bridge thither nor thens 
on it to the se. 

Bridges on Stour above Blanford. 

Bridges on Stour beneth Blanford Bridg.f 

Stormester 2. miles lower of stone. 

Juliane bridg of stone scant 3. miles lower. 

Aleyn bridg of xij. archis scant a quarter of a mile 
lower. 

A litle above this bridge is the confluence of Burne 
and Stour by ner a mille. 

[* Leland first wrote Portguin, then added an e over the g."\ 
[t These notes on fos. 96, 97 (except as to Berks) belong to the 
narrative before, pp. 256, 257, and 254.] 



Dorsetshire, 
fo. 96. 



304 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Dorsetshire. Iver bridg of stone a vi. miles lower. 

Christes-Chirch Twinham is but 2. miles lower. 

Ther is an hospitale of S. Giles endowid with landes 
at Wilton Town ende. 

In hoc loco quiesdt Corpus S. Etheldredi Regis West- 
saxonum, Martyris^ qui anno Dnl 827. 13. die Aprilis 
per manus Danorum Paganorum occubuit. 

A tumb of one Barwik or Barok. 

There is a place in Wyleshir caullid Combe Castelle, 
a 4. miles toward est from Chippenham : and to this 
place longe diverse knightes services and libertees. 
And this lordship now longgith to one Scrope. 

Syr Richard . . . \de ^Jberbyri first made the cas- 
telle of Dunnington, the house of Crossid Freres, and 
the hospitale by Dunington. 

VI. great arches in Harnham bridge on the principale 
arme of Avon; iiij. litle arches in the bridge at Harn- 
ham over the lesse arme. 

A prest of Saresbyri told me that ther was an house 
or celle of Bonhomes at Ruthin by Denbigh land, and 
that sins it was translatid into a paroche chirch. I toke 
this knowlege that ther had bene an house of one of 
the 4. Ordres Mendicantes. 

Bridges on Avon. 

Fisscherton bridge of 6. archis of stone. 

Crane bridge of a 5. archis. 

Harnham bridge of vi. and ... 4. archis. 

Duntoun stone bridge 4. miles lower. 

Fording bridg 4. miles lower. 

Ringwodde bridge . . . lower. 

Christe-Chirch Twinham 10. miles from Saresbyri. 
f a 97 . A maire in Miltoun. a A chapelle. A house of freres 
in Milton. The paroche chirch of Milton a mile or 
more at. ... 

Miltoun hath beene far bigger then it is now, for it 
hath beene partly rasid by French -men as a toun with- 
out defence. 

a Melcombe Regis. 



PART III 305 

Good building in Milton. Dorsetshire. 

Waymouth toun right again Milton on the other side 
of the haven, it is bigger then Milton is now. Ther is 
a chapelle by on the hille. The paroch chirch a mile 
of. A kay for shippis in the towne. The haven mouth 
almost at hand. 

Half a mile and more to the new castel. An open 
barbican to the castelle. 

A mile to the trajectus. 

By the hither part of it goith up a great arme to 
Abbatesbyri, 7. miles of at the hed 'of it: ther cummith 
in a smaul fresch. 

On the farther point of the trajectus is a narow arme 
of land like a causey, gatherid with sand cast up with 
the se, and this goith up a mile to the rootes of the 
main land of Portland. 

Ther is a new castelle set at thys causey end. 

From the fote of this narow causey [to] the hed of 
the arme that goith up to [Abb]atesbyri makith a 6. 
. . . tatio Gregorii Nazanzeni contra . . . mianos 
Latinitate donata a . . . chorno. 

Bridges on Winburne. 

Ise Broke bridges 2. in number, one but a litle way 
from the other, having 3. archis a peace. 

Winburne streame partith into 2. armes a litle above 
these 2. bridges, so that ther is a bridge over eche of 
them. 

Winburne a litle byneth these bridges cummith agayn 
into one streme, and so goith to a mille at Winburn 
town ende, and a litle lower, even a litle above Aleyn 
bridge, goith into Stowr. 

Winburn risith a 2. or 3. miles above S. Giles Win- 
burn, wher Master Asscheley dwellith: and thens a vj. 
miles to Walleford bridg of 4. archis, and thens to 
Isebek bridges in Winburn toun. 

S. Giles Winburn is north from Winburn minstre. 

Lichet village and an arme out of Pole water beting 
with a litle fresch. 

Lichet 2. miles by t[he] fery way from Pole, els 3. 
miles. 



306 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Berks. The cause of the great desolation of Wallingford was a 

great pestilence in Edward the 3. dayes, wherapon they 
askyd to King Richard and had the toun fe ferme brought 
from 40. ll to 17. It. 

Mr. Pollard told me [that it] apperith by mater of recorde 
[that there] were 12. paroche chirch[is in Walingford] in the 
Stow, vol. iii, tyme of Richard [the second. The great stone bridge at Aben- 
fo. 122 v c . dun made by John of S. Hellen was a gret decay to Wallyng- 
ford, for that the Glostershire men had usyd Walyngford, 
that now go by Abyndun. Enteringe into Abyngdon I came 
ovar a stone bridge on Ouke watar, and strayte benethe the 
bridge it comithe into Isis hard by the hospitall, by west 
Seynt Helen's churche. This watar comythe downe from 
Wantage in Barkshire. Kynge Henry the 5. is taken ther for 
chefe foundar of this hospitall].* 

[* A leaf must have been cut or dropped out of Leland's volume, at the 
end, on which were written these concluding lines, here given from 
Stow's copy. Wallingford and Abingdon are fully described before 
(Part II, pp. 118-122), and Abingdon is again referred to near the 
beginning of both Parts IX and X ; but these short notes were evidently 
made at another time.] 



APPENDIX I.* 

Thinges excerptid out of rolle that Mr. Brudenel of fo. 84. 

Dene shewid me. 

IVOR, sunne to Cadwalader, went, 'at his commaundement, 
into Wales, and he succedid his father, and ever, as he might, . 
made chalenge to the Saxons : and his bloode reignid in 
Wales onto the tyme of Llewlin, Prince of Wales, in Edwarde 
the first tyme. 

After Yvor reignid Yne; then Roderwagh;f thenAneraughe; 
then Idwalwille ; then Joge ; then Kahahaugh ; then GrifHne, 
which was behedid ; then Llewelin ; then Griffine ; then 
Lleweline, in the tyme of Edward the first, the which gave 
bataille onto hym for chalenging of his corone onto England, 
and killid hym, and namid hymself Prince of Wales. 

This Llewelin of Wales dyed withoute issue. 

Then to returne to the next yn blode to the aforesaide 
Yvor, we must cum to Ydewalowitle, of whom descendid 
Rodry Malvinek, of whom Essill Gignant, of whom Mor- 
verine, of whom Rodry Maur, of whom Cadelle, of whom 
Howeld, of whom Owen, of whom Reynold, of whom Cadelle, 
of whom Theudre [Maur] of whom Res, of whom Guenellen, 
of whom Gregorie Vahan, of whom Theudre, of whom 
Gregori, of whom Theudre, of whom Mereduk alias Moreys, 
of whom Owen, of whom Edmunde father to King Henry 
the 7. The which Owenen maried Quene Catarine, and 
was father to Edmunde, Erie of Richemont, and Caspar, 
Erie of Penbroke. 

This linial descent was shewid by thaforesaide Quene 
Catarine, and by her counsel openly in the kinges courte of 

* The extracts in this Appendix occupy leaves 84-90 of Leland's MS. 
vol. i (Top. gen. e 8) and of Hearne's print, vol. I, pp. 76-83. Stow 
copied portions only (Tanner MS. 464, vol. 2, fos. 164^-165^). See 
before, p. 74 note. 

[f Leland first wrote Roderick, then Roderwagh over it in correction.] 

307 



3 o8 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

parlament before the lordes, the which thing was ther appro- 
bate and taken for excuse of her mariage. 1 

The aforesaid Edmunde, Erie of Richemont, maried the 
doughtter (Margarete) * and heire to Duke John of Somer- 
sete, of whom he got Henry the vij. King of England. 

This John, Duke of Somersete, was sun to John, Erie of 
Somersete ; which John was sunne to Duke John of Gaunte, 
by his 3. wife, Dame Catarine Swineforde, borne in matri- 
monie. Henry, Cardinale of Winchester, Thomas, Duke of 
Excestre, and Jane, Countes of Westmerland, were borne 
baste. 

fo. 85. Duke John of Gaunt had by his first wife no sunne but 
Henry the 4., whose issue is gone to God. 

He had by his secunde wife a doughter caullid Constance. 
So that then this John, Erie of Somersete, and his issue, is 
next of that bloode to the corone of England. 

Henry the vj. sayde that Henry the vij. then beyng yn 
childehod should obteine the corone of England as his right. 

Thingesexcerptidowtof a rolle thatMr.Brudenelshewidme. 

Edmunde of Bullingbrok, eldest sun to Henry the 3. 
resignid in open parlamente, by reason that he was sore 
deformid by a crokid bak, his title of the corone to his 
brother Edward, reserving to hymself and his heyres the 
countes of Lancaster, Lincoln and Leircester. 
Leyland. 

(f In these few wordes be divers falsites. First Edmunde 
was not borne at Bullingbrok. Secundely he was not croke 
bakkid, but a ready and a notable capitaine in warre. 
Thirdely there is no recorde of any such parlament. And 
as for the counteshippes he reservid not them to hymself, but 
rather had them of the liberalite of Henry the 3. his father : 
and especially Leircester by the atteindure of Simon Monte- 
forte.) 

1 In the marg. of Stow is this note: This is not trew. For she was 
not knowne to be maryed whill she lyved. Hearne. 



[* Interlined by Leland.] 

[f In the course of these extracts Leland made corrections and 
remarks of his own, to some but not all of which he prefixed his name. 
As they are all written in the text or margin in his usual way, they are 
now enclosed in round brackets for distinction.] 



APPENDIX I 309 

Thomas the eldest of Edmunde, Erie of Lancaster, was 
behedid at Pontefracte. 

Henry brother to Thomas was erle after hym. 

Henry, sun to Henry, had a doughtter caullid Blaunch, fo. 86. 
that was maried to John of Gaunt, the 3. sun to King Edward 
the thirde, by whom she had Henry the 4., Phillipe, Quene 
of Portingal, and Elisabeth, Countes of Huntingdon, by John 
Holand her husband. 

John Holand, Duke of Excester, weddid Anne of Staford. 

Henry, Duke of Excester, weddid Anne the Duche of 
Yorkes doughter. 

Philip, doughter to Blaunche, had by King John of 
Portingale, Edward, after King of Portingale. 

After whom Alphonsus was King of Portingale. 

The batelle of Shrobbesbyri was betwixt King Henry the 
4. and Percy Erie of Northumbreland anno D. 14 . . 
wher Percy was slayne, and Humfrede Erie of Staforde, 
and Sir John Blunte withe* were slayne on the kinge's 
part. 

Henry the 4. died at Cantewarebyri. 

Henry the 4. had to wife the erles doughtter of Hereforde, 
by whom he had Anne, maried to the Emperor of Almain 
sunne, and Isabella Quene of Denmark. And 4. sunnes, of 
the whiche 3. of the younge, Humfrede Duke of Glocester, 
John Duke of Bedeford, and Thomas Duke of Clarence had 
no issue. 

Leyland. 

(This erles doughter of Hereford was Countes of Darby, 
and is buried at Newark-College in a marble tumbe yn the 
midle of the quier.) 

Henry the v., eldest sun to Henry the 4., had by Catharine 
Kinge Charles doughtter of Fraunce, Henry the sixte, the 
which maried Margarete the King of Siciles doughter, by 
whom he had Prince Edward slayne at Tewkesbyri. 

John of Gaunte, Duke of Lancaster, had by Catharine 
Swinford, first his concubine, and after his weddid wife, John 
Erie of Somerset, Thomas Duke of Excester, and Henry 
Cardinale of Winchester ; and a doughter caullid Jane, 
Countess of Westmerland. 

[* No blank ; the word him seems wanting. ] 



310 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Leylande. 

(Of the 4. childern, as I have redde, was onely John Erie 
of Somerset legitime. The other were legitimatid by the 
Bisshop of Rome,) 

John, Erie of Somerset, had John, Duke of Somerset, by 
Margaret the Erie of Kent doughter. 

This Duke John had by the doughtter of the Lorde S. 
John a doughtter caullid Margarete, after marled to Edmunde 
Erie of Pembroke, by whom she had Henry the vij. 

(Syr William Parre told me that this Margarete had to her 
first husband Staford, Erie of Wileshire, uncle to the last 
Duke of Buckingham.) 

fo. 87. John, Erie of Somerset, had also Edmunde, after Duke of 
Somersete that weddid the Erie of Warwikes doughter ; \he\ * 
had Henry of Somerset and Edmund Somersete, and a 
doughter, after Countes of Staforde. 

John, Erie of Somersete, had also Jane, Quene of Scotland, 
and mother to King James. 

Leylande. 

(There apperid yn the rolle no issue by Thomas, Duke 
of Excester, sun to John of Gaunt and Catarine Swine: 
ford.) 

Jane, doughter to John of Gaunte and Catarine Swineford, 
had by Rafe Neville, Erie of Westmerland, Richard Neville, 
Erie of Saresbyri by his wife. This Richard had Richard, 
* Erie of Warwike, by his wife Dame Anne. 

Leyland. 

(There was sette in a roundel under the name of Richard, 
Erie of Warwike, these wordes : The Lady Spensar : wherby 
it is to be said, that other his wife was Lady Spensar, or that 
he had a doughter by her caullid the Lady Spensar.) 

Jane, wife to Rafe Nevile, had also by hym William, Lord 
of Fauconbridge by his wife. 

Jane had also Thomas, Lorde Latimer by his wife. 

Jane had also by Rafe Neville Edward, Lord of Burgeyni 
by his wife. 

Jane had also Robert Bisshop of Dureham. 

Jane had also Cecile Duches of Yorke. 

Edward the first had by his wife Quene Eleanor, the King 

[* No blank in MS. here, but the sense and facts require the word he.] 



APPENDIX I 311 

of Spaines doughter, Edwarde Cair Arvon, Elianor, Duches 
of Barre, and Margarete, Duches of Brabante. 

Edwarde the first had also by his 2. wife, Margaret 
doughter to King Philip of Fraunce, Thomas Erie Marescal, 
of whom the Dukes of Northfolk do descend, and Edmund, 
Erie of Kent. 

Edwarde Cair Arvon King of England had by his wife 
Isabelle (sister to Charles King of Fraunce, and for lak of 
issue of Charles the right inheritor of Fraunce)* Edwarde 
the 3, John of Eltham, and Isabelle Quene of Scottes. 

(Thomas Erie Marescal had in the rolle to roundelles, one fo. 88. 
under another lineally. In the first was written Richard Erie 
Marescal, and then Duke of Northefolk. And yn the other 
roundele was written Richard the secunde Duke of York : 
but how Richard cam to Thomas Marescal landes there was 
no mention made. 

Edmunde, brother germane to Thomas Erie Marescal, was 
Counte of Kent, of whom descendid Thomas and Eleanor 
(after wife to the'Blak Prince) as the rolle sayith.) 

Edmonde was Erie of Kent after his brother Thomas, and 
had no issue. Thomas Duke of Surrey, and Erie of Kente, 
dyed withowte issue. 

Thomas was weddid to Alice, doughter to Richard, Erie 
of Arundale, and had issue Alice, wife to Roger Mortimer, 
Erie of Marche, and of Ulster : Margaret, Countes of Somer- 
set, by Erie John : the Countes of Saresbyri, wife to Sir 
Thomas Monteacute. 

Edwarde the 3. had by his wife Philip, doughter to the 
Erie of Henaude, Edwarde Princfe of] Wales, Leonel Duke 
of Clarfence, Johnf] of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster [Edmund t] 
Duke of York, and Thomas, Duke of Glocester. 

(I found in another roulle that Edward the 3. had ij. 
doughters, Marie, Duches of Britaine, that had a sun, Giles 
Duke of Britain : and Margaret, Countes of Penbrok, that 
had a doughter namid Eleanor, maried to Gray of Ruthine.) 
Prince Edwarde had by Eleanor of Kent Richard, after 
King of Englande. 

[* The MS. repeats bad here.] 

[t These and the blank marked * on page 312 are supplied by 
L. T. S., and by Gale.] 



312 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Leonel, Duke of Clarens, had by the doughter and heir of 
the Erie of Ulster 

Edmunde, Erie of Marche, marled the doughter and heire 
of Duke Leonelle. 

Roger, Erie of Marche, and of Ulster, weddid Alice 
doughter of the Erie of Kente. 

Edmunde, Erie of Marche, had no issue : but left his 
sister Anne heire. 

I saw in another rol a roundel derivid from Dame 
Philippe, heir to Leonel Duke of Clarence, with this 
writing, D a . Elisabeth nupta Henrico Percy: and in a 
roundel under Elisabeth was written, Henricus Percy Comes 
Northumbrice. 

Edmunde, Duke of York, the 4. sunne to Edwarde the 3. 
had by the Kinges Peters doughter of Spaine 2. sunnes : 
Edward Duke of York, that was slayne at the batel of Egin- 
court anno D. 1415. and Richard, Erie of Camebridge. 
Leland. 

(There folowid in the rolle no [round]elles of issue of 
Edwarde.) 

0.89. [Edward] maried Anne, sister [and heire to*] Edmunde 
Erie of March, and Ulster : and in her remaynid the in- 
heritance of thafore said 2. erledoms. 

Richard Duke of York (Richardus filius Richardi comitis 
Cantabr.) after his uncle Edward, f and Erie of Marche and 
Ulster by Anne his mother, had issue Edwarde Erie of the 
Marche, John Erie of Rutheland, George, Anne Duches of 
Excester, and Elisabeth. 

Thomas Duke of Glocester the fiveth sunne of Edward 
the 3. had by the Erie of Herefordes doughter a doughter 
and heir caullid Anne. 

Humfrey Erie of Staford maried Dame Anne, heir to 
Thomas Duke of Glocester, by whom he had Humfre Erie 
of Staford and Duke of Bokingham. 

(There was writen in a roundel by Humfre Duke of Boking- 
ham these wordes : Benet Duches of Bokingham. 

And under the roundel of Humfred Duke of Bokingham 
was another roundel having this writing : Humfrei Erie of 
Staford weddid the Duke of Somerset doughter.) 

[t The words between ( ) are in the margin, Edward 'is interlined.] 



APPENDIX I 313 

Dame Anne of Glocester had to her secunde husband Sir 
William Boucher, and he had b[y her i]ssue Henry the Lord 
Boucher, Erie of Essax ; Thomas Archebisshop of Cantewar- 
byri ; William Boucher, and John Boucher knighttes, (this 
John was Lord Barnes) and a doughter Alienor maried to 
John Duk of Norfolk. 

William Bouchier was Lord Fitzguarin, and had a sun 
caullid Fulco. 

John Boucher had a sunne caullid Humfrede. 

Isabel, doughter to Richard Counte of Cambridg, was 
maried to Henry Boucher Counte of Estsax, by whom she 
had William Boucher knight; Humfre Boucher knight, 
caullid Lord Crumwel ; John Boucher knight, and Thomas 
Boucher knight. 

Thinges extractid owt of a rolle that Mr. Brudenel 
shewid me. 

Hugo de Mortimer mites, et Matildis Longespe consors 
sua. 

Rogerus Mortimer, filius et heres dicti Hugonis et Matildis. 
Radulphus Mortimer miles, et Gladuse duy consors ejus, filia 
et heres Lewelini Principis WallicB. Rogerus Mortimer 
miles, filius et heres Rudulphi et Gladusa. JDs. Johannes de 
Genevilla Comes Ultonia. This John Greneville had a sun 
caullid John, a frere of the order of S. Dominic. 

Ds. Gul. de Burgh miles, et Matildis ejus consors, filia et 
heres Joannis de Geneville. 

D. Joannes Burgh, Comes Ultonia, primas Hibernice. D. 
Joan. Burgh, Comes Ultonice, et Elisabeth ejus consors. 
Leonellus dux Clarentia, et Elisabeth ejus consors, filia et 
heres Joan. Burgh. Ds. Edmundus Langeley dux Ebor. et 
Isabel ejus consors, [filia et h\eres Petri Regis Hispania. 

Ds. Edmundus Mortimer, et Philippa filia Leonelli ejus fo. 90. 
consors. 

Rogerus Mortimer, Comes March, heres Britan. et Franc. 

Anna filia et heres Rogeri Mortimer nupsit Richardo 
Comiti Cantabrigia. 

Richard Duke of York had issue Edward the 4; Richard 
Duke of Glocester; Edmunde Erie of Rutheland; George 
Duke of Clarence; Anne, married to Henri Holand Duke of 
Excester; Elisabeth, maried to John Duke of Southfolk; 
and Margarete. 



314 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Owte of a roulle of the genealogie of the Erles of 
Westmerland. 

Gilbertus Neville cam yn with King William Conqueror, 
and was his admirale. Galfredus was son and heire to this 
Gilbert. 

Asketillus Bulmer had a sun caullid Berthram, and they 
were lordes of Branspeth: Berthram had a doughtter and 
heire maried to the heir of the Nevilles, and so cam Bran- 
speth to the Nevilles. 

Ther was in the rolle a petygre derivid from Owtrede Erie 
of Northumbreland yn strait line to one Mildrede. This 
Mildrede had a sunne caullid Robert : and Robert had a 
doughter and heire caullid Emme, by whom the Nevilles had 
Raby. 

Ribaldus frater Alani Nigri, Comitis Britanniae et Riche- 
mont, was Lord of Midleham : and by mariage with an heire 
generale of this line the Nevilles cam to Midleham. 

Da Raby 1 the first Erie of Westemerland had a xx. 
childern by his 2. wives. Mary, one of the Lady Nevilles of 
Raby, was buried at Coverham, and her husband [to] as I 
remember. 

1 So in the original. It should be, Ralph Neville of Raby. Hearne. 



APPENDIX II* 

[CORNWALL] 

PLYMMOWTH is the est port on the sowth se betwyxt Devon- p. 117. 
shyre, for the ry ver of Tamar yssueth owt ther. 

The Myddel Part of Cornewale. 

By the ryver of Tamar from the hedde north north est 
yssuyng owt towarde the sowthe, the contery being hilly, ys 
fertile of corne and gresse with sum tynne warkes wrougth 
by violens of water. 

Hengiston a beying a hy hylle, and nere Tamar, yn the est 
part, baryn of his self, yet is fertile by yelding of tynne both 
be water and dry warkes. 

The myddel of Cornewale to the est part hy montaynes, 
rochel ground, very baren with sum tynne warkes yn them. 

Cornewal thorough owt from the east part to the west, 
nerer to the north part then to the sowth, ys hy montaynes 
baren ground. 

Fruteful from Launston to Bodman, yn a drye somer good 
for pasturage for catel wyth sum tynnes werke. 

Looke for Dosmery Poole, otherwise cawled Douneuet, 
almost by S. Annes Hille. 

From Bodman to Redruthe, village nerer to the north se 

[* Part of the appendix to Hearne's vol. vii, printed from Leland's 
MS. " Collectanea," vol. iii, pp. 117-124 (MS. Gen. top. c. 3), with 
which it is also here collated. Stow does not appear to have copied it, 
but Burton a contains portions. The original is in Leland's own hand. 
I transfer these pages hither in order to bring all the material relating 
to Cornwall into one volume. Compare with the portion contained in 
the previous pages 179-211.] 



Hingston. 



316 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall, then to the sowth be hy montaynes baren also, yelding bare 
pasture and tynne. 

From Redruth to Carne Gotholghan the contery ys hylly, 
very baren of gresse and plenteful of tynne. 

From Lanant a to S. Juste, alias Justinian, beyng the very 
west poynt of al Cornewayle, the north part ys montaynes 
and baren growne, but plenteful of tynne. The very west 
poynt as yt ys cawled now yn Cornysch ys Penwolase, id est, 
infimum caput. 

The North Part of Cornewale. 

Fro Stratton, not very far from the hedde of Tamar, to 
Padstow the contery by the north se ys rather hylle then 
montaynenius, and ys very fertyle of gras and corne. And 
the clives of the sayd northe se betwne the places aforesayd 
hath good fyne blew slates, apte for howse kyveryng, and 
also hath diverse vaynes of leade and other metalles not yet 
knowen. 

Also abowt Camelford ar certen old mynes, wrought yn 
tymes past, but of what metalle yt ys now onknowen. Wyth 
yn a myle above that poore village sowth runneth the ryver 
that goyth ynto the Severn se at Paddistow; and yt is the 
greatest ryver on the north syde of Cornewale, and ys cawled 
yn the commune spech there Dunmere, and yn the Kyngges 
grawnt of privilege to the chanons of Bodmynne, and the 
burgeses of the same towne, Alan, yt may fortune for Alaune.* 
Sum historyes cawled t Cablan. By this ryver Arture fowght 
his last feld, yn token wherof the people fynd there yn plow- 
yng bones and harneys. 

Wyth yn iiii. myles of the sayde Camylford apon the 
north clif ys Tintagel, the which castel had be lykehod iii. 
wardes, wherof ii. be woren away with gulfyng yn of the se, 
yn so much that yt hathe made ther almost an isle, and no 
way ys to enter ynto hyt now but by long elme trees layde 
for a bryge. So that now withowte the isle renneth alonly a 
gate howse, a walle, and a fals braye dyged and walled. In 
p. 1 1 8. the isle remayne old walles, and yn the est part of the same, 

[* Now the Camel r., see before, p. 178.] 
[t Perhaps an error for "call it."] 



a Lelant. 



APPENDIX II 317 

the grownd beyng lower, remayneth a walle embateled, and Cornwall, 
men alyve saw ther yn a postern dore of yren. Ther is yn 
the isle a prety chapel with a tumbe on the left syde. Ther 
ys also yn the isle a welle, and ny by the same ys a place 
hewen owt of the stony grownd to the length and brede of a 
man. Also ther remayneth yn the isle a grownd quadrant 
walled as yt were a garden plot. And by this walle appere 
the mines of a vault. The grownd of this isle now nuryshyth 
shepe and conys. 

Paddistow, a haven towne of one paroch of fysscher men, 
wrier shyppes cum not yn but at the flowyng water. In the 
est part of Paddestow [Haven] be ii. . . . kketes that . . . 
yth se . . . The est ... ys cawled . . . tyre, and so ys the 
land that lyeth agaynst yt.* The grownd by the se cost from 
Paddestow to Say net Anne's hille, wheron (/.<?., super montem 
Annae f) ys no maner of buylding, the ground sum what hilly, 
ys fruteful of corne and gresse, but wyth lytle tynne. 

Apon an viii. myles from Paddestou ys a lytle howse of 
canons secular cawled Crantoke. 

Fro Say net Anne's Hil a to Lanant b a village the contery 
by the north se ys sumwhat hylly, sanday, and baren, and yn 
sundery places of the same wel replenyshed with tynne. 

By Conarton cummith a river cawllid Dour Conor, and 
goith to the se not far from Lanant ryver mouth. 

In the mouth of the ryver that cummyth by Lanant ys the 
rokket Godryve wheryn bredeth se fowle. 

From Lanant by the north se to S. Just, alias Justinian, 
wher ys no thyng but a paroch chyrch of divers sparkeled 
howses at the west poynt of the shore cawled % . . . The 
grownd ys but baren, but yt hath yn divers places good 
tynne warkes. 

By al the north se yn Cornewale be sundry crekes, wher 
as smawle fisshers bootes be drawne up to dry land, and yn 
fayr wether the inhabitans fysche with the same. 

At Paddestow haven, Lanant, and S. Yes, c the balinggars 

[* This note is written in the margin, which is partly decayed.] 

[t These words are interlined.] 

[t Skebyrio was first written and then struck through.] 



a St. Agnes' Beacon. b Lelant. c St. Ives. 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Treury. 

Abbas. 

Horswel. 



Cornwall, and shyppes ar saved and kept fro al weders with keyes or 

peres. 

m- Dosmery Poole stonding yn the east part of the same 
sumwhat toward the sowth is of lenght by estimation ii. 
arow shottes, and of bredth one, stonding on a hille, yn the 
est part of the which poole ys a vale of xiiii. or xv. fadome 
depe by estimation; and owt of thys poole issueth a ryver, 
the which runnyng by the space of a myle and a dim. ys of 
ii. fadome depe, and ys cawled Depe Hatche. Looke wher 
he essueth ynto the se. 

Also yn the sayd hilly grownd and mooresch be redde 
deere, the wich when they be schafed * take the sayde poole 
for soyle. 

Ther be of the Isles of Scylley cxlvii. that bere gresse (be- 
syde blynd rokkettes) and they be be estimation a xxx. 
myles from the west part of Cornewale. 

In the byggest isle (cawled S. Nicholas Isle) of the Scylleys 
ys a lytle pyle or fortres, and a paroch chyrche that a 
monke of Tavestoke yn peace doth serve as a membre to 
Tavestoke abbay. Ther be yn that paroch abowt a Ix. 
howseholdes. 

Ther is one isle of the Scylleys cawled Rat Isle, yn the 
which be so many rattes that yf horse, or any other lyving 
best be browght thyther they devore hym. Ther is a nother 
cawled Bovy Isle. 

Ther is a nother cawled Inisschawe, a that ys to sey, the Isle 
of Elder, by cawse yt bereth stynkkyng elders. There be 
wild bores or swyne. 

From S. Just to Newlin estward the grownd ys sumwhat 
hilly and fertyle of gresse, with tynne werkes both weete and 
dry, withowt havyn or creke, savyng yn dyver places ther 
remayne capstaynes lyke engins as shyppes doth way ther 
ancres by, wherwith they draw ther bootes up to dry land, 
and fisch but yn fayr wether. 

Also yn the sowth-west poynt betwyxt S. Just and Newlyn 
ys a poynt or a promontory almost envyroned with the 
se wheryn ys nothyng but as yt wher a hil enclustered with 
rokkes as yt had bene yn tymes past a castel, and for the 

[* Sic\ chased seems intended.] 



p. 119. 



Castel 
Treuyne or 
Trethyne. 



Now Trescow. 



APPENDIX II 319 

declaration therof there remayne yet toward the land ii. Cornwall, 
wardes clene fawllen downe ; but the stone of them remayne 
ther very fayre and [well] quadrated. The ruine of the 
fortelet yn the poynt ys [at thys] day a hold irrecuperable 
for the fox. 

Ther lyith betwyxt the sowth-west and Newlyn a myle or 
more [of] the se S. Buryens, a a sanctuary, wherby, as nere 
to the chyrch, be [not] above viii. dwellyng howses. Ther 
longeth to S. Buryens a deane and a few prebendarys that 
almost be nether ther. And S. Buryens ys a iiii. myles fro 
the very sowth-west poynt. 

Newlin ys a poore fischar towne, and hath al only a key 
for shyppes and bootes with a lytle socur of land water. 
Withyn a arow shot of the sayd key or pere lyith directly a 
lytle low island with a chapel yn yt. And this lytle islet 
bereth gresse. 

Mowsehole ys a praty fyschar town yn the west part of 
Montesbay lyyng hard by the shoore, and hath no savegarde 
for shyppes but a forced pere. Also yn the bey be est the 
same towne ys a good roode for shyppes cawled Guaves 
Lake. b 

Pensants c abowt a myle fro Mowsehoole stonding fast [in] 
the shore of Montbay, ys the westest market towne of al 
Cornwayle, and no socur for botes or shyppes but a forsed 
pere or key. Ther is but a chapel yn the sayd towne as ys 
yn Newlyn. For theyr parodies chyrches be more then 
a myle of. 

Marhasdeythyou, d alias forum Jovis^ ys a fischar towne 
with a market, and standeth fast apon the shore of the bay 
directly agaynst the foote of S. Michaels Mont northward. 
Be the west end of the towne ys a lake, or a rivulus, the 
hedde wherof risith withyn a myle of Lanant north wordde 
fro Marhesdeythyou. 

In Marhasdeythyow ys but a poore chapel yn the myddes 
of the poore town, and a lytle chapel yn the sand nere by the 
towne toward the Mont. 

Betwyxt the hedd of this rivulus and the nerest part of the 
ryver of Heyle, 6 that cummeth yn to the se at Lanant, is not 
a myle. And the grownd of bred betwene the ful se marke 

a St. Buryan. b Gwavas lake. c Penzance. 

d Marazion or Market Jew. e Hayle r. 



320 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall, at forum Jovis and the ful se marke of Lanant ryver is not 
ii. myles. 

The cumpace of the roote of the Mont of S. Michael is 
not dim. myle abowt. The sowth sowth-est part of the Mont 
is pasturable and breedeth conys. The resydue hy and 
rokky. In the nort north-est ys a garden with certen 
howses with shoppes for fyscher-men. To the north north- 
west is a peere for bootes and shyppes. The way to the 
chyrche enteryth at the north syd fro half heb to half fludde 
p. 120. to the foote of the Mont, and so assendeth by steppes and 
greces westward, and thens returneth estward to the utter 
ward of the chyrch. Withyn the sayd ward is a cowrt 
stronly walled, wher yn on the sowth syde is the chapel of 
S. Michael, and yn the east syde a chapel of our Lady. The 
capytayne and prestes lodginges be yn the sowth syde and 
the west of S. Mich, chapel. The Mont is enclosed with the 
se fro dim. flud to dim. ebbe, other wyse men may cum to 
the Mont a foote. 

In the bay betwyxt the Mont and Pensants be fownd 
neere the lowe water marke rootes of trees yn dyvers places, 
as a token of the grownde wasted. 

Ther be found from the inward part of the . . . yvers 
... re stones . . . wes and . . . ois v. miles . . . the se.* 

The cumpace of the bay ys from Lyzart poynt to Newlyn 
abow[t]f a xx. myles. 

Wyth yn iii. myles of Lyzart poynt ys a lytle isle with yn 
the bay, cawled Inispriuen, and conteyneth ii. acres of 
grownd wher yn be byrddes and cones. 

The ground fro Neulin to Loo poole by the sowth se ys 
not very fertile, but hath good tynne worke. 

Fro the poynt of Lyzart to Hayleford a Haven the grownd 
is fertile of corne and gresse by the sowth se. 

Also wythyn iii. myles of the sowth se betwene Haylford 
and the est syde of Montesbay is a wyld moore cawled Gun- 
hilly, i.e., hilly hethe, wher ys brood of catayle. 

Also yn the west syde of the poynt of Hayleford Haven, 

[* This note is written on the margin, which is torn. ] 
[t MS. 



Helford. 



APPENDIX II 



321 



and withyn the land of Meneke, or Menegland, is a paroch Cornwall, 
chirch of S: Keueryn, otherwis Piranus, and ther is a sanctu- 
ary with x. or xii. dwelling howses, and therby was a sel of 
monkes, but now goon home to ther hed hows. The mines 
of the monastery yet remenith. 

Wyth yn ii. myles of the hedde of the ful se marke [of] 
Heyle ryver* ys Heylston a a market town, withyn the which 
ther is a cowrt for the coynage of tynne kept twys yn the 
yeer. Yn the town is both a chapel and a paroch, and yet 
apperethyn the town vestigia castetliyn the west part; and a 
ryver runnyng under the same vestigia of the castel yssueth 
toward the sowthe see, stopped ther with sowth est wyndes 
casting up sandes maketh a poole cawled Loo, of an arow 
shot yn breede, and a ii. myle yn cumpas yn the somer. In 
the wynter, by the reason of fluddes floweng to Heylston 
town, wherby the my lies nere Heylston beyng stopped 
men be constrayned to cut the sandy banke betwyxt the 
mowth of the poole and the se, wherby the water may have 
yssue, and the mylles grynd; by the which gut so opened 
the se floweth and ebbeth yn to the poole, wherby se fysch 
enteryng with a sowth est wynde ys closed yn the poole, 
the gut beyng agayn choked and fylled with sand, and 
so after taken with trowtes and eles drawen yn the same 
poole. 

The cowntery fro Newly n to Heylston ys meetely fer- p. 121. 
tyle of gresse and corne, and plentuus of tynne by the 
sowth se. 

Fro the mowth of Heylford b to Falemuth be water ys iiii. 
myles. 

Falemuth ys a havyng very notable and famose, and yn a Fakmouth. 
maner the most principale of al Britayne. For the chanel of 
the entre hath be space of ii. myles [ynto] the land xiiii. 
fadum of depes, wich communely ys [cawllyd] Caryk Rood c 
by cawse yt ys a sure herboro for [the] greatest shyppes that 
travayle be the occean. At the entre of the haven lyith a 
blynd roke covered at ful see, nerer the west syde of the 

[* Several interlineations and erasures occur here ; the word of^ above 
inserted, seems omitted, and the words " Heylford haven is a towne " 
after ryver were forgotten to be crossed through.] 



Helston. 



b Helford. 
Y 



c The Carrick Roads. 



322 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall, haven then the east, cawled Caregroyne, i.e., insula vel rupes 
potius vitulorum marinorum, alias Seeks. Seles when they 
cast theyr calves they cum to lond, and ley iherfoetum in a 
dry banke, the which they may com to, and ther they suffer 
theyr foetum to tary a whyle or the bryng hym to the se. 

In the est syde of the sayde haven entereth a creek flow- 
ing by the space of ii. myles ynto land, and ys fed at the 
hedde with fresch water. Apon the sowth syde of this creke 
ys a selle longing to the howse of Plymton cawled S. Antony's, 
having but ii. chanons. On the very north shoore of the 
sayde creeke toward the havyn's mowth ys a poor fischar 
village cawled S. Mausa, a alias La Vousa, and nygh to this 
village toward the same haven ys a fortelet lately buylded by 
the contery for the defens of the haven. 

In the west syde of the haven is a creeke that flowith up 
fro the haven's mowth ynto the land above iii. myles, at the 
very hedd of the which standeth a prety towne cawled Peryn, b 
of marchandyse, and vytayle market. Withyn the towne ys a 
colleg wel walled and dyked defensabley cawled S. Thomas, 
wher be secular chanons and a provost. Also yn the towne 
ys a chapel, and a quarter of a myle owt of the town ys the 
paroch chyrch. Also viii. myles and more above the sayd 
haven's mowth is a market towne est north est cawled Trureu, 
wheryn is a mayre, and also coynag for tynne, with a paroch 
chyrch and a blake freers. Also on the sowth est syde at the 
hedde of the olde ful se marke of Falemuth is a market 
towne xii. myles and more up ynto land cawled Tregoney, 
wher yn is an old castel and a paroch chyrch of S. James 
standing yn a more by the castel : also a ch . . . standing 
p. 122. yn the myddes of the towne, and at the est end of the town 

a paroch chyrche. 

S. Austol. St. Austol's, a poore village with a paroche chyrch, is vi. 

erat heremita. myles east fro Tregoney. 

Trewardreth c Bay hath at the hedde on the est side a 
poore village, with a paroch chyrch, and a priory yn the same 
town of Cluny monkes. 

From Falemuth to Trewardreth by the sowth se the ground 
is metely fertyle of corn and gresse, and no tyn werkes from 
Falemuth to Dudman foreland. 

a St. Mawes. b Penryn. c Tywardreath. 



APPENDIX II 323 

In the mydde way betwene Falemuth and Dudman B is an Cornwall. 
islet or rok berying gresse cawled Grefe, a ii. acres abowt, but 
standyng yn the myddes torring up right. Ther bredeth yn 
the isle se fowle. 

Fro Dudman Foreland to Trewardreth the centre sum- 
what baren of gresse and corne, and replenishid with tynne 
werkes, with vaynes yn the se clyves of coper. Pasture, corn 
and woode meatly plenty. 

From Trewardreth to Fowey town ys ii. myles. Bytwene 
thes townes by the sowth se ther is plenty of corn and gresse, 
but no tynne werkes. 

The town of Fowey ys a market town walled defensably 
to the se cost, and hath gates also. Yn the towne is but one 
chyrche, but the howses of the towne be well buylded of 
stone, and yl enhabited. Also at the entery of the haven on 
the west syd is a blokke howse and a chapel of S. Catarine 
be the same. Also ther is on the same syd a towre with 
ordenans for defens of the haven. 

On the west syde a ii. myles up yn the haven ys a fyssher 
town cawled Gullant. b 

At the hedd of the ful se marke of this haven, and a Lost Whythiel 
quarter of a myle more is the toune of Lost Whythyel c " 
havyng a market, and ys the shyre towne of Cornewal. For f ro 
ther the shyre is kept by the shryfe ons yn the moneth. Also 
at this town is quynag * of tynne twys a yere. And by the 
shyre hawle appere mines of auncyent buyldinges, a howse 
of the Duke of Cornwal. It is evydently knowen that yt f hath 
flowed to Lost Whythiel; but the spuing of the sandes of 
the tynne werkes hath stoppe yt now. The litle rownd castel 
of Restormel standith in the kinges parke ny to Loswithiel. 
At the est syde of the haven's mowth of Fowey stondeth a 
towr for the defens therof, and a chapel of S. Savyor a lytle 
above the same. Ny by the sayd towr standith a fysshar 
village cawled Porthruan.J 

A myle beyond Polruen on the est syde of the same haven p- 123. 

[* I.e., coinage.] 
[1 " Yt " refers to Fowey haven.] 

[ Now Polruan. Leland first wrote Potruan, then corrected it as 
above, and repeats the word on the next page and line.] 



Dodman. *> Golant. e Lostwithiel. 



3 2 4 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall, stondeth a poore fisshar village cawlled Bodennek. Ther is 
the passage or trajectus to Fowey. 

ii. myles above Bodennek ynto the land northward is a 
creke apon the north syde, wheryn ys a sel of ii. blake 
monkes of Montegu, and is dedicat to S. Sirice and Julit. 

By est the haven of Fowey upon a iiii. myles ys a smawle 
cr[eke] cawled Po[ul] Pi[er],* and a symple and poore 
village apon the est syde of the same of [fisjshar men, and 
the bootes ther fisshing by saved by a peere or key. 

In the est syde also of this Poul Pyrre ii. myles of is a 
nother creeke cawled Loow, being but a tyde creke. For at 
low water be nethe the bridge a man may both wade and 
ryde over yn the somer. Ther is on eyther side of this smawl 
creke a smaule fissher villag hard on the se shore, the one 
cawlled Est and the other West Loowe, Est Loowe being a 
market towne, and yn eyther of them a chapel. Also yn the 
sayde creekes mouth neere sumwhat to the sowthe west is a 
lowe isle cauled S. Nicholas Isle, not a quarter of a myle fro 
the mayn shore, and conteyneth a vi. or viii. acres yn cum- 
pace, and fedeth shepe and cones, nurishing also broode of 
se byrdes. 

Ther is a bridg sumwhat above thes ii. vyllages of x. or 
xii. stones arches, over the which men passe when the se 
ysyn. 

Fro Fowey Haven to Lowe Creeke the grownd ny the see 
syde ys very fertile of corne and gresse, and no tynne 
werkes. 

From Loowe Creke to Tamar ys a xii. myles toward the 
towne of Plymmuth. Yn the west syde of Tamar withyn iii. 
myles of the haven muth of Tamar is a symple fisshar towne 
cawled Mylbrooke. Also apon an other creke west of the 
Line or Liner, sayd ryver and nerer up is a towne cawled S. Germayns,t 
wherin is now a priori of blake chanons, and a paroche 
chirche yn the body of the same. Beside the hye altare of 
the same priory on the ryght hand ys a tumbe yn the walle 
with an image of a bisshop, and over the tumbe a xi. 
bisshops paynted with their names and verses as token of 
so many bisshops biried theere, or that ther had beene so 
many Bisshoppes of Cornwalle that had theyr seete theer. 

[* Now Penpoll. The bracketed letters are torn away.] 
[t St. Germans on Lynher creek.] 



APPENDIX II 325 

And at this day the Bisshop of Exceter hathe a place cauled Cornwall. 
Cudden Beke joyning hard apon the sowthest side of the 
same towne. 

North est of S. Germaynes vi. myles apon the ryver of p- 124. 
Tamar is a market town cawled Asshe. a And neere to the 
same westward withyn ii. myles ys a rownd castel of the 
kinges cawled Tremeton, as a man showld say the secund 
forteres on Tamar. 

At the towne of Asshe is a passage or fery of a quarter of 
a myle over. 

Also ii. myles fro Asshe northward ynto the land is a 
smaul village cawled Caregrin. b Est of this is Bere Parke 
and hous in Devonshire, dividid from Caregrin tantum 
Tamara. 

From Low to Tamar by the sowth se the grownd is fertile 
of corn and gresse, but withowt tynne warkes. 

[ ? Cornewjail ys now ... d by ... hunderithis that [is 
to say] on the sowth . . . e fro the este part west warde the 
hunderedes of est, and west, Powder and Kyryer.* 

On the north westward Stratton, Lesnewith, Tryg, Pyder 
and Penwith. 

Launston, c otherwys cawled Lostephan, yn old tyme 
cawlled Duneuet, stondith ii. myles beyownd Powlston 
Bridge on Tamar westward. The sayde town Duneuet, 
otherwise Lawnston, is a walled towne ny yn cumpas a myle, 
but now ruinus. On the northt side of the towne a castel 
stonding on a hye hille with yn the sayd towne hath iii. 
rowndes wardes. Part of the castel stonding north west ys 
parcel of the walle of the town. Ther be withyn this town 
iii. gates and a postern ; also a gate to go owt of the castel 
ynto the old parke. Sum gentelmen of Cornewal hold ther 
landes by castelgard, that ys to say for reparation of this 
castel and towne : and withyn this castel ys a chapel, and a 
hawle for syses and sessions, for a commune gayle for al 
Cornwayle is yn this castel. Withyn this towne is a market, 

[* The margin on which this note is written is torn. The first word 
seems to have been Cornewail. The other bracketed words were seen 
by Hearne.] 

a Saltash. Cargreen. 

c _ Launceston, anc. Dunneheved. 



326 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cornwall, a mayre and burgesses, with a chapel of Mary Magdalen to 
theyr uses. 

In a vale at th$ foote of the hil of the sayde town, abowt 
an arow shot fro the castel northward, is a priory of chanons 
regular dedicate to S. Stephan. 

North est almost half a myle of the sayde priory is a lytle 
village apon a hille, and a paroche chirche of S. Stephen 
yn yt. The opinion is that the chanons first dwelled on 
this hille, and cam thens downe to a better and a warmer 
site. In the Priory chirche yarde standeth also a paroche 
chyrche. 

The wall of Duneuet ys hy, larg and strong, and defens- 
ably set. 

By the north side of the priory runneth a litle ryver. 

In Duneuet be ii. conduites of derived water. 



APPENDIX III 

[CAMBRIDGESHIRE, OXFORDSHIRE, ETC.*] 

I REMEMBRE that I redde in an ojde booke of Ramesey that fo. 404, recto. 
such a yere dyed Thomas Brotherton, Edward the firste Brothertun 
sunne, that was litle or nothing profitable to the realme. mtttfh* 

Orwelle in Cambridgeshire longith to the Richemonte reg ' ' 
landes; and one towne that there be, sum vestigia of sum 
auncient place. 

The Richemont fee is very notable in many parts of Cam- 
bridgeshir. And many be beneficiarii and pay chief rent to 
this fee. 

I perceyuid by a graunt of King Henry the 4. that afore 
the blake freres inhabitid the place in Southfolk hard a this 
side Thetforde bridge wher they last dwellith, that ons was 
an hospital caullid Measun de deu. And in the ende of this 
charter and graunte, mention is made of John County of 
Warwike and Henry Duke of Lancastre, graundfather to King 
Henry the 4. by his mother side. And yn this grauntid 
Edmunde Gundeuille is especially namid to be prayed for by 
the freres. 

From Cambridge to Hauston a millis 3. miles. Thensvii. verso. 

[* These fragments are contained on two leaves (forming part of one 
uncut sheet) in a Cotton MS. at the British Museum (Cot. Vesp. F. ix, 
30, fos. 198, 199). The leaves seem to be part of a quire, the rest of 
which is lost, as the figures 404, 410, are the old numbering; and the 
notes, evidently belonging to the Itinerary and written in Leland's 
hand, are not consecutive from one page to the other. The fragments 
were printed in the second edition (1744) of Hearne's print of the 
Itinerary, vol. ix, pp. 133, 134; and again in " Collectanea Topographica 
et Genealogica," 1836, vol. iii, pp. 343-344. 

See notes of Cambridgeshire, before p. i. A few on Cambridge itself 
will come in the Appendix to vol. v. For Oxfordshire, see before, 
pp. 112-118, 124, and vol. ii, beginning of Part V.] 



a Hauxton. 

3*7 



328 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

miles to Reiston, a and 4. miles a this side Reiston ouer a 
broket and by a mille side. 

Al this 10. mile champayne withowt enclosier and barein 
of wood. 

Reiston standith in a mene valley bytwixt to hilles. And 
yet is the toune self set as on a swelling ground. The market 
place standith in Hertfordshire. The other parte of ye toune 
in Cambridgeshire. 

There touche as I lernid in that toune iurisdiction of 
London, Ely, and Lincoln diecese. 

The toune itself is but of a mene building. 

In the toune is but one chirche the este part wherof seruid 
a late for the priory of chanons. 

The weste ende seruid for a chapel for the toune. For afore 
the late parlament the toune longgid to a 2. or 3. paroches 
with owte the towne. Now al the toune is allottid to one 
paroche and that ys kept in the est ende of the priory, and 
the west ende ys pullid doune. 

The market at Reyston on the wennesday is meruelusly 
frequentid, espetially with corne. 

fo. 410, recto. I haue harde Mr. Garter s[ay th]at the fascion of corona- 
tions of kinges, that were solemn isid at Kingeston apon the 
Tamise afore the conqueste were made apon schafToldes yn 
the midle of the market place. 

Clereualx dwellith at Crofte bridge apon Tese. These 
Clereualx were yn tyme of mynde men of uery fair landes. 
Ther is Croft and Croftbridg by it. Croft is in York- 
shir. 

Rosamundes tumbe at Godestow nunnery was taken up a 
late, it at [had?]* a stone, with this inscription, Tumba Rosa- 
mundae, her bones were closid in lede, and with yn that the 
bones were closid yn leder. When f it was openid ther was a 
uery swete [smell J] cam owt of it. 

[* Coll. Top. et Gen., vol. iii, p. 344; but Dugdale, who copied this 
passage as to Godstow from the Cotton MS. fragment, has " it is a 
stone." Mon. Angl. vol. iv (1823), p. 365 a.] 

[t Erroneously written Went in MS.] 

[J Supplied by L. T. S.] 



a Royston. 



APPENDIX III 329 

Ther is a crosse hard by Godestow with this inscription, 
Qui meat hac oret signum salutis adoret 
Utque sibi detur veniam Rosamunda precetur. 

There was a priory in Southereys a of the French order as 
I suppose, caullid Ryslyppe, and was impropriatid to the 
Kinges college yn Cambridge. 



a Southerey, Surrey. Ryslip, now Ruislip, is however in Middlesex; 
it was a cell to the Abbey of Bee, in Nprmandy. 



I 



INDEX OF PERSONS AND LANDOWNERS 



{The word "family," as here used, means that several of the name are 
refei red to. The word temp, after a name indicates that the person 
was living in Le land's time. ) 



ABERGAVENNY, Edward, Lord 

of, 76. 

Abingdon, Abbots of, 121. 
/Eschwin, Bishop, 117. 
Albemarle, Earl of, 62. 
Alcock, Bishop, 49. 
Aldborough, William and Richard, 

85- 
Aldhelm, Bishop of Malmsbury, 

ISO- 
Alexander, clothier of Trow- 

bridge, temp., 136. 
Alfred, King, buried at Hyde, 

272. 
Antony of Bee (Beke), Bishop of 

Durham, 70. 
Archdeacon family, 187, 225; 

Thomas le, 235. 
Arniine of Ergerby, 26. 
Armstrong, Mr., 23. 
Arthur, King, epitaph on, at 

Glastonbury, 288, 316. 
Arundel, John of Trerise, 176, 181, 

185, 191 ; of Gwarnick, 185. 
Arundel of Lanheron, 185, 205. 
Arundel, John, Bishop of Exeter, 

236. 

Aschenwald, Richard, 40. 
Aschue, alias Aschgogh, Bishop 

of Salisbury, 268. 
Ashley, Mr., of Wimborne, temp., 

257, 305- 
Atwater, Bishop, Line., 29. 



Atwell, Richard, 148. 
Aveling, Alice, 129. 
Audley, Lord, 164. 

Babington, John, of Rampton, 

32- 

Bachelar, Mr., temp., 122. 

Baillie, clothier of Trowbridge, 
136. 

Bardolph, Lord, 25. 

Barentyne, Sir William, temp., 
114, 117. 

Barnstaple, lords of, 170. 

Barret, Cornw., 204. 

Barwik or Barok, tomb at Wim- 
borne, 257, 304. 

Basset of Treheddy, 189. 

Bath and Wells, Bishops of, 290- 
294. 

Bath, Earl of, 171, 301. 

Bawdey of Somerby, temp., 25, 
26. 

Bayllie, James, of Oxford, temp., 
125. 

Baynton, Sir Edw., 132; Mr., 
temp., 133, 258. 

Beauchamp family, of Bedford, 
100, 101 ; Bishop, 264. 

Beaufort, Knt., 124. See Mar- 
garet Beaufort. 

Beaupray, 187, 235. 

Beckington, Thomas, Bishop of 
Bath, 145, 290, 291, 293. 



33 1 



33 2 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Bedlaw, Mr., of Alverdiscot, 

temp., 17, 299, 300. 
Bellegreve family, 20. 
Bellethorp, of West Butterwick, 

38. 

Belmont, Lord, 25. 
Bere, Richard, Abbot of Glaston- 

bury, 288, 289. 

Bergavenny. See Abergavenny. 
Bicknell, Canon of Wells, tomb, 

293- 

Bifields, of Hunts, 2. 
Bigot family, 55, 58, 78. 
Blake, last Abbot of Cirencester, 

129. 

Blacket family, 14. 
Blunt, Knt., 16. 

Blunt, Lord Mountjoy, temp., 193. 
Bodrugam, Bodrigan, Sir Henry, 

201; Philip de, 235; Roger 

de, 235. 

Bohun, Earl of Hereford, 2. 
Boleyn, Queen Anne (?), 133. 
Boleyne, Thomas, Earl of Wilt- 
shire, 20. 

Boniface, St., 232. 
Bonehome, family of Corsham and 

Lay cock, temp., 134. 
Boneville family, 157, 242, 297. 
Booth, Archbishop of York, 72. 
Borow, Sir Thomas, and wife, 33. 
Borowgh, merchant of Lyme 

Regis, 244. 
Botreaux, Lord, and his wife, 

163, 176; Reginald de, 235, 



163, 
298. 



Boucher, Henry, Earl of Essex, 

3I3' 

Boucher, Humfrey, son of Lord 
Berners, 104; family, 312, 

3I3- 

Boville, Beville, family, 181, 185. 
Bowes, Sir Ralph, 78. 
Brackenbury, Mr., 76. 
Brantingham, Bishop of Exeter, 

227, 235. 
Bray, Reginald, Knt., 101, 116; 

Lord, 1 1 6. 
Bridges, Mr., of Cubberly, temp., 

130. 



Bridport, Giles of, Bishop of Salis- 
bury, 265, 267, 268. 

Brien family of Dartmouth, 221. 

Brinstan [Beornstan], Bishop, his 
life, 229; image, 270. 

Brokesby, Esq., of Leicester, 16; 
of Shoulby, 21. 

Brooke, Lord, 189, 193, 212, 217. 

Brotherton, Thomas of, son to 
Edward I, 88, 327. 

Broune family, of Thrapstone, 6. 

Brounscombe, Walter, 226. 

Brownings of Melbury, 247. 

Bruce family, 63, 64, 99. 

Brudenel, of Dene, Mr., temp., 
12, 13, 307. 

Bruer, William, 223; of Bridge- 
water, 162, 163, 298; bishops, 
238. 

Bruer, Bishop of Exeter, 226; 
Alice, 266. 

Bubwith, Nicholas, Bishop of 
Bath, 145. 

Budock, Mr., temp., 212. 

Busseys of Hougham, and of 
Haydor, 26. 

Bygram family, 2. 

Bytten, Thomas, 226, 228, 236, 
293- 



Camel, tomb of, 148. 
Campernulph of Modbury, 216, 

217. See Chambernoun. 
Candish, Mr., temp., 38. 
Cantelupe, Thomas, notes from 

life of, 233. 
Car, of Sleaford, 26. 
Cardinham of Fowey, 203. 
Carew, Sir George, of Devonshire, 

temp., 223, 240 ; Nicholas, 

241. See Carow. 
Carneballe, prebendary of Lin- 
coln, 3. 
Carnsey, Mr., of Trelille, temp., 

178, 179, 183, 303. 
Carnsew, of Bokeley, 191. 
Carow, Gawen, 175; family, 186, 

302. See Carew. 
Carpenter of Portsmouth, 284. 



INDEX OF PERSONS, ETC. 333 



Catherine, Princess Dowager [C. 

of Arragon], 28. 

Cavalcant, a Florentine prebend- 
ary of Salisbury, 125. 
Cavel, Cornw., 187, 191. 
Cayle, Cornw. , 206. 
Chamber, Dr., parson, temp., 172, 

300. 
Chambernoun, Mr., of Modbury 

and Beer, 160, 186, 203. 
Chapman, clothier of Bath, 143. 
Chaucer, Thomas, and Alice, 

family at Ewelme, 112. 
Chaumburne, Sir Philip, temp., 

217. 
Chaumon, Sir John, of Efford, 

176. 

Chenduit family, 234, 235. 
Cheney, Lord, Warden of Cinque 

Ports, 125; Sir John, 264. 
Chenies family, 105.' 
Cholmeley, Cholmondeley family, 

62, 63. 

Claregenet, 83. 
Clarevaulx, 328. 
Claxton, Burnham, 75. 
Clerk, Bishop of Bath, 145, 149. 
Clerk, Mr., of Weston, temp., 

114. 

Clifton, Mr., temp., 89. 
Cobham, Margaret, 35. 
Compton, Knt., Cornw., 205. 
Constable, Mr., temp., 64. 
Cony, of Basingthorpe, 26. 
Conyers, Corners family, 2, 68, 

69. 

Coode of Morel, 208. 
Copeston of Warley, temp., 212, 

217. 
Cophin, Mr., of Bideford, temp., 

172. 

Cor bets of Shropshire, 199. 
Cornwall, Cornwaile, Earls of, 

33, 208. See Edmund, Earl 

of Cornwall. 

Coucy, Ingelram, Lord of, 78. 
Courteney family, 206, 216, 217, 

227; of Powderham, 222, 

232; William and Peter, 

bishops, 235, 236. 



Cowlin of Treveglis, 187, 188. 
Cranmer, Thomas, born at Asloc- 

ton, temp., 97. 
Cromwell, Lord Thomas, temp., 

22, 27. 

Dabridgecourt family, 245 note. 

Daraby, 76, 79, 314. 

Darcy, Lord, 46. 

Davers, 116. 

Davers of Dauntsey, part owner of 

Scilly isles, temp., 191. 
David, King of Scots, prisoner at 

Nottingham, 96. 
Delabont of Little Totnes, 219. 
Dene, William, of Reading, 1 10. 
Derby, Earl of, 80, 104, 107, 160. 
Digby of Tilton, 21. 
Dinhamof St. Erth, 192. 
Disney, d'Isney, 26. 
Dogget, Canon of Salisbury, 154. 
Dormer, Mayor of London, 116. 
Dorchester, Birinus, Bishop of, 

263. 

Dorchester, Osmund, Earl of, 260. 
Dorset, Marquis of, temp., 17-20, 

208, 241, 242. 
D'Oyly, Oilley family, of Oxford, 

123, 124. 
Drayton, tombs, 117. 

Edgar, King, crowned at Bath, 
144. 

Edgecombe, Sir Percy, temp., 
174, 214, 218; Richard, 201. 

Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, 33, 
104, 118, 119, 129, 180, 205; 
his father Richard, 119, 129, 
208. 

Edmund of Langley, 4, 6. 

Edward I, King, wives and child- 
ren, 310. 

Edward II, King, descent from, 

3"- 
Edward III, King, descent from, 

3H 312. 

Elis of Kesteven, 26. 
Elmes, 6. 

Ely, Abbot, of Bruton, 150. 
Engleby, 81. 



334 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Ernulphus Falconarius, 266. 
Erisi of Erisi, Cornw., 187. 
Espek, Walter, 90, 101. 
Etheldred the Martyr, King, 
buried at Wimborne, 257, 

304. 
Ethelwold, Abbot of Abingdon, 

121. 

Evers of Axholm, 38. 
Everards of Aller, temp., 167. 
Exeter, Bishops of, 214, 226-228. 
Exeter, Duke and Duchess of, 
219; Marquis of, 232. 



Falcasius de Brent, 100. 
Fannope, Lord, 102, 103. 
Farmer, John, temp., n. 
Fitton, esquire, 109. 
Fitzjames, Mr., temp., 150, 155. 
Fitzpayne, Philip, tomb at Sher- 

borne, 153, 295. 
Fitzwilliam family, 36; Earl of 

Hampton, 171, 173; tomb of 

Robert, 202. 
Fleming, Alan of Stoke, Devon, 

240. 
Flowers of York and Knares- 

borough, 86, 87. 
Fontaine, Mons. de la, 185. 
Force, Henry, of Garsike, 188. 
Fortescue family, 186, 217. 
Fortibus, Isabella de, 216, 232. 
Fowler, Thomas and Richard, 

US- 

Fox, Richard, Bishop, 236, 283. 
Fulco de Ricote, 1 14. 
Fulford of Fulford, knt., 186. 
Furnivalx, 89. 



Gallor, Walter, butcher of Sher- 
borne, 152, 295. 

Gambon, 164. 

Gascoyne of Bath, 140. 

Gaunt, John of, and his wife Con- 
stance, 1 6, 308, 309. 

Gilbert, Wiliam, 150. 

Gilbert, Mr., 152. 

Giseland, Archibald, 42. 



Glastonbury, Abbots of, their 

tombs and their deeds, 287- 

290. 
Glynn of St. Just's, 193; of Mor- 

val, 1 86. 
Godolcan, Sir William, 185, 186, 

1 88, 191, 192; John, 191; 

Thomas, 193. 
Good, Walter, Bishop of Exeter, 

197. 

Gostwick, Mr., temp., 101, 102. 
Gower, Mr., 65. 
Grandison, Graunson, John de, 

Bishop of Exeter, 227, 228, 

235. 236; genealogy of, 237, 

238. 

Grantham of Haydor, 26. 
Gray, Thomas, Marquis of Dorset, 

17. See Dorset, Marquis. 
Gray of Ruthin, Lord, 103. 
Green family of Northants, 6. 
Griffin, Mr., temp., 12. 
Grigge, John, Mayor of Hull, 50. 
Guise, Mr., Glouc., 294. 
Gundeville, Edmund, 327. 
Gunthorp, Lord Privy Seal, tomb, 

294- 
Gurney. See Mathew. 



Haget, Geffry, 44. 

Hall, alias de la Sale, 135. 

Haslerig of Noseley, 21. 

Hastings, Lord, 20, 98, 206. 

Hawley, John, merchant of Dart- 
mouth, 220, 221. 

Heron, Sir John, 115; his son 
Giles, 1 1 6. 

Hill of Modbury, 217. 

Holcum, knight, 117. 

Holland of Howell, 26. 

Holman of Barnstaple, 169. 

Horsey, Mr., of Clifton, Dorset, 
temp., 155, 296. 

Horton, a clothier of Bradford, 
Wilts, 135, 136. 

Hoveden, John of, 52. 

Howden, Hovedenshire, gentle- 
men of, 52. 

Hundesgate, Mr., temp., 43. 



INDEX OF PERSONS, ETC. 335 



Hungerford, Lady, 16; Sir An- 
tony, 128; Lord, 134, 151, 
263, 302; family and pedi- 
gree, 137, 138. 176, 285, 286; 
Walter, 265, 286. 

Huntingdon, Earl of, 20, 108, 151, 
302. 

Hussey, Lord, 23, 27. 

Huthome of Scorbrough, 46. 

Huttoft, custumer of Hampton, 
278. 

Inkpenne, 270. 

Italians, Nicoline and Guidote, 
temp. , 278 ; see Cavalcant. 

Ja, Irish lady, 192. 

Joceline, tomb with brass, 293. 

Joel de Totnes, lord of Barnstaple, 

169, 298. 

John of Pontoise, 271. 
John of Tours, Bishop of Bath and 

Wells, 143, 144, 146. 
Juverney of Limington, 157, 297. 

Kendal of Morel, Cornw., 208. 
Kent, clothier of Bath, 143. 
Kesteven, gentlemen of, 26. 
Kidlington, Thomas, 125. 
Killigrew, 196, 197. 
King, Oliver, Bishop of Bath, 

144; Bishop of Exeter, 236. 
Kirkham, knight, 6. 
Kiwarton of Newlyn, 191. 
Knight, William, Bishop of Bath, 

^ temp., 145, 291. 
Knightley, Mr., of Fawsley, temp., 

10. 
Knolles, Sir Robt., 39. 

Lacy, Henry, Earl of Lincoln, 
32 ; Edmund, 39, 236, 237 ; 
Hilbert, 39, 40. 

Lacys of Kingston Lacy, 256. 

Lamelin, 207. 

Lancoik, William de, 235. 

Langfield of Bucks, 9. 

Langton, Bishop of Salisbury, 
154; of Winchester, 285. 

Langton, John, knight, Yorks, 55. 



Lascelles, temp., 64, 66. 
Latimer, Lord, 100. 
Leders, Oliver, i. 
Leghe of Ingoldsby, 26. 
Leicester, Earls of, 14, 15, 21. 
Leicestershire, gentlemen of, 21. 
Levelis, Thomas, Cornw., 191. 
Lightfoot, Peter, clock given by, 

287. 
Lightster, Mr., Chief Baron of the 

Exchequer, temp., 278. 
Lincoln, Walter Dorotheus, Dean 

.. of, 31. 
Lisle, Joan, Viscountess de, tomb, 

292. 

London, Dr., temp., 119. 
Long, Sir Henry, and family, 133, 

134, 135- 
Longespees, Earls of Salisbury, 

261 ; Nicholas, Bishop of 

Salisbury, 264, 266. 
Lovebone, Vicar of Wadebridge, 

178, 303- 
Lovetotes, 89. 
Louches, Mons. de, 116. 
Lower, William, 206. 
Lucas, a clothier, of Bradford, 

Wilts, 135. 
Luttrell of Quantock Head, 164; 

family at Dunster, 166, 167. 

Maildulph of Malmesbury, 131. 
Malory of Northallerton, 68. 
Mandeville, Earl of Essex, 2. 
Margaret Beaufort, Lady, 22, 27, 

257- 

Marmions of Tanfield, 83. 
Mathew (Maheu) de Gurney of 

Guyenne, tomb of, 159, 297. 
Maulley, Peter, 58. 
Mawdelyne, clothier of Wells, 

145- 

Merton, William, knight, 170, 299. 
Meteham of Meteham, Yorks, 52. 
Milaton family, 186, 188. 
Mohun, Mr., Cornw., temp., 191, 

207, 208. 
Mohuns, Moions, of Somerset and 

Devonshire, 150, 240, 244; 

Earls of Somerset, 166, 240. 



336 LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Molines, parson of Trowbridge, 
temp., 136. 

Molynes, Mr., of Mackney, 120. 

Monk, Mr., Little Torrington, 
temp., 173, 300. 

Moningtons, Hugh and Walter, 
tombs, 287, 288. 

Montacute, Thomas, Earl of Salis- 
bury, 266. 

Montfort, Simon of, 15. 

Mordant, Lord, 6. 

Morteville, Roger, and family, 14. 

Mortimer, Earl, prisoner at Not- 
tingham, 96; family, 313. 

Morton, Earl of, 158. 

Mounson of Axholm, 38. 

Mounteton, of Hovedenshire, 52. 

Mountjoy. See Blunt. 

Mowbray, Lord, 36, 37, 67, 80, 
1 02. 

Multon, Sir John, 43. 

Mutton, knight, Mayor of Lei- 
cester. 

Mylles, Recorder of Southamp- 
ton, temp., 278. 

Neckham, Alexander, 129. 
Neville, Earl of Warwick, 310. 
Neville, Bishop of Durham, 66; 

George, Bishop of Exeter, 

236, 237. 

Neville of the Holte, 21. 
Neville, Lord of Middleham, 78, 

79, 3i4- 
Neville, Rafe of Raby, Earl of 

Westmoreland, 65, 72; Jane, 

his wife, 75, 310; pedigree 

of family, 76, 310, 313, in 

glass, 75. 

Neville of Thornton Bridge, 84. 
Nevilles owned Worksop^ 89. 
Newborows of East Lulworth, 

253- 

Newenham, knight, temp., 10. 
Nicoll, Cornw., 191. 
Norfolk, Duke of, 25, 28, 65, 

102. 
Northalvertonshire, gentlemen of, 

68. 
Northampton, Michael de, 235. 



Northumberland, Earls of, 44, 46, 

53, 66, 87, 271. 
Nunny, almoner to Lacy, 32. 

Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, 219, 

227, 236. 

Orleans, Duke of, prisoner, 138. 
Oxton of Modbury, 216, 217. 

Page, Mr., knight, temp., 104. 

Painter, merchant of Plymouth, 
213. 

Par, Sir William, 9. 

Paynell family, 23-25, 26. 

Peny, John, Bishop of Bangor, 
17. 

Peppard, Piperde, family, 113, 
114. 

Percy family. See Northumber- 
land, 53, 59, 88. 

Petit of Cornwall, 187, 191. 

Peverel, Hugh and Thomas, 
_ knights, tomb of, 180, 184. 

Philip de Columbariis, 170, 298. 

Philpott of Twyford, 275. 

Placete, tomb, 125. 

Plompton of Plompton, 87. 

Pole, de la, Earls of Suffolk, 
family, 48, 49, 112, 113. 

Pole, William, merchant of 
Bridgewater, 163, 298. 

Pollard, Mr., temp., 306. 

Polydore Vergil, 293. 

Poore, Poure, Roger le, Bishop of 
Salisbury, 154; Richard, 262, 
268. 

Pouger, Elis, 9. 

Poulet, Sir Hugh, 160; young 
Poulet, 193. 

Porter, of Kesteven, 26. 

Portington of Portington, Hove- 
denshire, 52. 

Prideaux, 217. 

Purefoy of Dray ton, Leic., 21. 

Pye, Mr., 133. 

Quartermain family, 114, 115. 
Quivile, Peter de, 226. 



INDEX OF PERSONS, ETC. 337 



Radcliff, Mr., temp., 21; Lord 

Fitzwalter, 88. 
Ramesun, Peter, Abbot of Sher- 

borne, 153, 295. 
Ranulphus de Kyme, 31. 
Redmayne, Richard, 236. 
Reginald, Bishop of Bath, 142, 

H3- 
Reginald Cancellarius, prior of 

Montacute, 158. 
Reskimer family, 187, 194, 195. 
Rider, Thomas, and son Richard, 

!5- 

Rippelingham, priest at Hull, 49. 
Rocheford, Lord, 20. 
Rogers of Dorset, 250; Bishop, 

267. 

Rokesby tomb, 78. 
Rolles, George, of Torrington, 

I73> 3o. 
Ros, Lords of, 97, 98; pedigree, 

90-93. 

Ruan, 216, 217. 
Rumbald, dean of Cirencester, 

128. 

Rupibus, Peter de, Bishop of Win- 
chester, 283. 

Russell, Lord, 105, 228, 298. 
Ruthal, Bishop of Durham, 129. 
Rutland, Thomas, Earl, 98; his 

patronage, 93. 

St. Alban's family, 1 86. 

St. Amande, tomb, 129. 

St. Barbe, temp., 297. 

St. Bray, Breaca, extracts from 
life, 187. 

St. Burian, 189. 

St. Clere, William, archdeacon, 
8. 

St. Cuthburga, 233, 257. 

Sainteliz, Simon, Earl of North- 
ampton, 8. See St. Clere. 

St. John, Mr., temp., 99, 101 ; 
John, 124, tomb, 153. 

St. Liger, 219. 

St. Maur, tombs, 128. 

Salisbury family, 9, 59, 207, 261. 

Salisbury, Bishops of, 260, 262, 
264, 265-268. 



Salwaine, 58. 

Sapcote, Richard, knight, Hunts, 

5; Mr., temp., 6. 
Savage, Salvage, Archbishop of 

York, 80. 

Scotus, John, 131, 132. 
Scrope, Lord, 78, 80. 
Scylley, Sir John, of Crediton, 

239. 

Segrave, Gilbert, 117. 
Sheffield family, 38. 
Sherborne, Dorset, Abbots of, 

152, 153, 295, 296. 
Shirley family, 1 6, 21. 
Skeffington of Skeffington, 21. 
Skirlaw, Walter, Bishop of Dur- 
ham, 52, 68, 70. 
Slane, lords of, 299. 
Somerset, John, Earl of, 257, 308. 
Souch of Codnor, 12, 13, 205. 

See Zouch. 

Speke, Mr., 157, 160, 227. 
Stafford, Earl of Wiltshire, 6; 

Edmund de, 226, 236. 
Stapleton, Sir Brian, 44; knight, 

227; bishop, 227, 236, 237. 
Stawel, Thomas, Knight, tomb, 

287. 
Stawford, merchant of London, 

170, 299. 

Stonnard, Cornw., 206. 
Stonor, 117. 
Storthwayt, John, 145; tomb, 

293- 

Stoure, Mr., 218. 

Strange, 101. 

Strangewaise of Harlesey, 68 ; Sir 
Giles, 243 ; of Melbury, 247, 
248. 

Strikelands of Hunts, 2. 

Stumpe family, 132. 

Style, clothier of Bath, 143. 

Sugar, Hugh, Canon of Wells, 
tomb, 293. 

Suffolk, Duke of, temp., 27; Wil- 
liam and wife Alice, 112. 

Swinford, Catherine, 76. 

Sydenham family, 164, 165. 

Talbots, 89. 



338 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Tame, John and Edmund, 127, 

130. 

Terumber, James, clothier, 136. 
Thimleby, knight of Irnham, 

temp., 24, 26. 

Thorne, Abbot of Reading, 1 10. 
Thwaites of Northallerton, 68. 
Torrington, Sir William of, 273, 

300. 

Tracy family, 169, 298. 
Trecarell of Trecarell, 191. 
Trederth, temp., 196. 
Trefusis of Trefusis, 197. 
Tregyon, Mr., temp., 199. 
Trelawny family, temp. , 207, 209. 
Tremayne, 196. 
Tresinney of Penrhyn, 187. 
Treury, Thomas, 203, 204, 248. 
Trevanion, 201. 
Trevelyan, temp., 176. 
Trewinard of Trewinard, 191. 
Triveth or Treveth family, 162, 

298. 
Turvile of Thurleston, 21. 

Underwood, Deacon of Walling- 
ford, 126. 

Valetortes of Trematon, 210, 213, 

215. 

Vaux, Lord, u, 199. 
Verdoune family, 19. 
Verney family, 8. 
Vernon of Kesteven, 26. 
Vescy family, 28, 57, 69, 171. 
Vescy, Bishop of Exeter, temp., 

214. 
Viate [Wyatt], Robert, of Oundle, 

3- 

Villars of Rokesby, 21. 
Vincent of Pekleton, 21. 
Vincent of Smeaton, 68. 
Vivian, Thomas, tomb of, 180, 

184; family, 186. 



Wadd, a giant, his grave, 59. 
Waldarus, Earl of Northumber- 

land, 271. 
Wales, descent of Welsh princes, 

Llewelyn, Owen Tudor, and 

Edmund, father to Henry VII, 

307, 308. 

Warine, Earl of Surrey, 40, 41. 
Warwick, Earl of, ii; Ella, 

Countess, 124. 
Warwist, William, Bishop of 

Exeter, 175, 180, 215, 235. 
Waterton, Mr., temp., 40. 
Waulley, 90. 
Ways, 117. 
Westmoreland, Countess of, 35 ; 

Ralph, Earl of, 72 ; genealogy 

of Earls of, 313. 
Weston, Lord, of Melchbourn, of 

St. John's College, Lon- 

don, i. 
Whittington, Mr., part owner of 

Scilly Isles, temp., 191. 
Wigeston, family of Leicester, 15, 

16. 

Williams, John, knight, 116. 
Wingfield, Sir Richard, 2. 
Winterburn, Henry de, 266. 
Wise, Mr., temp. 
Wolsey, Thomas, Cardinal, 119, 

272. 
Wriothesley, Mr., temp.> of Tich- 

field, 281. 
Wyndham, Mr. John, 164; family, 

165. 

Yevers family, 57. 

Yogge, Thomas, of Plymouth, 

213. 
York, Richard, Duke of, ,312, 



Zouch, Lord, 127, 218; Edward 
de la, tomb, 287. See Souch. 



II 



INDEX OF PLACES AND SUBJECTS 



ABBOTSBURY, 251, 305. 

Aberford, Yorks, 42, 43, 88. 

Aberthaw, whence a crossing to 
Minehead, 167. 

Abingdon, 120-122, 306. 

Ainstey, Yorks, 44. 

Aire river and bridges, 42, 44, 
55, 88. 

Alabaster stones, price of, 38. 

Aldborough, Yorks ; Roman re- 
mains, 85. 

Allen r., Cornw., course of, 178, 
179, 183. 

Allen r., Dorset (Wimborne 
Water), 256; course of, 257, 
258, 305- 

Allen Bridge, 256, 258. 

Aller r., 221, 222. 

Allerton Castle, Yorks, 67. 

Allington, Wilts, 133. 

Alre r., 270, 271; course of, and 
bridges over, 274, 275, 280. 

Alsford, 274. 

Alverdiscot, 172. 

Amesbury, 261. 

Ampney r., 128. 

Ampthill Castle and town, 102, 
103. 

Ancaster, 27, 28. 

Andover, 269. 

Antiquities found at Rauceby, 
Line.) 28; Lincoln, 31; Bin- 
chester, 71; Ripon, 81; 
Boroughbridge, 84 ; Aid- 
borough, Yorks, 85; Bath, 
140, 141. 

Anton r., Hants, course of, and 
bridges, 269, 279. 



'Appledore, 172, 299. 

Appleton, 64. 

Ardevora, 199. 

Ardingworth, Northants, II. 

Arme river and haven, 218, 222. 

Ashby de la Zouch, 18, 20. 

Ashley College, Warwick, 19. 

Ashprington, 2 1 8, 219. 

Aslocton, 97. 

Athelney, 161. 

Aucklands, the four, 69. 

Audries, Somerset, 164. 

Avon r., Beds, 2. 

Avon r., Devon, course of, and 

bridges, 217, 218. 
Avon (East) r., Wilts and Hants, 

course of, and bridges, 261, 

262, 304. 
Avon (Lower) r., Wilts, Glouc., 

etc., 130, 131, 133, 137, 139; 

bridges over, 135, 136. 
Axholm, Isle of, 37, 38. 
Ay ton, 62, 64. 
Axe r., course of, and bridge, 242- 

244, 247. 
Axbridge, 242. 
Axminster, 243, 244. 
Axmouth, 242, 243. 



Babraham, 113. 
Badbury Castle, 256. 
Bagley Wood, 121. 
Bagworth Park, 20. 
Bampton, Devon, 301. 
Barle r., 168. 
Barmby-on-the-Moor, 45. 
Barnard Castle, 76, 77, 78. 



339 



340 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Barnstaple, 169-171, 172, 298, 
299, 300. 

Barnwell and Castle, North- 
ants ; 3. 

Barrowby, 24. 

Barton, Yorks, 50. 

Basford, bridge on Tone r. , 161. 

Bath, 139-144; notes from "Book 
of Bath," 286-291. 

Bawtry, 34. 

Beaminster, 243, 246, 247. 

Beau Manor, Leic. t 18, 20. 

Beaumont Leys, 20. 

Beauvoir Priory, 93. 

Becket, Thomas, bridge, 269. 

Bedenham, 282. 

Bedford, 99-102. 

Beer, 243, 325. 

Belgrave, 20. 

Belvoir and Castle, 96-98. 

Benefield and Castle, 12, 13. 

Bere Forest, 284. 

Berkhampstead, 104, 105. 

Berry Head, Devon, 223, 224. 

Berry Pomeroy, 219. 

Berwick-on-the-Hill, 57. 

Bestwood Park, Notts, 94. 

Beverley, 45, 46-48, 51, 61. 

Bewley abbey and river, 280. 

Bickleigh, 214. 

Bideford, 171, 172, 299. 

Bidwell ? (Gull) brook, 219. 

Bikers Dike, Isle of Axholm, 37. 

Binchester, 71. 

Birdsall, 58. 

Bitterne, 280. 

Bishop Auckland and Castle, 69- 

7i- 

Bishop's Waltham, 279, 285. 
Bishop's Water, Leic., 17. 
Blackrriore, 57, 64, 67, 68. 
Blackhead, Cornw., 202. 
Blagdon Park, 258. 
Blakeney priory, 93. 
Blandford bridge, 256, 303. 
Bliss river and bridges, Wilts, 

136, 137- 

Blith r., Blithelo, 34. 
Blyth, Notts, 88, 89. 
Blyth r., 88, 89. 



Bodrugam Park, 201. 
Bodinnick, 207, 208, 324. 
Bodmin, 179, 180, 183, 184, 208; 

Bodmin Creek, 204. 
Bolton, Yorks, 79. 
Bolton-in-Allendale, collegiate 

church, 93. 
Bolton-in-Craven, 87. 
Books quoted or cited by Leland ; 
De Gestis Abbatum de Abing- 

don, 122. 
Bath, books of Antiquities of 

Monastery, 143; of the 

Abbey, 143; " Book of Bath," 

286. 
Exeter, Charters to the See of, 

234. 
Osney, Acts of the Abbots of, 

125. 
Salisbury, Book of Martyrology, 

265. 
Winchester, Book of Donations, 

272 ; old Register, 278. 
Mr. Brudenel of Dene's rolls, 

descents of Welsh princes 

and the Tudors, 307, 308; 

descents from English Kings, 

309-312. 
Life of Thomas Cantelupe, 233, 

234- 
LifeofKarantoc, British Prince, 

234. 
Life of Piran of Ireland, disciple 

of St. Patrick, 234. 
Lives of Saints, viz., St. Boni- 
face, Archbishop, 232; St. 
Breaca, 187; St. Brinstan, 
Bishop, 229 ; St. Cuthburga, 
233; St. Fimbarr, 235; St. 
Je's, legend, 192; St. Melior, 
233; St. Rumwald, 229; St. 
Sativola, 230; St. Wille- 
brord, 230; St. William, 
Archbishop of York, 233 ; St. 
Winnoc, 230. 

Books, lists of, (eight) in Exeter 
Library, 230; (six) in Salis- 
bury Cathedral, 263. 

Boothby Pagnal, 23, 25, 26. 

Boroughbridge. 56, 84, 85. 



INDEX OF PLACES, ETC. 341 



Boscastle, Botreaux, 175-176, 

302.- 

Bossiney, 177, 302. 
Boston, 29; house of Carmelites 

there, 93. 

Botley, Hants, 279, 281, 285. 
Bourn, 25 ; priory, 27. 
Bourne river and bridge, Yorks, 

80. 
Bourne river and bridges, Wilts, 

269. 

Bow, Devon, 218, 220. 
Bracebridge, near Lincoln, 30. 
Brackenborough, 66, 67. 
Bradenstoke, 133. 
Bradgate, Leic., 17, 18, 20. 
Bradford on Avon, 134-136. 
Brancepeth and Castle, 71, 72. 
Branksea isle, 255. 
Bray r., 169. 
Bray brook Castle, 12. 
Brayford, 169. 
Brent river and bridge, 107. 
Brentford, New, 107. 
Bridges over rivers, lists of: 

Alre, 274. 

Avon (East), Wilts and Hants, 
261, 262, 304. 

Avon (Lower), Wilts, Glouc., 
etc., 135, 136. 

Brue, 150. 

Camel (Alane in error), 178, 
183. 

Colne, 107, 1 08. 

Derwent, Yorks, 44, 45. 

Erme, Devon, 216. 

Exe, 229. 

Foss, 54. 

Fowey, 205, 206. 

Plym, 214. 

Stour, 256, 303, 304. 

Tamar, 174, 301. 

Tees, 68, 69, 77- 

Teign, 221. 

Thames, in. 

Tone, 161. 

Torridge, 173, 300. 

Trent, 96. 

Bridgewater, 161-163, 168. 
Bridlington, 51, 59, 61, 62. 



Bridport, 245, 246. 

Brignall park, Yorks, 78. 

Brit r., course of, 246, 247. 

Brixham, 224. 

Brompton, 62. 
i Broomfield, 162, 298. 
| Brotherton, 88. 

Brough, 58. 

Browney, Broune r. , 72. 

Brucombe, 291. 

Brue r., course of, and bridges, 

148, 150, 291. 
' Bruse Hall, Yorks, 64. 

Bruton, 148, 150, 291. 

Buckholt wood, 269. 

Budleigh Salterton, 241. 

Budock, 196, 197. 

Burleigh park, 19, 20. 

Burne brook, Durham, 75. 

Burne riveret, Bucks, 108. 

Burnhope r., 71. 

Bytham Castle, 23. 



Cad bury, North and South, river 

and bridges, 150, 151, 155. 
Cair Kenin, 188. 
Cairlvel, 44. 

Calamansack creek, 194. 
Calder river and bridge, 41, 42. 
Calshot Castle, Hants, 279, 280. 
Calstok bridge, 211. 
Cambridge, I, 327, 329; house of 

Carmelites in 93; Gonville 

Hall, 113. 
Camel r., (Alane in error) and 

bridges, 178, 183, 184, 303, 

3i6. 

Camel, Queen's (Camallat), 151. 
Camelford, 316. 
Campsey priory, 78. 
Cannington, 163. 
Can wick, near Lincoln, 30. 
Cardinham, 205. 
Cargreen, Cornw., 211, 325. 
Carhampton, 167, 179. 
Carlton, near Lincoln, 31. 
Carnary chapels, 184, 270. 
Carnbury Castle, Cornw., 190. 
Carrick Roads, Falmouth, 321. 



342 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Cartmel priory, 78. 

Cartuther, 209. 

Casterton, 99. 

Castle Ashby, Northants, 7, 

Castle Bytham, 23. 

Castle Cairdin, 185, 188. 

Castle Gary, 150. 

Castle Donington, Leic., 21. 

Casteldour, Cornw., 207. 

Castle Eaton, 127. 

Castle Endinas, Cornw., 181, 184. 

Castle guard, lands held by, 

325- 

Castleford, 42. 
Cattley priory, Line., 26. 
Catton park, Yorks, 45. 
Caversham, in, 112. 
Cayl Castle, Cornw., 190. 
Caythorpe Castle, Line., 28. 
Cerne (Abbas), 255. 
Chagha pill, near Fowey, 204. 
Chapel point, Cornw., 201 
Char r., Dorset, 245. 
Charleton Horethorn and mere, 

155- 

Charmouth, 245. 

Charnwood Forest, 18, 20. 

Charwelton, 10. 

Chenies, 105. 

Chertsey, 106. 

Cherwell or Char r., Oxon, etc., 

10. 

Chess r., 105. 
Chester-le-Street, 73, 74. 
Chewton Mendip, 144. 
Chicksand, 100. 
Chidrock, 245. 
Chiltern Hills, 104. 
Chippenham, 133, 304. 
Chipping Sodbury, 130. 
Chiselhampton, Oxon, 116, 122. 
Christchurch, Hants, 255, 262, 

280, 304. 
Chudleigh, 221. 
Churn r., 128. 
Cirencester, 128-130. 
Clarendon manor and park, 268, 

269. 

Cleeve, 165. 
Cliffe park, Northants, 22. 



Clipstone, 90, 94. 

Clovelly, 299. 

Clyst, 239. 

Coal pits, Yorks, 42; Durham, 

74- 

Cock beck, 43. 

Cock beck field, 88. 

Cod beck, 67. 

Coker r., 155, 296. 

Coker, West, 155, 296. 

Colly Weston, 22, 99. 

Colne river and bridges, 105, 107, 

108. 
Colne r., Glouc. (Fairford water), 

127. 

Colnebrook, Bucks, 107, 108. 
Coly r., 242. 
Colyton, 241, 242, 245. 
Combe Castle, Wilts, 304. 
Combe Monkton, 139. 
Conebrook, Durham, 74. 
Conisborough and Castle, 36. 
Conor, Dour, r., Cornw., 317. 
Constantine parish, Cornw., 196. 
Corby, 23. 

Cornwall, general description of, 
315, 316; old mines in, 316, 
323 ; hundreds in, 325. 
Corn worthy, 218, 219. 

Corsham, 133, 134. 

Costey r., course of, 57, 63, 
64. 

Cotswolds, 129, 130. 

Cottingham, Yorks, 47, 48. 

Cover r., 80. 

Coverham priory, 78. 

Cowes, East and West, 281. 

Cowley Bridge, 238. 

Cowton Moor, 68. 

Cram beck, 56. 

Cranborne, 258. 

Crane, 261. 

Crantock, 193, 217. 

Crayke Castle, 66. 

Crediton, 239. 

Creedy r., Devon, and bridges, 

239- 

Crewkerne, 159, 160, 246. 
Cricklade, 127. 
Croft-upon-Tees, 69, 77, 328. 



INDEX OF PLACES, ETC. 343 



Croscombe, 147, 156, 291, 296; ' 
river, 144, 146; its course I 
and bridges, 147, 149. 

Croxton Keyrial, 98. 

Cubberley, 130. 

Cuckney, 90. 

Culbone, 167. 

Curry Mallett, 160. 

Curry, North, 161. 



Daraby, 76. 

Darlington, 69. 

Dart river and bridge, 219. 

Dartmoor, 219. 

Dartmouth, 220, 223. 

Deepford, Devon, 173. 

Dene, Deene, Northants, 12, 13, 

22, 99. 
Derby, 96. 
Derness, alias Deverness r., 72; 

bridges over, 72. 
Derwent r., Yorks, 52, 53, 57, 64; 

bridges, 44, 45. 
Dodman Point, 201, 322, 323. 
Dogdyke, Line., 29. 
Don r. (Dune), 36. 
Doncaster, 34, 35, 58, 88. 
Dorchester, Dorset, 249, 250. 
Dorchester, Oxon, 116-118. 
Dosmery pool, Cornw., 318. 
Doulting, 147, 291. 
Down Ampney, 128. 
Downend, Devon, 223. 
Downton, Wilts, 262. 
Draycot, 133. 

Drayton and Castle, Northants, 6. 
Drayton, Oxon, 116. 
Driffield, 62. 
Dropping Well, Knaresborough, 

Yorks, 86. 
Dulcote, 147, 149. 
Dunr., 35. 

Dunmere bridge, 179, 183. 
Dunstable, 103. 
Dunster, 165-167. 
Durham, 72-75. 

Eagle Commandery of St. John's, 

Newark, 98. 
East beck, Yorks, 59. 



East Gate, Durham, 70. 

Eastleach, Glouc., 126. 

East Meon r. , 285. 

East Tanfield, 83. 

Ebble r., 258. 

Efford, Cornw., 176. 

Egglestone Abbey, 77, 78. 

Egton, 58. 

Eltisley, I. 

Elton, Northants, 6. 

Elvet, 72-74. 

Epworth, Isle of Axholm, 37. 

Erme river and bridges, 216, 218; 

Erme mouth, 222. 
Ermine Street (for Watling Street), 

98, 99- 

Eston, Hants, 274. 

Evercreech, 149, 291. 

Ewelme, Oxon, 112, 113. 

Exe r., 1 68, 169, 298; bridges on, 
229, 238, 239. 

Exeter, 168, 217, 226-238; li- 
brary, 230; Cathedral Char- 
ter, 231, 234; list of bishops, 

235> 2 o- 
Exford, 168. 
Exminster, 232. 
Exmoor, 1 68, 219. 
Exmouth, 224, 232; haven, 231. 

Fairford, 126, 127. 

Fal r., 196, 197; bridges over, 

199. 

Falmouth, 191, 321, 323. 
Fareham, 282. 
Farleigh - Hungerford , 1 36, 137- 

139, 285, 286. 
Farringdon, Berks, 12^. 
Fawsley, 10. 
Feniton, 240, 241. 
Ferriby, 52. 
Ferrybridge, 42, 88. 
Filey, 59, 64. 
Finedon, 7. 
Fineshade priory, 22. 
Fish. S*f Stockfish. 
Fisher ton, Wilts, 261. 
Flamborough Head, 51, 61. 
Floore, 10. 
Folkingham Castle, 25. 



344 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Fording, Wilts, 262. 
Forests : x 

Bagley Wood, 121. 

Bere Forest, East and West, 
Hants, 284. 

Buckholt Wood, 269. 

Creole, Line., 37. 

Charnwood Forest, or the Waste, 
1 8, 20. 

Exmoor Forest, 168. 

Friths or parks, Leicester, 20; 
Windsor, 108. 

Galtres Forest, 54, 65, 66. 

Hatfield Forest, Yorks, 36. 

Langley chace, 75. 

Lee Forest, 21. 

Leicester Forest, 19, 20. 

Mar wood chace, 77. 

Middleton Forest, Durham, 
76. 

Purbeck Forest, 253. 

Rockingham Forest, 12, 13, 99. 

Roome Wood, near Worksop, 
89. 

Selwood Forest, 150, 291. 

Sherwood Forest, 94. 

Windsor Forest, 108. 
Foss r., 54, 65. 
Fosse Dyke, 28, 29, 31, 32. 
Fosse Village, Wilts, 133. 
Fosse Way, 130. 
Fossil Wood, 294. 
Fotheringay, 4, 6; Castle, 5, 27, 

99; College, 4, 5. 
Fowey r., course of, and bridges, 

205, 206. 

Fowey, 202-204, 323, 324. 
Framagate, 73, 74. 
Frestan priory, 93. 
Frith Park, Leicestersh., 20; a 

Frith in Berks, 108, 109. 
Frithelstock priory, 173. 
Fulbourne, 20. 
Frome r., Somerset, 137-139, 248; 

course of, and bridges, 249. 
Frome, 248, 249. 
Frosterley, 70. 



Gade r., 104. 

Gaddesden village, 104. 

Gainford, Dtirham, 77. 

Gainsborough, 32, 33. 

Gaire bridge, Cornw., 194, 195. 

Galmpton, 223. 

Galtres Forest, 54, 65, 66. 

Garabridge, Devon, 217. 

Gateshead, 74. 

Gaunless river and bridge, 69, 70. 

Geddington, Northants, II. 

Genealogies, notes of Royal and 
allied noble families, i.e., 
Edward I, II, III, Henry 
IV, Henry V, 307-314. 

Gerrans, 201. 

Gillan creek, Cornw., 195. 

Gilling, 79. 

Givendale(?), Yorks, 84. 

Glastonbury, 146, 148. 

Godstow, Oxon, 127, 328, 329. 

Golafre bridge, over Milton river, 
Somerset, 149, 291. 

Golant, 204, 323. 

Gosport, 282. 

Goxhill, 50, 51. 

Grantham, 24, 26. 

Greens Norton, 6. 

Greflsle. See Gull. 

Greta river and bridge, 78. 

Grewelthorp, 80. 

Gribbin Head (?), 202. 

Grimsthorpe, 23. 

Grooby, 17, 18, 20. 

Guilsborough, Northants, 9. 

Gull brook, 219. 

Gull Rock (Gref Isle), Cornw., 
200, 201, 323. 

Gunhilly moor, Cornw., 320. 

Gwarnick, 181, 185. 

Gwavas Lake, 189, 319. 

Gweek river and bridges, 194. 

Gwithian, 190. 

Haccombe, 224, 225. 
Hamble, 279, 281. 
Hamble r. , 279, 285. 



1 A few only of the woods and chaces are here included with the 
forests. 



INDEX OF PLACES, ETC. 345 



Hampton Court, 106. 

Hampton, Old and New, 275- 
278. 

Hanslope, u. 

Har bourne r., Devon, course of, 
218, 219, 220. 

Hardnesse, near Dartmouth, 220. 

Hare wood, 44. 

Harlaxton, 28. 

Harlsey and Castle, 68. 

Harnham Bridge and New Salis- 
bury, 258, 259, 267-269. 

Harringworth, 13, 22. 

Harthill hundred, 45, 51. 

Hartlake, 147, 148. 

Hartland, 172. 

Hartland Point, 172, 176, 299. 

Haslar (Ostrepole), 282. 

Haselborough, 160. 

Haseley, Great and Little, Oxon, 
113, 114, 123. 

Hatfield, Yorks, 36. 

Hauxton, 327. 

Havant haven, 284. 

Haxey, 37. 

Haydor, 25, 26. 

Hayle river and haven, Cornw., 

189, 191, 319. 
Hayton, 45. 

Hazlebury, 134. 
Hedge-rows of trees, 160. 
Hedon, Yorks, 61, 62. 
Helaugh and priory, 44. 
Helford r., 194, 195, 196, 320, 321. 
Helland bridge, 178. 
Helperby, 66. 
Helston, 193, 194, 321. 
Hely Castle, Northants, 22. 
Hemingborough, 52. 
Hercross hundred, 64. 
Hessle, 48. 
Heyford, 10. 
Hewick, 82, 84. 
Higham Ferrars, 2, 7, 99. 
Highworth, Berks, 126. 
Hinchingbrook, i. 
Hinckley Castle, 21. 
Hincksey, Berks, 125. 
Hinderskelfe and Castle, 56, 57, 
65- 



Kingston Hill, Cornw., 315. 

Hinton priory, Somerset, 139. 

Hinton St. George, 160. 

Hodsock park, Notts, 89. 

Holderness, 62. 

Holme bridge, 249, 253. 

Holywell, Rutland, 23. 

Honington, Wilts, 258. 

Honiton, 240. 

Hook, Hants, 279. 

Hornby Castle, 72. 

Hornsea, 51, 61. 

Horton, 258. 

Horwel r., Hants, 269. 

Hounslow Heath, 106, 107. 

How End, Beds, 2. 

How r., 2. 

Howden, Howdenshire, 51, 52. 

Hull. See Kingston-upon-Hull. 

Hull river and haven, 48, 49; 

Frodingham bridge, 62. 
Humber, 48-52, 61, 62. 
Hurlstone, 167. 
Hursley park, 275. 
Hurst Castle, Hants, 280. 
Hutton, Yorks, and park, 68. 
Hutton Conyers, 84. 
Hyde Abbey, 271, 274. 

Iceland, 48, 50. 

Idle, or Brier r., 37. 

Ilchester, 151, 155, 156, 297, 

Ilton Castle, 222. 

Ingarsby, 20. 

Ingoldsby, 26. 

Inispriuen, isle near the Lizard, 

Irford priory, 93. 

Irnham, 24, 26. 

Iron ore and iron in Mendip, 294. 

Isis, Ise r., 118, 120-122, 123, 
125, 128, 130; bridges over, 
118, 120, 126; course of, 127. 

Ise r. See Kettering. 

Islip on Avon, Northants, 6. 

Isle r., 1 60. 

Isuria Brigantum, 85. 

Itchen Stoke (Hitchin), 274, 280, 
281. 



346 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Ivel r. See Yeo. 
Ivy bridge, 216. 

Jerusalem, St. John's of, Eagle 
Commandery, 98. See St. 
John's. 

Jervaulx Abbey, 80. 

Kea, Old, 198. 

Keldhead manor, 64. 

Kennet river and bridge, no, 
in. 

Kenton, Devon, 231, 232. 

Kenwyn river and bridge, Truro, 
198. 

Kesteven, Line., 26. 

Kettering, n. 

Kettering river [IseJ and bridge, 
7, ii. 

Killhope r., 71. 

Kimbolton Castle, 2 ; priory, 2. 

King-game at Bath, annual, at 
Whitsuntide, 144. 

Kings of England and royal 
families, notes from genealo- 
gies of, 307-312. 

Kingsbridge, 222. 

King's Clifte, 22. 

Kingsthorpe, Northants, 11. 

Kingsteignton, 221. 

Kingston, Somerset, 160. 

Kingston-upon-Hull, 47-51, 55, 
61, 62. 

Kingston Lacy, 256, 257. 

Kingston-upon-Thames, corona- 
tions at, 328. 

Kingswear, 222, 223. 

Kirby park, Leic. , 20. 

Kirkby Malzeard, 80. 

Kirkby Misperton, 57. 

Kirkby Wisk, 67. ' 

Kirkham, Yorks, 56; priory, 64, 

90-93- 

Knaith on Trent, 32. 
Knaresborough, 85; Castle, and 

Dropping well, 86, 87. 

Lamorran, near Truro, 199. 
Langport, Somerset ', 156. 



Langleybeck,Z>r/zaw, 76; chace, 
75, 77- 

Langley, Herts, 104. 

Langrick, Line., 29. 

Lanlivery, 205. 

Lanteglos, 207. 

Lanyhorne Castle and creek, 199. 

Latchford, 113. 

Launceston, 173-175, 301, 302, 
325- 

Laund priory, Leic., 21. 

Leach r. (Northleach water), 126. 

Leade, 43. 

Lechlade^ 126, 127. 
j Leconfield park, 45, 46. 
| Lee Mill Bridge, 216. 

Leen river and Nottingham 

Bridge, 94-96. 
! Leicester, 14, 15, 96; Castle, 

Leicestershire, parks in, 20. 

Leighfield, 22. 

Leighton Bromeswold, 99. 

Leighton Buzzard, 3. 

Lelant, Uny, 192, 317. 

Lelant r., 317. 

Lemon r., Devon, 221. 

Lerryn creek and bridge, 206. 

Liddington, 22. 

Lilford upon Avon, 6. 

Limington, Somerset, 156, 157, 

297. 

Lincoln, 28-31. 
Lindis r. (Witham), course of, 

bridge and ferries, 29, 31. 
Lindisfarn island, 74. 
Linton Abbey, 94. 
Liskeard, 208, 209. 
Littleborough, Line., 32. 
Little Bytham, 23. 
Lizard Point, 320. 
Lockington, 58. 
Loddon river and bridges, 106. 
London, 107. 
Longford, Middx., 107. 
Loo Pool, 193, 194. 
Looe Creek, 207, 324, 325. 
Looe, East and West, 208, 324. 
Lostwithiel, 205, 323; note of 

charter of liberties of, 235. 



INDEX OF PLACES, ETC. 347 



Loughborough, 14, 18, 19; park, 

20. 
Lulworth, West and East, 253, 

255. 

Lumley Castle, 74. 
Lundy isle, 299. 
Lyme r. (?), 244. 
Lyme Regis, 244, 245. 
Lynher river and bridge, 209, 210, 

324. 
Lynn, house of Friar Preachers, 

93- 
Lytchett, 254, 305. 



Mackney, Berks., 120. 

Maidenhead, 108, 109. 

Malmesbury, 130-133. 

Malton, Yorks., 44, 45, 57, 59; 
Castle, 57 ; priory, 28, 57, 64. 

Mansfield, 90, 93, 94. 

Marazion, 188, 319. 

March, Yorks, 86. 

Mardon Castle, Hants, 275. 

Market Warsop, 90. 

Market Weighton, 45. 

Markyate Street, 104. 

Marlow, Great and Little, in. 

Marton, Line., 32. 

Marwood park and chace, Dur- 
ham, 77. 

Masham, 80. 

Mattersey, Notts, 33. 

Mawgan, 194. 

Mawnan, 195, 197. 

Meaux Abbey, 47. 

Medmenham, in. 

Melcombe Regis, 250, 304, 305. 

Melbourne Castle, 21. 

Melbury, 247, 248. 

Melchbourn, Beds, I, 2. 

Menheniot, 207, 209. 

Meon, East, r., 285. 

Mere, Somerset, 150. 

Mere lake, Yorks,, 37. 

Merthen, 194, 195, 196. 

Meteham, 52. 

Middleham and Castle, 79, 80. 

Middleton, Durham, 76. 

Milbrook, 211. 



Milton Clevedon, Somerset, 149, 

291. 
Milton, Great and Little, Oxon, 

116. 
Milton, river and bridge, Somerset, 

149, 291. 

Mitford brook, 139. 
Minehead, crossing into Wales, 

167. 

Modbury, 216, 217. 
Molton, Devon, 301. 
Monk bridge, York, 54. 
Monkton Farleigh, 134. 
Montacute, 157-8, 206. 
Morlaix, Brittany, merchants of, 

at Lyme Regis, 244. 
Morwelham, Morwell, Morleham, 

210, 211. 

Moulton Park, Northants, n. 
Mount Ferrant Castle, 58. 
Mount Sorrel, 17. 
Mousehole, Cornw., 183, 319. 
Mulgrave, 58, 59. 
My ton, Yorks, 66. 

Nare Head, 200, 201. 

Neasham, 69. 

Nen (erroneously Avon), river and 
bridges, Northants, 3-7, 9, 1 o. 

Netherbury, 246, 247. 

Netley, 279. 

Nettlecombe, Somerset, 165. 

Ness, the, Devon, 225. 

Nesswick, 58. 

Newark, 98. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, 73, 74 ; house 
of friars hermit, 93. 

Newland, 48. 

Newlyn, 189, 318, 319, 320, 321. 

Newport Pagnel, 25. 

Newport r. (Medina), Isle of 
Wight, 281. 

Newstead priory, 93, 94. 

Newtonr., Wilts., 130. 

Newton, Yorks., 62. 
! Newton Bushell, 221, 225. 

Newton St. Cyres, 238, 239. 
i Newton Tracy, Devon, 172. 

Nid river and bridge, 44, 86, 87. 

Normanby bridge, 64. 



348 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Northallerton, 67, 68, 72. 

Northallertonshire, 68, 84. 

Northampton, 7-9. 

North Cave, 51. 

Northleach and brook, 126. 

Norton Disney, 26. 

Norton St. Philip, Somerset, 139. 

Nosley, 14. 

Nostell (St. Oswald's), Yorks, 40. 

Noss creek, Devon, 223. 

Nunappleton, 43. 

Nuneaton, Warwick, 19. 

Nuneaton, Wilts, 127, 128. 

Nun Monkton, 87. 



Ock river and bridge, 122, 306. 

Orchard Wyndham, 164. 

Orwell, Camb., 327. 

Osney, Oxford, 123-125. 

Ostrepole lake, 282. 

Otley, 44- 

Otter r. and Otterbourne, Hants., 

275- 
Otter r. Devon, course of, and 

bridges, 240, 241. 
Otterey r., Cornw., 174, 301. 
Otterton, 241, 243. 
Ottery St. Mary, 236, 239, 240, 

241; Mohun's, 240, 241. 
Oundle, 3, 4, 99. 
Ouse r., Yorks, 44, 54-56; 

bridges, 54, 55. 
Ouse r., Beds, 100, 101 ; bridges, 

102. 

Owston, 37, 38. 
Oxford, 123-125. 
Oxford scholars from Salisbury, 

268. 

Padstow, 178, 179, 302, 317. 

Paignton, 223. 

" Paradise," or studying cham- 
bers, 46, 53. 

Parret river (erroneously Ivel) and 
bridge, 161, 162. 

Pateley bridge, 81. 

Patrington, 51, 61. 

Pawlton, 144. 

Peder brook, 161. 



Pembro, Cornw., 187, 191. 

Pencombe, Cornw., 189. 

Pendeen, 192, 193. 

Pendennis Castle, 196, 197^ 202. 

Penlee, 211. 

Penpoll creek, 207, 324. 
| Penryn, 196, 197. 
I Pentaney priory, 93. 
! Pentewan, Pentowen, 201, 202. 
j Pen with, 189. 
! Penzance, 189, 319, 320. 

Petherton, North and South, 161. 

Petherton park, 161. 

Petit Tor, 224. 

Phillacks, 190. 

Pickering, 57, 63, 64. 

Pickering brook, Yorks, 57, 64. 

Pickering Lathe, 59, 63, 64. 

Piddle river alias Trent, Dorset, 

course of, 254. 
i Piercebridge, 69, 77. 
; Pilton, 170, 299, 300. 
| Pipewell Abbey, 13. 

Plompton, Yorks, 87. 

Plym river, 212; course of, and 
bridges, 214. 

Plymouth, 212-214, 315. 

Plympton St. Mary, 214-216. 

Plympton Thomas, 216. 

Pocklington, 45. 

Pocklington beck, 45. 

Polperro, 207. 

Polruan, 207, 323. 

Polwheveral, 194, 196. 

Pont, Cornw., 207. 

Pontefract, 38, 39, 42, 88; Castle, 

39- 

Poole, 254, 255, 305; harbour, 

SOS- 

Porlock Bay, 167. 
Portbridge, Hants, 284. 
Portchester Castle, 282, 283. 
Port Isaac, 177, 178, 303. 
Portland, 251, 252. 
Portlington, 52. 
Portquin, 178, 303. 
Portsea Isle, 284. 
Portsdown, Hants, 284. 
Portsmouth, 282-284. 
Portsmouth haven, 282, 284. 



INDEX OF PLACES, ETC. 349 



Poulton and beck, Glouc., 127, 

128. 

Purbeck Forest, 253. 
Purse Caundle, 155, 296. 

Quantock Head, 164. 
Quantock Hills, 164. 

Raby Castle, 72, 75, 76. 
Rame Head, 208, 212. 
Rampton, Notts, 32. 
Rauceby, or Ureby, 27, 28. 
Ravenspur, 51, 61, 62. 
Ravensworth, and Castle, 78, 79. 
Ravensworth, r., 78. 
Reading, 109-111. 
Repaire Park, Durham, *J2. 
Restormel park and Castle, 205, 

323. 

Restronget, 198. 

Revier Castle, Cornw., 187, 189, 

190. 

Riccal, 57. 

Richmond, Yorks, 79. 
Richmondshire, 67, 68, 77, 84. 
Rickmans worth, 104. 
Ridale, Yorks, 64. 
Ringwood, 262. 
Ripon, 68, 80-84. 
Risingho Castle, Beds, 101. 
Rivaulx Abbey, 57, 90-93. 
Robin Hood's Bay, 51, 61. 
Rockingham Castle and Forest, 

12, 13, 22, 99. 

Rollesley, 62. 

Roman coins found, 28, 31, 118, 

1 20. See Antiquities. 
Roome Wood, Notts t 89. 
Rosington, Yorks, 34, 36, 88. 
Rostbridge, 218. 
Royston, 328. 
Rufford r., 90. 
Ruislip, 329. 
Rycote, 113, 114. 
Ryder, 43. 

Rye river and bridges, 57, 64. 
Ryton, 64. 

Saint Agnes' Beacon, Cornw., 
317. 



St. Alban's or Aldhelm's, Point, 

253. 255. 

St. Allen, Cornw., 181. 
St. Andrew's Auckland, 69, 75. 
St. Anthony, Cornw., 195, 322. 
St. Austell, 201, 202, 322. 
St. Buryan, 319. 
St. Carak, 207. 
St. Columb Major, 180, 184. 
St. Erth, 192. 

St. German's, 209, 210, 324, 325. 
St. Germoe, Cornw., 188. 
St. Helen's, Auckland, 69. 
St. Helensford, Yorks, 44. 
St. Issey(?), 178, 183, 303. 
St. Ives, Cormv., 317. 
St. John's bridge on Isis, 126, 

127. 
St. John's, Order of, I, 2, 47; 

Eagle Commandery, 98. 
St. John's, Weardale, 70. 
St. Justs, near Falmouth, 200. 
St. Justs (Je's), Cornw., 192, 193, 

318. 

St. Keverne, 195. 
St. Lawrence, Cornw., 180, 184. 
St. Leonard's Priory, Herts, 104. 
St. Maws, 200, 248, 322. 
St. Michael, Cornw., 181, 184. 
St. Michael's Mount, 319, 320. 
St. Milor, 198. 
St. Neots, i. 
St. Piran, 193, 195, 321. 
St. Winnow, 206. 
Salcombe town and haven, 222. 
Salisbury, 258-268, 269. See 

Harnham. 
Salisbury College and Oxford 

Scholars, 268. 

Salisbury, New, dedication of, 266. 
Saltash, 210, 211, 212, 325. 
Sancton, 45. 

Sandal, near Wakefield, 40. 
Sand beck, Yorks, 59. 
Sawley Ferry, 96. 
Saxton, Yorks, and battlefield 

there, 43. 
Scalby, 51, 52. 
Scarborough, 45, 46, 51; Castle, 

59-61, 63, 64. 



350 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



School, Free, at Leighton Broms- 

wold, 3. 

Scilly Isles. 190, 191, 318. 
Scrooby, 33, 34, 89. 
Seals breeding in Cornwall, 322. 
Seamer, 59. 

Seaton, Devon, 208, 242. 
Seaton, Rutland, 22. 
Seaton, Yorks, 58. 
Sedgmoor, 147. 
Selaby, 76. 

Selwood Forest, 150, 291. 
Sempringham, 25. 
Settrington, 58. 

Seukesham, alias Abingdon, 121. 
Seven, Yorks, 57. 
Sherborne, Dorset, 151-155, 295, 

296. 

Sherborne water, Dorset, 296. 
Sherburn, Yorks, 59, 64. 
Sherriff Hutton Castle, 56, 65. 
Sherwood Forest, 94. 
Ship, "Henry Grace de Dieu," 

283. 

Shipton, 45. 
Shirburn, Oxon, 115. 
Shute Hill, 241. 
Sidr., 243. 
Sidling r., 248. 
Sidmouth, 243. 
Simonsbath, 168, 298. 
Sinnington, 57. 
Sinodune, Berks, 120. 
Skeffington, 14. 
Skell river and bridges, 82, 84. 
Skerford village and brook, n. 
Skipsea, 62. 
Skipton-in-Craven, 62. 
Skouthorp, near Walsingham, 39. 
Slapton, 222. 
Sleaford, 26, 27. 
Smeaton, Yorks, 68. 
Smite r., Notts, 97. 
Soar river and bridges, 16, 18, 19. 
Sockburn, Durham, 68, 69. 
Solent, coast of, 280. 
Somerby, 25. 

Somersetshire, boundaries of, 168. 
Sonning, Berks, 109. 
South Brent, Devon, 217. 



Southampton, 275-278; haven, 

278-280. 

, Southwick, Hants, 284, 285. 
Sowey river and bridges, 147. 
Spofforth, 87. 
Staindrop, 72, 76. 
Staines, 106, 107. 
i Stamford, 22, 23, 44, 99. 
Stanhope, Durham, 70, 71. 
Start Point, Devon, 222. 
Staughton, Great, I. 
Staverton, Wilts, 137. 
Stert Point, Somerset, 167. 
Stock fish trade with Iceland, 48, 

So. 

Stockton, Yorks, 56, 68, 77. 
Stoke Courcy, 167. 
Stoke town and bridge, Hants, 

269. 

Stoke Pogis, 108. 
Stoke St. Gregory, Somerset, 161. 
Stoke-under-Hambdon, 158, 159, 

297. 

Stonton Wyvile, 13. 
Stothart hill, Yorks, 85. 
Stour river and bridges, Dorset, 

256, 303, 304- 
Stowey, 163, 164. 
Stratton, 176, 302. 
Sturminster, 256. 
Sturton, Line., 32. 
Stuteville Castle, 47. 
Suadale, Yorks, 58. 
Sun beck, Northallerton, 67, 68. 
Sunderland, 74. 
Swale r., 78, 79; bridges over, 

66. 

Swanage, 255. 
Swan Pool(?), Cornw., 197. 

Tadcaster bridge and Castle, 43, 

44, 56. 

Tale river and bridge, 239, 240. 
Talmeneth, 187. 
Tamar river, creeks and bridges, 

174, 210, 212, 301, 315, 324. 
Tattershall, 29. 
Taunton, 161, 298. 
Tavistock, 174, 210. 
\ Tavy r., Devon, 212. 



INDEX OF PLACES, ETC. 351 



Taw r., 171, 298, 299. 

Tawstock, 171, 298. 

Tees r., 51, 61, 76, 78; course of, 

77 ; bridges over, 68, 69. 
Teesdale, 77. 

Teign river and bridges, 221, 225. 
Teignhead, 225. 
Teignmouth, 224. 225. 
Temple Bruern, 28. 
Terrington, 65. 
Test r., 279. % 

Tetbury, 130. 
Thame, 115. 

Thame river and bridges, 116, 118. 
Thames river and bridges, 106, 

107, 108, 109, in, 118. 
Thetford, 327. 
Thirsk and Castle, 67. 
Thornton, 64. 
Thorne, Yorks > 36. 
Thorp, Yorks, 45. 
Thorp Waterville, 99. 
Thorpe, Northants, 6. 
Thrapston hermitage and bridge, 

6. 

Thunderland, 71. 
Thuresgill beck, 77. 
Tickhill, 35, 36. 
Tin coinage at Truro, Helston, and 

Lostwithiel, 193, 198, 205, 

321, 323; works, 192, 323. 
Tintagel, 177, 178, 303, 316-317. 
Titchfield, 281. 

Titchfield r., course of, 281, 282. 
Tiverton, 168, 298. 
Tollerton, 66, 67. 
Tone river and bridges, 161. 
Topcliffe, 66. 
Topsham, 232. 
Tor Bay, 223, 224. 
Tor, Pe*it, 224. 
Torksey,, 28, 29, 32. 
Torquay, 223. 
Torridge r., 171, 172; course of, 

and bridges over, 173, 300. 
Torrington, 172, 173, 300. 
Tory brook, Devon, 214, 215. 
Totnes, 218, 219. 
Towcester and Castle, 10, 1 1 . 
Townstall, 220. 



Towton, 43. 

Tredewy, 176, 177, 302. 

Tredewy r., 177, 302. 

Trefusis Point, 197. 

Tregony, 199, 322. 

Trelaun manor, Looe, 208. 

Trelill, 178, 303. 

Tremaine, 195, 196. 

Trematon, 215, 325. 

Trent r., 32, 94-96; bridges over, 

96. 

Trent r., Dorset, 254. 
Trenwith, 187. 
Trevena, 177. 
Trewennack (?), 193. 
Trowbridge, 136, 137. 
; Truro, 198, 322. 
Twyford, Berks, 109. 
Twyford, Hants, 274. 
Tylery, the, Hull, 50. 
Tynemouth, 74. 
Tywardreath, town and bay, 202, 

322. 

I Ulleskelf, 43. 

! Ulvescroft (Wolvescroft), 18. 

Uny Lelant, 192. 

Uphaven, 261. 

U pottery, 240. 

Uppingham, 22. 
; Upway (Uphil), 249, 250, 297. 

Ure river and bridges over, 79, 80, 
82-87. 

Uxbridge, 107, 108. 

Valency r., 176. 
Vaudey Abbey, 23. 

Waddes Grave, Yorks, 59. 
Wadebridge, 178, 179, 180, 183, 

303- 
Wakefield, 41, 42; Lowhill 

(rightly Lawhill), 42; battle, 

41. 

Walkington, 51. 
Walling Fen, 51. 
Wallingford, 118-120, 306. 
Warden Abbey, 90-93, 101. 
Wareham, 253, 254, 255. 
Warminster, 262. 



352 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Wartre priory, Yorks, 47, 93. 

Wash river, 23, 99. 

Watling Street, 10, 32, 39, 42, 

43, 44, 78, 84, 85, 88. (See 

Ermine St., pp. 98, 99), 104. 
Watlington, Oxon, 115. 
Wear r., 69-75; bridges over, 71, 

72, 73, 74- 

Weardale, 70, 71, 74. 
Weedon, 10. 

Weedon r., course of, 10. 
Welbeck Abbey, 89, 90. 
Welbeck r., 89, 90. 
Weldon, Northants, n. 
Welew, Somerset, 137. 
Welland r., 12, 13, 22, 99. 
Wellhope beck, 71. 
Wellingborough, 7. 
Wellington market, 2. 
Wells, 144-146; St. Andrew's 

well, 144, 146,, 291. 
Wells, Cathedlal, 291-294; 

bishop's palace, 294. 
Wensley, Yorks, 79. 
Wensleydale, 83. 
Went Bridge, 38, 88; river, 40, 

42. 

West Auckland, 69. 
West Butterwick on Trent, 38. 
West Gate and park, Durham, 

70. 

West Tanfield and Castle, 83. 
Wetherby, 44, 88. 
Wey r., 249, 250. 
Weymouth, 249, 250, 305. 
Wharfe r. and bridges, 43, 44, 88. 
Whitby, 51, 6 1, 64. 
White Lackington, 160. 
Whitwell, 56. 
Whitwick Castle, 18. 
Whitwood, Yorks, 42. 
Wickham, 281, 285. 
Wight, Isle of, Castles in, 281. 



Wilberfoss, 45. 

Wiley r., course of, 262. 

Willington, Beds., 102. 

Williton, 164. 

Willow beck, Yorks, 67. 

Wilsford, 27, 28. 

Wilton, Wilts, 260, 262, 304. 

Wilton, Yorks, 62. 

Wimborne, 255, 256, 257. 

Wimborne St. Giles, 258. 

Wimborne r. See Allen r. , Dorset. 

Winchester, 269-274; distances 

from, 275, 285; Brinstan, 

Bishop of, 229. 
Windsor, 106. 

Wisk river and bridge, 67, 68. 
Witham r. (Lindis), 29, 31. 
Withcote, 21, 22. 
Wold, the, Yorks, 45. 
Wolsingham, 70. 
Wolvesey, Winchester, 270. 
Woodford, Wilts, 261. 
Woodsford Castle, 249. 
Wood mill, Hants, 280. 
Wool bridge, 249. 
Worksop and Castle, 89. 
Worksop Water (Ryton), 89. 
Worthy, Hants, 274. 
Wotton Castle, 57. 
Wrangton Cote, 37. 
Wressell, 44, 45> 52; Castle, 52- 

Wykeham priory, 64. 

Yade More, 77. 

Yarm, 68, 77. 

Yealm river and bridges, 216, 

222. 

Yeddingham, 45 ; priory, 64. 
Yeo r. (Ivel), 151, 155, 248; 

course of, 156, 157, 296. 
Yeovil, 297. 
York, 44, 54-56, 65, 66, 87. 



CHISWICK PRESS: PRINTED BY CHARLES WHITTINGHAM AND co. 

TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON. 




Oxford '. 




roa/i 



LELAND IN ENGLAND 

MAP IE. 

The hill regions over 500 feet are shown, thus 
Land over 15OO feet ...... ________ ________ 

ROUTE. 



Red is for Part H,m, (Vol.l) \ dotted 

\ < V when * 

Blue " - X, (Vof.v) J conjectural. 



10 



SCALE OF MILES 

10 2O 



30 



IT A AJC. Johnston iuml^l.iatnl>ar^i A Loa 



DA Leland, John 

610 The itinerary of John 

U Leland 

1907 

v.l 



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